**Mass Percent** is the percentage of a particular element within a compound.

**Concept:** Understanding the difference between Atomic Mass & Molecular Mass

We're going to say the mass per mole of an element is also known as its atomic mass. Remember, that's just the mass of all the protons and neutrons found within an element. The reason we don't care about the number of electrons is because electrons weigh a lot less than protons and neutrons.

Now when it comes to the mass per mole of a compound, though, a compound is made up of more than one element combined. It could be the same element or it could be different elements combined together. We're going to say here we no longer call it atomic mass but instead we're going to call it molar or molecular mass.

Now whichever case you decide to look at, whether it be the atomic mass of an element or the molar mass of a compound, both have the same exact units. The units will be grams per mole.

In order to find the atomic mass of an element you must look it up on your periodic table.

The total mass of a compound is the sum of each elemental atomic mass.

**Example:** What is the total mass of each of the following compounds?

**a. **N_{2}O_{5} **b. **C_{12}H_{22}O_{11} **c. ** (NH_{4})_{3}PO_{4}

**Concept:** Understanding Mass Percent

Now mass percent is just simply the mass of an element that's found within a given compound. Now the formula is just simply mass percent equals mass component divided by the total mass of the compound times 100.

**Example:** What is the percentage of carbon in sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO_{3}?

In order to calculate the **molecular mass or weight** of a compound you must look up the** atomic mass or weight** of each element.

**Example:** A sample of toothpaste contains tin (II), SnF_{2}. Analysis of a 5.25 g sample contains 8.77 x 10** ^{-3}** g of F. What is the percentage of tin (II) fluoride in the sample?

To go from the atomic mass of an element to the molecular mass of a compound you must use stoichiometric relationships.

**Problem:** Hemoglobin contains 0.33% iron and has a molecular weight of 68 kg. How many iron atoms are in each molecule of hemoglobin?

Calculate the percent composition of:

Sodium sulfate

Dinitrogen tetroxide

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An oxybromate compound, KBrOx, where x is unknown, is analyzed and found to contain 43.66% Br.

What is the value of x? Express your answer as an integer.

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Rank the following fertilizers in decreasing order of mass percentage of nitrogen

(NH_{4})H_{2}PO_{4}

(NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4}

(NH_{4})_{2}HPO_{4}

KNO_{3}

NH_{4}NO_{3}

NH_{3}

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A compound whose empirical formula is XF_{3} consists of 65 % F by mass. What is the atomic mass of X?

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What is the mass percentage of each element in the compound Al _{2}O_{3}?

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Ethane has molecular formula C_{2}H_{6}. What is the percent composition of carbon and hydrogen in ethane? Round the molar mass of carbon to 12 g/mol and the molar mass of hydrogen to 1.0 g/mol.

A. 60.% carbon and 40.% hydrogen

B. 65.% carbon and 35.% hydrogen

C. 70.% carbon and 30.% hydrogen

D. 75.% carbon and 25.% hydrogen

E. 80.% carbon and 20.% hydrogen

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Calculate the percent recovery of a component of a binary mixture that weighs 0.2 grams. The mass of the mixture before separating the components of the mixture was 304 grams.

A.0.0065789 %

B.65.789 %

C.6.6 x 10^{4} %

D.6.6 x 10^{-2} %

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Magnesium carbonate (MgCO_{3}) and calcium carbonate (CaCO_{3}) both decompose when heated, forming CO_{2} gas and the corresponding oxides.

MgCO_{3}(s) → CO_{2}(g) + MgO(s)

CaCO_{3}(s) → CO_{2}(g) + CaO(s)

When a particular mixture of MgCO_{3} and CaCO_{3} is heated, it releases 47% of its mass as CO _{2}, so that the oxide products have 53% of the mass of the original sample. What mass percentage of MgCO_{3} was present in the original mixture?

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Calculate the mass of HCl (molar mass = 36.46 g/mol) in 5.00 mL of an HCl solution (density = 1.19 g/mL) that is 37.23% by mass HCl.

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Calculate the mass percent of iodine in strontium iodate

a. 58%

b. 29%

c. 41%

d. 48%

e. 67%

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What is the % of carbon by mass in Calcium Cyanide Ca(CN) _{2}?

A. 13.039 %

B. 17.541 %

C. 26.078 %

D. 30.412 %

E. None of these choices are correct.

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Suppose you are working for a pharmaceutical company, and your boss has tasked you with identifying the contents of a bottle containing an unknown white crystalline compound. You have narrowed down the possibilities to sodium carbonate (Na_{2}CO_{3}) and sodium oxalate (Na_{2}C_{2}O_{4}). Sodium carbonate is relatively harmless (a common ingredient in commercial water softeners), but sodium oxalate is extremely toxic to humans; it is therefore very important that you properly identify the unknown compound. You perform an experiment, and your results show the compound is about 43% sodium by mass. Use this information to identify your compound.

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Calculate the mass percent composition of sulfur in Al _{2}(SO_{4})_{3}.

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The main source of copper on earth is a mineral called chalcocite, which is copper(I) sulfide.

a) What is the formula of this compound? _________

b) What is the mass percent of copper in this compound?

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What percent of the mass of the compound, K_{2}PbO_{3}, is due to lead?

A. 83.1%

B. 88.8%

C. 95.0%

D. 62.1%

E. 56.9%

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What is the mass percent of each element in sulfuric acid, H_{2}SO_{4}?

a. 2.055% H, 32.69% S, 65.25% O

b. 1.028% H, 32.69% S, 66.28% O

c. 28.57% H, 14.29% S, 57.17% O

d. 1.028% H, 33.72% S, 65.25% O

e. 2.016% H, 32.07% S, 65.91% O

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A concentrated solution of glucose (C_{6}H_{12}O_{6}) in water 75.3 % glucose by mass. Calculate the mole fraction and the molarity of glucose solution. (The density of the solution is 1.03g/mL)

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What is the percent mass of H_{2}O in Epsom salt, CaSO_{4}·7H_{2}O?

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A 5.00 g sample of a gas mixture, consisting of methane, CH_{4}, and ethylene, C_{2}H_{4}, was burned in excess oxygen, yielding 14.5 g of CO_{2} and some amount of water as products. What mass percent of the sample was

ethylene? HINT: Write and balance the chemical equation for each reaction taking place before you start working on the problem.

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Calculate the percent by mass of potassium nitrate in a solution made from 45.0g KNO_{3} and 295 mL of water. Density of water is 0.997 g/mL.

A. 15.2%

B. 13.3%

C. none of them

D. 1.51%

E. 7.57%

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Phenylenediamine (pictured below) is mainly used as a component of engineering polymers and composites. It is also an ingredient in hair dyes and is occasionally used as a substitute for henna.

What is the percent mass of carbon in phenylenediamine?

a. 66.6%

b. 11.1%

c. 7.45%

d. 25.9%

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Calculate the mass percent composition of sulfur in Al _{2}(SO_{4})_{3}. The molar mass of Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3} is 342.17 g/mol.

A) 9.372%

B) 21.38%

C) 28.12%

D) 35.97%

E) 42.73%

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A solution is prepared by dissolving 98.6 g of NaCl in enough water to form 875 mL of solution. Calculate the mass % of the solute if the density of the solution is 1.06 g/mL.

A) 11.3%

B) 12.7%

C) 9.4%

D) 10.6%

E) 11.9%

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What mass of NaCl is contained in 24.88 g of a 15.00% by mass solution of NaCl in water?

A) 20.00 g

B) 21.15 g

C) 3.73 g

D) 1.50 g

E) 12.44 g

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Calculate the mass percent composition of lithium in Li _{3}PO_{4}.

A) 20.82 %

B) 30.72 %

C) 55.27 %

D) 17.98 %

E) 26.75 %

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The molecular formula for a sugar molecule is C_{12}H_{22}O_{11}. What is the percent of carbon in the molecule?

A) 42.12%

B) 2.37%

C) 26.67%

D) 67.88%

E) 8.34%

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The complete combustion of 0.285 g of a pure hydrocarbon yielded 0.878 g CO _{2} and 0.405 g H_{2}O. What is the mass % C in this hydrocarbon?

A) 24.0%

B) 72.7%

C) 27.3%

D) 32.4%

E) 84.1%

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Calculate the percentage by mass of lead in Pb(NO_{3})_{2}.

a. 38.6%

b. 44.5%

c. 62.6%

d. 65.3%

e. 71.2%

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Malachite is a green colored mineral that is 57.5% copper. What mass of copper is present in a 250.0 g sample of malachite?

A) 63.6 g

B) 127 g

C) 435 g

D) 36.5 g

E) 144 g

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Calculate the mass percent composition of sulfur in Al _{2}(SO_{4})_{3}.

A) 28.12 %

B) 9.372 %

C) 42.73 %

D) 21.38 %

E) 35.97 %

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What is the weight percent, with respect to RbCl, of a solution if you mix 20.452 g of RbCl in 275.00 mL of water 31^{o}C? The density of water is 0.9954 g/cm^{3 }at 31^{o}C.

A. 6.95%

B. 7.47%

C. 6.89%

D. 7.40%

E. 7.44%

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Clonidine, C_{9}H_{9}Cl_{2}N_{3} is a antihypertensive drug often used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. What is the percent composition of nitrogen in Clonidine?

A. 6.09%

B. 46.97%

C. 13.04%

D. 30.81%

E. 18.27%

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The compound dibromobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride has a formula of [Co(C_{2}N_{2}H_{8})_{2}Br_{2}]Cl. What is the mass percent hydrogen in the compound?

a. 0.27%

b. 4.32%

c. 2.16%

d. 8.63%

e. 0.54%

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Calculate the mass (in kilograms) of chlorine in 25 kg of each chlorofluorocarbon (CFC).

d. CF_{3}Cl

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Calculate the mass (in kilograms) of chlorine in 25 kg of each chlorofluorocarbon (CFC).

c. C_{2}F_{3}Cl_{3}

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Calculate the mass (in kilograms) of chlorine in 25 kg of each chlorofluorocarbon (CFC).

b. CFCl_{3}

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Calculate the mass (in kilograms) of chlorine in 25 kg of each chlorofluorocarbon (CFC).

a. CF_{2}Cl_{2}

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The ratio of oxygen to nitrogen by mass in NO _{2} is 2.29. The ratio of fluorine to nitrogen by mass in NF_{3} is 4.07. Find the ratio of oxygen to fluorine by mass in OF _{2}.

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What is the mass percent of hydrogen in LiNH _{2}?

A. 4.39%

B. 50.0%

C. 11.4%

D. 8.78%

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Which of these compounds contains the greatest percentage of nitrogen?

a) C_{6}H_{3}N_{3}O_{7}

b) CH_{4}N_{2}O

c) LiNH_{2}

d) Pb(N_{3})_{2}

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What is the percent by mass of oxygen in Ca(NO_{3})_{2}?

a) 29.3%

b) 47.1%

c) 58.5%

d) 94.1%

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Calculate the mass percent composition of lithium in Li_{3}PO_{4}.

A) 26.75 %

B) 17.98 %

C) 30.72 %

D) 55.27 %

E) 20.82 %

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A 1.28 g sample of copper is heated with sulfur to produce 1.6 g copper sulfide. Calculate the mass percentages of copper and sulfur in the compound.

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Manganese comprises 1.3 x 10 ^{-1} percent by mass of the elements found in a normal healthy body. How many grams of manganese would be found in the body of a person weighing 183 lb?

A. 87.6 g

B. 45.6 g

C. 879 g

D. 112 g

E. 108 g

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What is the percentage by mass of N in Cu(NO _{3})_{2}?

a) 4.38

b) 8.75

c) 14.9

d) 33.9

e) 70.0

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A compound of P and O is 56.34% P by weight. What is the simplest formula of this compound?

a. PO_{2}

b. P_{2}O_{7}

c. P_{4}O_{5}

d. P_{2}O_{3}

e. P_{3}O_{2}

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A sample is composed of a mixture of NaBr and CuSO_{4}.5H_{2}O. A chemist decided to analyze the mixture by dehydrating it by heating it to 120°C for 12 hours which removed all of the water present. If a 6.523 sample weighed 4.967 g after dehydration, what is the percentage of NaBr in the original hydrated sample?

a) 22.4

b) 33.9

c) 39.2

d) 79.7

e) none of the answers is within 5% of the correct answer.

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A crystalline sample that has the formula MgCl _{2}.6H_{2}O loses a portion of its water when it is dried in an oven for several hours but undergoes no other changes. If the student, Dora the Explorer, started with 10.000 g of the compound and ended up with a residue that weighed 7.342 g., what is the formula of the residue?

a) MgCl_{2}.H_{2}O

b) MgCl_{2}.2H_{2}O

c) MgCl_{2}.3H_{2}O

d) MgCl_{2}.4H_{2}O

e) MgCl_{2}.5H_{2}O

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What mass of NaCl is contained in 24.88 g of a 15.00% by mass solution of NaCl in water?

- 20.00 g

- 21.15 g

- 3.73 g

- 1.50 g

- 12.44 g

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