Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium WorksheetSee all chapters
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Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
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Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
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Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Associated with any ionic compound is the solubility product constant, which measures how soluble the compound will be in a solvent. 

Molar Solubility

Concept #1: Understanding the Solubility Product Constant.

The general rule is that the greater the solubility product constant for a compound then the more soluble the compound. 

Example #1: Consider the following compounds. Which has the highest concentration of OH- ions?
a) Co(OH)2         Ksp = 1.3 x 10-15

b) Cu(OH)2         Ksp = 2.2 x 10-20

c) Ni(OH)2          Ksp = 6.0 x 10-16

d) Fe(OH)2         Ksp = 4.1 x 10-15

e) Zn(OH)2         Ksp = 3.0 x 10-16

Example #2:  The solubility of silver sulfate, Ag2SO4, is 0.025 M at 25oC. Calculate its solubility product constant, Ksp

Whenever the question refers to the solubility then that value represents our “x” variable. 

Example #3:  Find the solubility of CoCl3 (Ksp = 2.8 x 10-13) in:

a) pure water 

Whenever we deal with the solubility product constant we use an ICE Chart and since the reactant will always be a solid then we can ignore it. 

If our compound dissolves in a solution with similar ions then the Common Ion Effect takes place. 

Example #4:  Find the solubility of CoCl3 (Ksp = 2.8 x 10-13) in:

b) 0.20 M NaCl.

Example #5: What is the molar solubility of Fe(OH)3 (s) in a solution that is buffered at pH 3.50 at 25 oC? The Ksp of Fe(OH)3 is 6.3 x 10–38 at 25 oC.

Example #6: Find the pH of a saturated solution of Aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH)3. The Ksp of Al(OH)3 is 1.9 x 10-10

Example #7: Will a precipitate form when 0.150 L of 0.100 M Pb(C2H3O2)2 and 0.100 L of 0.20 M KCl are mixed? The Ksp value of PbCl2 is 1.2 x 10-5

Example #8: Two flasks containing 7.12 x 10-6 M silver nitrate, AgNO3, and 8.33 x 10-4 M strontium bromide, SrBr2 respectively, are mixed together into a larger flask. If the Ksp of silver bromide, AgBr, is 5.35 x 10-13 what will happen?

  1. A precipitate of Sr(NO3)2 will form.
  2. The solution is saturated but will remain clear.
  3. The solution is not saturated and no precipitate will form.
  4. A precipitate of silver bromide will form, with silver and bromide ions as well.
  5. A precipitate of silver bromide will form. 

Example #9: A saturated solution of AlCl3 contains 5.15 x 10-4 M chloride ions. What is the solubility product constant, Ksp?

Example #10: Molar Solubility of Ions

Example #11: The solubility of CaF2 is 53.2 g/mL at 25 oC. Calculate its solubility product constant, Ksp.

Example #12: The concentration of chloride and iodide ions present in the solution are [Cl ] = 0.073 M and [I ] = 0.060 M. The use of silver, Ag, can be used to precipitate these two ions. If the Ksp value of AgCl is 1.77 x 10-10 and AgI is 8.51 x 10-17.

a) Which ion will precipitate out first?

b)  At what concentration will this ion from Part A begin to precipitate out?

Additional Problems
Which reagent can be used to separate silver and copper from an aqueous solution of AgNO3 and Cu(NO3)2? a. 1.0 M H2SO4 b. 1.0 M HCl c. 1.0 M NaCl d. b and c e. all of the above 
Which reagent can be used to separate cobalt and copper from an aqueous solution of Co(NO3)2 and Cu(NO3)2? a. 5% thioacetamide in HNO3 (aq), heated to ~80°C b. 1.0 M HCl c. 1.0 M NH3 d. a and b e. a and c 
Which reagent can be used to separate the solids Al(OH) 3 and Fe(OH)3? a. 1.0 M NaOH b. 1.0 M HCl c. 1.0 M NaCl d. a and b e. none of the above 
Arrange the compounds in increasing order of molar solubility.
The Ksp equation for sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) should be written as:
Determine the molar solubility of Al(OH)3 in a solution containing 0.050 M KOH. Ksp (Al(OH)3) = 1.9 x 10 -33 A) 1.0 x 10-11 M B) 5.0 x 10-7 M C) 4.75 x 10-36 M D) 1.5 x 10-29 M E) 0.050 M
Give the expression for the solubility product constant for Hg 2Cl2. A) [Hg22+][Cl-]2 / [Hg2Cl2] B) [Hg2Cl2] / [Hg22+][Cl-]2 C) [Hg22+][Cl1-]2 D) [Hg22+]2[Cl-] / [Hg2Cl2] E) [Hg22+]2[Cl1-]
What is the minimum S2− concentration that will cause ZnS to start precipitating from a 0.10 M solution of Zn(NO3)2, a very soluble salt? Ksp for ZnS is 1.1 × 10−21.
Determine the molar solubility of some salt with the generic formula AB  2 if Ksp = 2.56x102 .  10 M 0.1 M 4 M 1 M
A hypothetical compound MX3 has a molar solubility of 0.00562 M. What is the value of Ksp for MX3? 3.16 x 10-5 2.99 x 10-9 9.48 x 10-5 2.69 x 10-8
Determine the molar solubility of AgBr in a solution containing 0.150 M NaBr. K sp (AgBr) = 7.7 × 10-13.
The solubility of CaCO3 (formula weight 100.1) is 0.0095 g in 1800 mL. What is the Ksp? A. 2.8 x 10 -5 B. 2.8 x 10 -9 C. 5.2 x 10 -5 D. 5.2 x 10 -9 E. 3.8 x 10 -7
The concentration of silver ions, [Ag+], in a saturated solution of Ag 2CO3 is 2.5x10-4 M at 25.0°C. Determine the Ksp for Ag 2CO3 at this temperature. A. 5.0 x 10-10 B. 1.3 x 10-7 C. 3.1 x 10-8 D. 6.3 x 10-11 E. 7.8 x 10-12
What is the pH of a standard solution of iron (II) hydroxide, Fe(OH) 2. Ksp = 4.87 x 10-17 for the Iron (II) hydroxide. a. 5.64 b. 8.36 c. 5.34 d. 8.66 e. 8.76
How many grams of CuCl (MW = 99.0 g mol –1) can be dissolved in 5.00 L of water before a precipitate forms? Ksp(CuCl) = 1.0 x 10–6 (a) 0.10 g (b) 0.22 g (c) 0.49 g (d) 0.98 g (e) 1.10 g
Describe the solubility of Al(OH)3 with respect to pH.    A) soluble at low pH, insoluble in pH-neutral solution, and soluble at high pH    B) soluble at low pH, insoluble in pH-neutral solution, and insoluble at high pH    C) insoluble at low pH, insoluble in pH-neutral solution, and soluble at high pH    D) insoluble at low pH, in pH-neutral solution, and at high pH    E) pH has no effect on the solubility
The solubility of silver (I) iodate is 0.0027 g/100 mL at 20  oC.  What is the solubility product for silver iodate? (MWt AgIO3 = 273 g/mole) A)  1.0 × 10–8    B)  3.9 × 10–6    C)  9.8 × 10–9    D)  2.7 × 10–12    E)  1.4 × 10–3  
What is the molar solubility of barium nitrate, Ba(NO 3)2, which has a Ksp value of 4.6 × 10−3 ?
Which is the ion product expression for magnesium ammonium phosphate, MgNH4PO4. a) [Mg2+][NH4+][PO43-]  b) [PO43-] / [Mg2+][NH4+] c) [Mg2+NH4+][PO43-] d) [Mg2+][NH4+] / [PO43-]  e) 1 / [Mg2+][NH4+][PO43-] 
Solve for the concentration of Magnesium ions when 1.29 moles of Mg(OH) 2) is added to a 1.00 L solution that is initially at pH = 11.00. Ksp  (Mg(OH)2) = 5.6 X 10-12 A.  5.6 X 10-9  B.  5.6 X 10-6  C.  1.1 X 10-5  D.  1.1 X 10-4  E.  1.3
Determine the molar solubility of CuCl in a solution containing 0.050 M KCl. Ksp (CuCl) = 1.0 x 10-6 A) 1.0 x 10-12 M B) 5.0 x 10-7 M C) 2.0 x 10-5 M D) 1.0 x 10-3 M E) 0.050 M 
Which of the following compounds will have the highest molar solubility in pure water? A) PbSO4,        Ksp = 1.82 x 10-8 B) MgCO3,       Ksp = 6.82 x 10-6 C) AgI,             K sp = 8.51 x 10-17 D) PbS,            K sp = 9.04 x 10-29 E) FeS,             K sp = 3.72 x 10-19
What is the ksp expression for Mg 3(PO4)2? (Look at all the answers carefully. Some of them are very similar) (a) [Mg2+]3[PO43-]2 (b) [Mg2+]2[PO43-]3 (c) [Mg]3[PO4]2 (d) [Mg]3[PO4]2      [Mg3(PO4)2] (e) [Mg3(PO4)2]      [Mg]3[PO4]2  
Would you expect the solubility of Mg 3(PO4)2 to be greater than, less than, or the same in a 0.10 M Na3PO4 solution compared to pure water? (a) greater than      (b) less than      (c) the same
Which of the following solubility product expressions is incorrect? A. Ksp (Ag2S) = [Ag+]2[S-2]  B. Ksp ( CaF2)  = [Ca2+][F-]2  C. Ksp (PbCl2) = [Pb2+][Cl-]2  D. Ksp (CuS) = [Cu2+][S2-]  E. Ksp (Ag3PO4) = [Ag+]3[P] [O3-]4
What is the solubility product, Ksp of Mg(OH)2 if its solubility in water is 1.6 x 10 -4 mol•L-1? a) 1.6 x 10-11 b) 2.6 x 10-8 c) 3.2 x 10-4 d) 4.1 x 10-12    
A saturated solution of MgF2 contains 1.6 x 10-3 mol of MgF2  per liter at a certain temperature. What is the Ksp, of MgF2 at this temperature? a) 2.7 x 10-6 b) 1.6 x 10-8 c) 3.1 x 10-9 d) 6.2 x 10-9
The addition of solid Na 2SO4 to an aqueous solution in equilibrium with solid BaSO 4 will cause a) no change in [Ba 2+] in solution. b) more BaSO4 to dissolve. c) precipitation of more BaSO4. d) an increase in the  Ksp of BaSO4.
The solubility of lead (II) iodide is 0.064 g / 100 mL at 20°C. What is the solubility product for lead (II) iodide? A) 1.1 x 10-8 B) 3.9 x 10-6 C) 1.1 x 10-11 D) 2.7 x 10-12 E) 1.4 x 10-3
Calculate the molar solubility of silver (I) carbonate ( Ksp=8.1x10–12) in water at 25 ̊C. a. 8.1x10–12 M b. 2.0x10–6 M c. 1.3x10–4 M d. 1.6x10–4 M e. 2.6x10–4 M
Calcium hydroxide has a molar solubility of 0.0118 M in water. How much Ca(OH) 2 (in mg) is soluble in 100.0 mL of water? a. 6.5x10–6 mg b. 0.0118 mg c. 0.0235 mg d. 0.874 mg e. 87.4 mg
Calculate the solubility of silver oxalate, Ag 2C2O4, in pure water. [Ksp = 1.0 x 10-11] A) 1.4 x 10-4 M B) 8.2 x 10-5 M C) 5.4 x 10-5 M D) 3.2 x 10-6 M E) 2.5 x 10-12 M
Write and compare the Ksp expressions for ionic compounds of composition AB 2 and C2D3.
What is the molar solubility of a saturated solution of PbCl 2 (Ksp=1.7x10–5)? a. 1.5x10–5 M b. 2.9x10–3 M c. 4.1x10–3 M d. 0.016 M e. 0.020 M
6.5 mg of calcium fluoride is soluble in 250.0 mL of water at 25 ̊C. What is its  Ksp? a. 1.1x10–7 b. 1.5x10–10 c. 3.7x10–11 d. 2.3x10–12 e. 5.8x10–13
What pH should an aqueous solution of Co(OH) 2 (Ksp=1.1x10–15) be adjusted to so that the concentration of Co2+ is 1.0 x 10–9 M. a. 8.04 b. 8.81 c. 10.72 d. 11.02 e. 11.32
Two compounds with general formulas AX and AX 2 have Ksp = 1.5 x 10 -5. Which of the two compounds has the higher molar solubility? Explain your choice.
What is the pH of a saturated aqueous solution of Cd(OH) 2 (Ksp=2.5x10–14)? a. 9.57 b. 9.47 c. 9.27 d. 7.35 e. 4.73
What is the molar solubility of silver (I) carbonate ( Ksp=8.1x10–12) in the presence of 0.20 M Na2CO3? a. 3.18 × 10−6 M b. 4.50 × 10−6 M c. 1.27 × 10−4 M d. 1.42 × 10−5 M e. 5.68 × 10−5 M
A solution begins with 0.100 M of NaF dissolved in water. What is the concentration of Magnesium ion in the solution, if MgF2 was added in excess? Ksp (MgF2) = 5.2 X 10 −11 A. 5.2 * 10−13 B. 5.2 * 10 −11 C. 5.2 * 10 −9 D. 0.00023 E. 0.00047
In which of the following solutions would PbBr2 be expected to be the least soluble at a given temperature.   A. 0.1M CaBr2 B. 0.1M HBr C. 0.1M NaBr D. 0.1M KNO3
Which of the following compounds will have the highest molar solubility in pure water?   A. NiS           Ksp = 3.00x10 -20 B. PbS          Ksp = 9.04x10 -29 C. MgCO3     Ksp = 6.82x10 -6 D. AgCN       Ksp = 5.97x10 -17 E. PbSO4      Ksp = 1.82x10 -8
In which solution is Ag3PO4 least soluble? a. In pure water b. 0.50 M AgNO3 c. 0.50 M Na3PO4 d. AgPO4 is least soluble equally in b and c e. AgPO4 is equally soluble in all of the above
Give the expression for the solubility product constant for BaF 2.  
Given the following Ksp values, which statement about solubility in water is correct?                         K  sp PbCrO4           2.0 x 10 -16 Zn(OH)2          4.5 x 10 -17 Pb(OH)2          1.2 x 10 -15 MnS                2.3 x 10 -13 a) PbCrO4, Zn(OH)2, and Pb(OH)2 have equal solubility in water. b) PbCrO4 has the lowest solubility in water. c) The solubility of MnS in water will not be pH dependent. d) MnS has the highest molar solubility in water. e) A saturated PbCrO4 solution will have a higher [Pb2+] than a saturated Pb(OH)2 solution.
What is the molar solubility of silver (I) carbonate in the presence of 0.20 M Na  2CO3? a. 3.18 x 10 -6M b. 4.50 x 10 -6M c. 1.27 x 10 -4M d. 1.42 x 10 -5M e. 5.68 x 10 -5M
Which of the following salts has the highest concentration of silver ion when dissolved in water? a) AgCl           Ksp = 1.6 x 10-10 b) Ag2CO3        Ksp = 8.1 x 10-12 c) AgBr           Ksp = 5.0 x 10-13
Which of the following compounds has the lowest solubility in water?   A. AgI,     Ksp = 8.5 × 10 −17 B. PbBr2, Ksp = 6.6 × 10 −6 C. Sr3(PO4)2,     Ksp = 4 × 10 −28 D. Ag(CH3COO),   Ksp = 4.4 × 10 −3
Ksp = 4.64 × 10 −3 for Ba(NO3)2. What is the concentration of the nitrate ion in a saturated Ba(NO3)2 solution?  A. 0.105 M B. 0.167 M C. 0.210 M D. 0.333 M E. 0.068 M F. 0.136 M
Which salt precipitates first and what is the minimum concentration of Ag + necessary to cause this precipitation in a solution containing 7.5 mL of 0.025 M NaCl and 7.5 mL of 0.025 M Na3PO4?   (Hint: dilution occurs) Ksp(AgCl) = 1.8 x 10-10 Ksp(Na3PO4) = 1.3 x 10-20 a) AgCl              8.7 x 10  -7 M b) Ag3PO4         2.3 x 10  -7 M c) AgCl              1.4 x 10  -8 M d) Ag3PO4         7.2 x 10  -8 M e) None of these answers are correct  
When a solution of weak electrolyte is altered by adding one of its ions from another source, the ionization of the weak electrolyte is suppressed. The behavior is termed the ___________.  
In which of the following solutions would PbBr 2 be expected to be the least soluble at a given temperature? 0.1M CaBr2 0.1M HBr 0.1M NaBr 0.1M KNO3
AgCl would be least soluble at 25°C in ______ . 
A solution of sodium fluoride is added dropwise to a solution that is 0.0144 M in ionic barium. At what concentration of fluoride ion will barium fluoride start to precipitate? Neglect volume changes, the Ksp for barium fluoride is 1.7x10 –6. A. 2.4 x 10 –8 B. 1.1 x 10 –2 C. 1.2 x 10 –4 D. 5.9 x 10 –5 E. 2.7 x 10 –3
The solubility of PbBr2 is 8.44 g/L at 20◦C. What is Ksp for this compound?  A. 1.1 × 10 −6 B. 5.3 × 10 −4 C. 1.0 × 10 −3 D. 4.9 × 10 −5 E. 1.2 × 10 −5
Which reagent(s) INCREASES the solubility of Zn(OH) 2 when added to a saturated aqueous solution of Zn(OH)2? a. 1.0 M NaOH b. 1.0 M HCl c. 1.0 M NH 3 d. a and c e. all of the above 
You have an aqueous solution that contains a wide array of different ions along with a solid chunk of Ag3PO4 (Ksp = 9.8 × 10 −21) in it. The concentration of PO 43− in the solution is 2.0 × 10 −2 M. What is the concentration of the silver ion? A. 9.9 × 10 −6 M B. 4.4 × 10 −6 M C. 7.9 × 10 −7 M D. 2.6 × 10 −7 M E. 2.3 × 10 −6 M
Which reagent(s) DECREASES the solubility of Ni(OH) 2 when added to a saturated aqueous solution of Ni(OH)2? a. 1.0 M NaOH b. 1.0 M HCl c. 1.0 M NiCl 2 d. a and c e. all of the above
Which of the following compounds will have the highest molar solubility in pure water? NiS Ksp = 3.00x10 –20 PbS Ksp = 9.04x10 –29 MgCO3 Ksp = 6.82x10 –6 AgCN Ksp = 5.97x10 –17 PbSO4 Ksp = 1.82x10 –8
What is the molar solubility of magnesium hydroxide in a basic solution with pH of 12.50? The Ksp for magnesium hydroxide is 5.6 x 10-12. 2.40x10-6 M 1.10x10-4 M 1.80x10-10 M 5.60x10-9 M
Enter the Ksp expression for the solid AB 2 in terms of the molar solubility x. Express your answer in terms of x.
If 147 g of ZnF2 (Ksp = 0.0300) is added to water to make a 1.00 L solution, what is the [F− ] concentration in the solution in molarity? A. 0.173 B. 0.196 C. 0.391 D. 1.42 E. 2.84
A solution begins with 0.100 M of NaF dissolved in water. What is the concentration of Magnesium ion in the solution, if MgF2 was added in excess? Ksp (MgF2) = 5.2 X 10 −11 A. 5.2 x 10 −13 B. 5.2 x 10 −11 C. 5.2 x 10 −9 D. 0.00023 E. 0.00047
The molar solubility of Cd(OH)2 in water is 1.7 x 10 -5 mol/L at 25°C. The Ksp value for Cd(OH)2 is: A. 2.0 x 10 -14 B. 4.9 x 10 -15 C. 5.8 x 10 -10 D. 2.9 x 10 -10 E. none of these
Silver iodide has very low solubility as shown by the following reaction equation. Agl (s) ↔ Ag+ (aq) + I - (aq) Which of the following statements is/are true? i. K < l ii. the concentration of Ag+ will be large iii. K > l a. i only b. ii only c. iii only d. i and ii e. ii and iii
Which of the following salts shows the lowest solubility in water? Ksp values are as follows: Ag2S = 1.6 x 10 -49 Bi2S3 = 1.0 x 10 -72 HgS = 1.6 x 10 -54 Mg(OH)2 = 8.9 x 10 -12 MnS = 2.3 x 10 -13 A. Bi2S3 B. Ag2S C. MnS D. HgS E. Mg(OH)2 
The solubility of CaF2 (s) [Ksp= 4.0 x 10 -11] in 1.0 L of a 1.0 x 10 -2 M solution of NaF is: A. 4.0 x 10 -9 moles B. 1.0 x 10 -7 moles C. 7.0 x 10 -4 moles D. 4.0 x 10 -7 moles E. none of these 
The concentration of OH - in a saturated solution of a certain metal hydroxide, M(OH)2 , is 3.6x10 -4 M . The Ksp of M(OH)2 is: A. 1.3 x 10 -7 B. 4.7 x 10 -11 C. 1.2 x 10 -11 D. 3.6 x 10 -4 E. none of these 
What is the molar solubility of Co(OH) 2 when buffered at a pH of 13.20? a. 1.4 x 10 -5 M b. 8.5 x 10 -6 M c. 1.6 x 10 -12 M d. 1.0 x 10 -13 M e. 1.6 x 10 -14 M 
Which salt is NOT more soluble in acidic solution than it is in pure water? a. CdCO3      Ksp = 5.2 x 10 -12 b. Cd(OH)2    Ksp = 2.5 x 10 -14 c. Cd(OH)2    Ksp = 2.5 x 10 -15 d. AgI            K sp = 8.3 x1 0 -17 e. ZnCO3       Ksp = 1.4 x 10 -11
The solubility of copper(I) chloride is 3.91 mg per 100.0 mL of solution.Calculate Ksp for CuCl.
What is the solubility-product constant?
A 1.00-L solution saturated at 25 oC with calcium oxalate (CaC2 O4 ) contains 0.0061 g of CaC2 O4.Calculate the solubility-product constant for this salt at 25 oC.
The osmotic pressure of a saturated solution of strontium sulfate at 25 oC is 21 torr.What is the solubility product of this salt at 25 oC?
Excess Ca(OH)2 is shaken with water to produce a saturated solution. The solution is filtered, and a 60.00 mL sample titrated with HCl requires 11.18 mL of 0.0978 M HCl to reach the end point.Calculate Ksp for Ca(OH)2.
A 0.551 g sample of a diprotic acid with a molar mass of 255.8 g/mol is dissolved in water to a total volume of 26.0 mL . The solution is then titrated with a saturated calcium hydroxide solution.Assuming that the pKa values for each ionization step are sufficiently different to see two equivalence points, determine the volume of added base for the first and second equivalence points.
What is the pH at 25 oC of water saturated with CO2 at a partial pressure of 1.20 atm ? The Henrys law constant for CO2 at 25 oC is 3.1 10-2 mol/ L-atm. The CO2 is an acidic oxide, reacting with H2 O to form H2 CO3.
Consider a beaker containing a saturated solution of CaF2 in equilibrium with undissolved CaF2(s). Solid CaCl2 is then added to the solution.Will the amount of solid CaF2 at the bottom of the beaker increase, decrease, or remain the same?
Consider a beaker containing a saturated solution of CaF2 in equilibrium with undissolved CaF2(s). Solid CaCl2 is then added to the solution.Will the concentration of Ca2+ ions in solution increase or decrease?
Consider a beaker containing a saturated solution of CaF2 in equilibrium with undissolved CaF2(s). Solid CaCl2 is then added to the solution.Will the concentration of F- ions in solution increase or decrease?
Calculate the molar solubility of barium fluoride in each of the following.0.15 M NaF
Calculate the molar solubility of calcium hydroxide in a solution buffered at each of the following pHs.pH = 7
What is the common ion effect?
For each statement, indicate whether it is true or false.The solubility of a slightly soluble salt is independent of the presence of a common ion.
For each statement, indicate whether it is true or false.The solubility product of a slightly soluble salt is independent of the presence of a common ion.
How does a common ion affect the solubility of a compound? More specifically, how is the solubility of a compound with the general formula AX different in a solution containing one of the common ions (A+ or X-) than it is in pure water? Explain.
Describe the solubility of CaF2 in each solution compared to its solubility in water.In a 0.10 M NaCl solution.
How is the solubility of an ionic compound with a basic anion affected by pH? Explain.
Describe the solubility of CaF2 in each solution compared to its solubility in water.In a 0.10 M NaF solution.
Using Appendix D in the textbook, calculate the molar solubility of AgBr in 3.1×10−2 M AgNO3 solution.
Describe the solubility of CaF2 in each solution compared to its solubility in water.In a 0.10 M HCl solution.
Using Appendix D in the textbook, calculate the molar solubility of AgBr in 0.12 M NaBr solution.
Determine whether or not CuS will be more soluble in acidic solution than in pure water.
Determine whether or not AgCl will be more soluble in acidic solution than in pure water.
A certain town gets its water from an underground aquifer that contains water in equilibrium with calcium carbonate limestone.If you wanted to clean out your coffee cup, would it be better to use an acidic or basic cleaning solution? Why?
Determine whether or not PbI2 will be more soluble in acidic solution than in pure water.
Determine whether or not BaCO3 will be more soluble in acidic solution than in pure water.
Determine whether or not CaCO3 will be more soluble in acidic solution than in pure water.
Determine whether or not AgI will be more soluble in acidic solution than in pure water.
Calculate the solubility of Mg(OH)2 in 0.50M NH4 Cl.
The graphs represent the behavior of BaCO3 under different circumstances. In each case the vertical axis indicates the solubility of the BaCO3 and the horizontal axis represents the concentration of some other reagent.Which graph represents what happens to the solubility of BaCO3 as HNO3 is added?
The graphs represent the behavior of BaCO3 under different circumstances. In each case the vertical axis indicates the solubility of the BaCO3 and the horizontal axis represents the concentration of some other reagent.Which graph represents what happens to the BaCO3 solubility as Na2 CO3 is added?
A concentration of 10-100 parts per billion (by mass) of Ag+ is an effective disinfectant in swimming pools. However, if the concentration exceeds this range, the Ag+ can cause adverse health effects. One way to maintain an appropriate concentration of Ag+ is to add a slightly soluble salt to the pool. Using Ksp values from Appendix D in the textbook, calculate the equilibrium concentration of Ag+ in parts per billion that would exist in equilibrium withAgCl
The graphs represent the behavior of BaCO3 under different circumstances. In each case the vertical axis indicates the solubility of the BaCO3 and the horizontal axis represents the concentration of some other reagent.Which represents what happens to the BaCO3 solubility as NaNO3 is added?
A concentration of 10-100 parts per billion (by mass) of Ag+ is an effective disinfectant in swimming pools. However, if the concentration exceeds this range, the Ag+ can cause adverse health effects. One way to maintain an appropriate concentration of Ag+ is to add a slightly soluble salt to the pool. Using Ksp values from Appendix D in the textbook, calculate the equilibrium concentration of Ag+ in parts per billion that would exist in equilibrium withAgBr
A concentration of 10-100 parts per billion (by mass) of Ag+ is an effective disinfectant in swimming pools. However, if the concentration exceeds this range, the Ag+ can cause adverse health effects. One way to maintain an appropriate concentration of Ag+ is to add a slightly soluble salt to the pool. Using Ksp values from Appendix D in the textbook, calculate the equilibrium concentration of Ag+ in parts per billion that would exist in equilibrium withAgI
Calculate the molar solubility of barium fluoride in each of the following.pure water
What is molar solubility? How can you obtain the molar solubility of a compound from Ksp.
Using Appendix D in the textbook, calculate the molar solubility of AgBr in pure water.
Calculate the solubility of Mn(OH)2 in grams per liter when buffered at pH=7.0. Assume that buffer capacity is not exhausted.    
Calculate the solubility of Mn(OH)2 in grams per liter when buffered at pH= 9.6.
Calculate the solubility of Mn(OH)2 in grams per liter when buffered at pH = 11.8.
A certain town gets its water from an underground aquifer that contains water in equilibrium with calcium carbonate limestone.Calculate the molar solubility of calcium carbonate.
A certain town gets its water from an underground aquifer that contains water in equilibrium with calcium carbonate limestone.If an entire coffee cup of water (about 202 mL) evaporated on your desk over spring break, how many grams of calcium carbonate would be left behind?
For each pair of compounds, use Ksp values to determine which has the greater molar solubility.CdS or CuS
For each pair of compounds, use Ksp values to determine which has the greater molar solubility.PbCO3 or BaCrO4
For each pair of compounds, use Ksp values to determine which has the greater molar solubility.Ni(OH)2 or NiCO3
For each pair of compounds, use Ksp values to determine which has the greater molar solubility.AgI or Ag2 SO4
Use values of Ksp for AgI and Kf for AgCN2-Determine the molar solubility of AgI in a 0.160 M NaCN solution.
A 0.551 g sample of a diprotic acid with a molar mass of 255.8 g/mol is dissolved in water to a total volume of 26.0 mL . The solution is then titrated with a saturated calcium hydroxide solution.The pH after adding 26.0 mL of the base was 3.82. Find the value of pKa1 .
A 0.551 g sample of a diprotic acid with a molar mass of 255.8 g/mol is dissolved in water to a total volume of 26.0 mL . The solution is then titrated with a saturated calcium hydroxide solution.The pH after adding 20.0 mL past the first equivalence point was 8.25. Find the value of pKa2 .
For each statement, indicate whether it is true or false.The solubility of a slightly soluble salt can be expressed in units of moles per liter.
For each statement, indicate whether it is true or false.The solubility product of a slightly soluble salt is simply the square of the solubility.
The solubility of two slightly soluble salts of M2+ , MA and MZ2, are the same, 410-4 mol/L.In a saturated solution of each salt in water, which has the higher concentration of M2+?
Write an expression for Ksp for the dissolution of CaCO3.
Write an expression for Ksp for the dissolution of PbCl2.
Write an expression for Ksp for the dissolution of AgI.
Equal quantities of 0.010M solutions of an acid HA and a base B are mixed. The pH of the resulting solution is 9.3.Write the equilibrium equation for the reaction between HA and B.
Equal quantities of 0.010M solutions of an acid HA and a base B are mixed. The pH of the resulting solution is 9.3.Write equilibrium-constant expression for the reaction between HA and B.
A certain town gets its water from an underground aquifer that contains water in equilibrium with calcium carbonate limestone.What is the symbol for the equilibrium constant that describes calcium carbonate dissolving in water?
Select the expression for the solubility-product constant for each of the following ionic compounds:Select the expression for the solubility-product constant for AgI.
Select the expression for the solubility-product constant for each of the following ionic compounds:Select the expression for the solubility-product constant for SrSO4.
Select the expression for the solubility-product constant for each of the following ionic compounds:Select the expression for the solubility-product constant for [Fe(OH)2].
Select the expression for the solubility-product constant for each of the following ionic compounds:Select the expression for the solubility-product constant for [Hg2Br2].
C2D3 has a solubility product constant of 9.14 x 10 -9. What is the molar solubility of C2D3?
What is the pH in a saturated solution of hypothetical metal (III) hydroxide, M(OH) 3, Ksp = 1.9 x 10-16? A. 3.81 B. 10.19 C. 9.71 D. 4.29 E. 10.31
Express Ksp in terms of molar solubility, x, for a salt with a formula of i) AB(s) ii) AB2(s) iii) AB3(s) iv) A3B2(s)
If the Ksp of a Ag3PO4 is 1.8 x 10-18, what is the silver ion concentration in a saturated solution of silver phosphate?a. 4.8 x 10 -5 Mb. 1.2 x 10 -5 Mc. 1.6 x 10 -5 Md. 3.2 x 10 -5 M
Consider the following chemical equation:AaBb(s) → aA+(aq) + bB-(aq)In this case, the Ksp is given by:a. Ksp = a [A+] b [B-]b. Ksp = ([A+] / a) ([B-] / b)c. Ksp = [A+] [B-] / [AaBb]d. Ksp = [A+]a [B-]be. Ksp = [A+]a [B-]b / [AaBb]
The equilibrium constant for the reaction:Ag2SO4(s) ⇌ 2Ag+ (aq) + SO42- (aq)is Kc = 1.8x10 −10. If the SO42- concentration is 1.2x10−6 M, what is the Ag+ concentration?a) 0.221b) 1.50x10 −4c) 2.25x10 −8d) 1.22x10 −2e) 8.66x10 −6
What concentration of SO32- is in equilibrium with Ag 2SO3(s) and 2.90 x 10-3 M Ag+? The Ksp of Ag2SO3 can be found here: 1.5 x 10-14.
Calculate the molar solubility of barium fluoride in each of the following. Express all answers using three significant figures.Part A pure water.Part B 0.10 M Ba(NO3)2Part C 0.15 M NaF
Consider the reactionYZ(s) ⇌ Y(aq) + Z(aq)at equilibrium. If Ksp < [Y][Z], precipitation occurs.The reaction quotient, Q, is also equal to [Y][Z]. Q is equal to Ksp only at equilibrium. When Q is less than Ksp, the solution is unsaturated; when Q is greater than Ksp the solution is supersaturated and precipitation could occur.a. Enter the Ksp expression for A 2B3(s) in terms of [A] and [B].b. Enter the Ksp expression for AC 4(s) in terms of [A] and [C].Express your answer in terms of [A] and [C].
Enter the Ksp expression for A2B3(s) in terms of [A] and [B].
Enter the Ksp expression for AC4(s) in terms of [A] and [C].
What is the correct expression for the solubility product constant for iron (III) hydroxide? (a) Ksp = [Fe3+(aq)] [OH− (aq)] (b) Ksp = [Fe3+(aq)] [OH− (aq)] 3 (c) Ksp = [Fe3+(aq)] 3 [OH− (aq)] (d) Ksp = [Fe3+(aq)] 3[OH− (aq)] (e) Ksp = [Fe3+(aq)] 3 [OH− (aq)] 3
The Ksp for PbI2(s) is 1.4 x 10-8. Calculate the solubility of PbI 2(s) in 0.075 M Nal. 
Calculate the molar solubility of lead thiocyanate in 0.500 M KSCN?
What is the Ksp expression for CaF2?
Calculate the molar solubility of CaF2. Ksp for CaF2 is 4.0x10-11.
Consider an amphoteric hydroxide, M(OH)2(s), where M is a generic metal. Estimate the solubility of M(OH)2 in a solution buffered at pH = 7.0, 10.0, 14.0? The Ksp is 4 x 10-16.
What is Ksp for PbCrO4, if its molar solubility is 1.3 × 10−7 mol/L?
Solid silver phosphate is allowed to equilibrate with water at 25°C until the solution is saturated. What is the silver ion concentration in this saturated solution? Ksp for Ag3PO4 is equal to 8.9 × 10−17 .
Enter the Ksp expression for C2D3 in terms of the molar solubility x.
Give the expression for the solubility product constant for PbCl 2.a. [Pb2+][Cl-]2b. [Pb2+]2[Cl-] / [PbCl2]c. [PbCl2] / [Pb2+][Cl-]2d. [Pb2+]2[Cl-]e. [Pb2+][Cl-]2 / [PbCl2]
Calculate the molar solubility of CaF2. Given; Ksp = 4.0 x 10 -11.
Silver carbonate, Ag2CO3 is a salt of low solubility. When placed in water, it dissolves until an equilibrium is reached: Ag2CO3 (s) ⇋ 2 Ag+ (aq) + CO32- (aq). Write an expression for the solubility product constant, Ksp, of Silver Carbonate?
Which of the following compounds will have the highest molar solubility in pure water?a. Ag2S, Ksp = 6.0 × 10−51b. ZnS, Ksp = 2.0 × 10−25c. ZnSe, Ksp = 3.6 × 10−26d. PbS, Ksp = 9.04 × 10−29e. Fe(OH)3, Ksp = 2.79 × 10−39
Determine the molar solubility of BaF 2 in a solution containing 0.0750 M LiF. K sp (BaF2) = 1.7 × 10 -6.a. 2.3 × 10 -5 Mb. 1.2 × 10 -2 Mc. 8.5 × 10 -7 Md. 3.0 × 10 -4 Me. 0.0750 M
What concentration of SO32– is in equilibrium with Ag2SO3(s) and 1.00 × 10-3 M Ag+?
Write a balanced equation for the dissolution of PbCl 2. Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer.
Select the false statement below regarding PbI 2 (Ksp = 7.9 x 109) and PbCO3 (Ksp = 7.4 x 1014).A. the molar solubility of PbI 2 can be calculated by taking the cube root of (K sp/4)B. PbCO3 is more soluble in 1.0 M HCl than in pure waterC. PbI2 is less soluble in 1.0 M NaI than in pure waterD. PbCO3 is more soluble in 1.0 M Pb(NO 3)2 than in pure waterE. PbI2 is more soluble in 1.0 M NaOH than in pure water (Kf of Pb(OH)  2  = 8 x 1013)
Silver Chromate, Ag2CrO4, has a Ksp of 9.0 x 10 -12. Calculate the solubility, in moles per liter, of silver chromate.
Calculate the molar solubility of Ni(OH) 2 when buffered at pH = 8.0. Express your answer using one significant figure.
If 147 g of ZnF2 (K sp = 0.0300) is added to water to make a 1.00 L solution, what is the [F− ] concentration in the solution in molarity? A. 0.173 B. 0.196 C. 0.391 D. 1.42 E. 2.84
Complete the following reaction table and Ksp expression to calculate the solubility of silver chloride. 
The solubility of silver sulfate (MW 311.8) is 4.73 g/L at 25°C. Calculate solubility product constant. a) 1.4 x 10-5 b) 6.5 x 10-8 c) 2.3 x 10-4 d) 8.1 x 10-9 e) 3.4 x 10-6
Mercury(I) is a diatomic ion (Hg 22+, also called mercurous iron with a charge of +2. Mercury(I) iodate dissociates as follows:Hg2(IO3)2 (s) → Hg 22+ + 2IO3-                K sp = [Hg22+][IO3]2a. Find the concentration of Hg 22+ and IO3- in a saturated solution of Hg 2(IO3)2 (s) if there are no other significant species such as the ion pair Hg22+ • IO3-.b. Find [Hg22+] in a 0.010M solution of KIO 3 saturated with Hg 2(IO3)2 (s).
Silver chromate is sparingly soluble in aqueous solutions. The Ksp of Ag2CrO4 is 1.12 x 10-12. What is the solubility (in mol/L) of silver chromatea. in 1.10 M potassium chromate aqueous solution?b. in 1.10 M silver nitrate aqueous solution? c. in pure water?
Enter the solubility-product expression for Mg 3(PO4)2(s). Include Charges.
The solubility of lead(II) bromide, PbBr2, in water is 4.34 g/L. In an aqueous solution an equilibrium exists between the dissolved ions and the solid salt. PbBr2(s) ⇋ Pb2+(aq) + 2 Br -1 (aq) a) write the solubility product expression for this equation.   b) calculate the molar concentration and the Ksp ( solubility product constant) for lead(II) bromide.
Which of the following compounds will have the highest molar solubility in pure water ?a. FeS, Ksp = 3.72 x 10 -19b. PbS, Ksp = 9.04 x 10 -29c. MgCO3, Ksp = 6.82 x 10 -6d. PbSO4, Ksp = 1.82 x 10 -8e. AgI, Ksp = 8.51 x 10 -17
The Ksp of AgCl is 1.6 x 10-10. What is the solubility of AgCl in 0.10 M AgNO 3?
Lead thiocyanate, Pb(SCN)2, has a Ksp value of 2.00 × 10−5.Part A. Calculate the molar solubility of lead thiocyanate in pure water. The molar solubility is the maximum amount of lead thiocyanate the solution can hold. Express the molar solubility numerically.Part B. Calculate the molar solubility of lead thiocyanate in 1.00 M KSCN. Express the molar solubility numerically.
What is the value of Q when the CaSO4 solution contains 2.00×10−3M Ca+2 and 3.00×10-2M SO42-?Express your answer numerically.
A 35.0-mL solution of 0.075 M CaCl 2 is mixed with 25.0 mL of 0.090 M BaCl 2.(a) If aqueous KF is added, which fluoride precipitates first?
Use the molar solubility 3.27 x 10–11 in pure water to calculate Ksp for NiS.
Use the molar solubility 5.63 x 10–3 in pure water to calculate Ksp for PbF2.
Use the molar solubility 2.65 x 10–4 in pure water to calculate Ksp for MgF2.
Use the molar solubility, 1.08 x 10–5 M, in pure water to calculate Ksp for BaCrO4.
Use the molar solubility, 1.55 x 10–5 M, in pure water to calculate Ksp for Ag2SO3.
Use the molar solubility, 2.22 x 10–8 M, in pure water to calculate Ksp for Pd(SCN)2.
Consider the compounds with the generic formulas listed below and their corresponding molar solubilities in pure water.AX; molar solubility = 1.35×10−4 MAX2; molar solubility = 2.25×10−4 MA2X; molar solubility = 1.75×10−4 MWhich compound will have the smallest value of Ksp?
The solubility of silver carbonate is 0.032 M at 20°C. Calculate its K sp.
The solubility of zinc oxalate is 7.9 × 10−3 M at 18°C. Calculate its Ksp.
The solubility of silver dichromate at 15°C is 8.3 × 10 −3 g/100. mL solution. Calculate its Ksp.
The solubility of calcium sulfate at 30°C is 0.209 g/100. mL solution. Calculate its Ksp.
Which compound in each pair is more soluble in water?(a) Magnesium hydroxide or nickel(II) hydroxide
Which compound in each pair is more soluble in water?(b) Lead(II) sulfide or copper(II) sulfide
Which compound in each pair is more soluble in water?(c) Silver sulfate or magnesium fluoride
Which compound in each pair is more soluble in water?(a) Strontium sulfate or barium chromate
Which compound in each pair is more soluble in water?(b) Calcium carbonate or copper(II) carbonate
Which compound in each pair is more soluble in water?(c) Barium iodate or silver chromate
The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16Handbook) gives solubilities of the following compounds in grams per 100 mL of water. Because these compounds are only slightly soluble, assume that the volume does not change on dissolution and calculate the solubility product for each.(a) BaSiF6, 0.026 g/100 mL (contains SiF62− ions)
Which compound in each pair is more soluble in water? (a) Barium sulfate or calcium sulfate
Which compound in each pair is more soluble in water?(b) Calcium phosphate or magnesium phosphate
Which compound in each pair is more soluble in water?(c) Silver chloride or lead(II) sulfate
The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16Handbook) gives solubilities of the following compounds in grams per 100 mL of water. Because these compounds are only slightly soluble, assume that the volume does not change on dissolution and calculate the solubility product for each.(b) Ce(IO3)4, 1.5 × 10–2 g/100 mL
Which compound in each pair is more soluble in water?(a) Manganese(II) hydroxide or calcium iodate
Which compound in each pair is more soluble in water?(b) Strontium carbonate or cadmium sulfide
Which compound in each pair is more soluble in water?(c) Silver cyanide or copper(I) iodide
The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16Handbook) gives solubilities of the following compounds in grams per 100 mL of water. Because these compounds are only slightly soluble, assume that the volume does not change on dissolution and calculate the solubility product for each.(c) Gd2(SO4)3, 3.98 g/100 mL
a. Use the molar solubility 1.08 × 10 −5 M in pure water to calculate Ksp for BaCrO4. b. Use the molar solubility 1.55 × 10 −5 M in pure water to calculate Ksp for Ag2SO3. c. Use the molar solubility 2.22 × 10 −8 M in pure water to calculate Ksp for Pd(SCN)2.
The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16Handbook) gives solubilities of the following compounds in grams per 100 mL of water. Because these compounds are only slightly soluble, assume that the volume does not change on dissolution and calculate the solubility product for each.(d) (NH4)2PtBr6, 0.59 g/100 mL (contains PtBr62− ions)
When excess solid Mg(OH)2 is shaken with 1.00 L of 1.3 M NH4Cl solution, the resulting saturated solution has pH = 9.10. Calculate the Ksp of Mg(OH)2.
The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16Handbook) gives solubilities of the following compounds in grams per 100 mL of water. Because these compounds are only slightly soluble, assume that the volume does not change on dissolution and calculate the solubility product for each.(a) BaSeO4, 0.0118 g/100 mL
The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16Handbook) gives solubilities of the following compounds in grams per 100 mL of water. Because these compounds are only slightly soluble, assume that the volume does not change on dissolution and calculate the solubility product for each.(b) Ba(BrO3)2∙H2O, 0.30 g/100 mL
The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16Handbook) gives solubilities of the following compounds in grams per 100 mL of water. Because these compounds are only slightly soluble, assume that the volume does not change on dissolution and calculate the solubility product for each.(c) NH4MgAsO4∙6H2O, 0.038 g/100 mL
The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16Handbook) gives solubilities of the following compounds in grams per 100 mL of water. Because these compounds are only slightly soluble, assume that the volume does not change on dissolution and calculate the solubility product for each.(d) La2(MoO4)3, 0.00179 g/100 mL
Assuming that the solubility of Ca 3(PO4)2(s) is 1.6 X 10-7 mol/L at 25°C, calculate the Ksp for this salt. Ignore any potential reactions of the ions with water.
A solution saturated with a salt of the type M 3X2 has an osmotic pressure of 2.64 X 10 -2 atm at 25°C. Calculate the Ksp value for the salt, assuming ideal behavior.
A 1.00 L solution saturated at 25oC with lead(II) iodide contains 0.54 g of PbI2.Calculate the solubility-product constant for this salt at 25oC.
The molar solubility of AgBr in pure water is 7.3 x 10–7M. Calculate Ksp.
A 50.0-mL volume of 0.50 M Fe(NO3)3 is mixed with 125 mL of 0.25 M Cd(NO3)2.(a) If aqueous NaOH is added, which ion precipitates first? (See Appendix C.)
Perform the following calculations involving concentrations of iodate ions:(a) The iodate ion concentration of a saturated solution of La(IO3)3 was found to be 3.1 × 10–3 mol/L. Find the Ksp.
When aqueous KI is added gradually to mercury(II) nitrate, an orange precipitate forms. Continued addition of KI causes the precipitate to dissolve. Write balanced equations to explain these observations.
As sodium chloride solution is added to a solution of silver nitrate, a white precipitate forms. Ammonia is added to the mixture and the precipitate dissolves. When potassium bromide solution is then added, a pale yellow precipitate appears. When a solution of sodium thiosulfate is added, the yellow precipitate dissolves. Finally, potassium iodide is added to the solution and a yellow precipitate forms. Write equations for all the changes mentioned above. What conclusions can you draw concerning the sizes of the Ksp values for AgCl, AgBr, and AgI?
Scenes A to C represent aqueous solutions of the slightly soluble salt MZ (only the ions of this salt are shown):(b) If each sphere represents an ion concentration of 2.5×10−6 M, what is the Ksp of MZ?
Use the simulation (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16solublesalts) from the earlier Link to Learning to complete the following exercise:. Using 0.01 g CaF2, give the Ksp values found in a 0.2-M solution of each of the salts. Discuss why the values change as you change soluble salts.
Two hypothetical salts, LM2 and LQ, have the same molar solubility in H2O. If Ksp for LM2 is 3.20 × 10–5, what is the Ksp value for LQ?
Use the following data to calculate the K sp value for the solid.a. The solubility of CaC2O4 is 4.8 X 10-5 mol/L.
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentrations of ions in asaturated solution of each of the following (see Appendix J for solubility products).(a) TlCl
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentrations of ions in asaturated solution of each of the following (see Appendix J for solubility products).(b) BaF2
Use the following data to calculate the K sp value for the solid.b. The solubility of BiI3 is 1.32 X 10-5 mol/L.
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentrations of ions in asaturated solution of each of the following (see Appendix J for solubility products).(c) Ag2CrO4
Use the following data to calculate the K sp value for the solid.a. The solubility of Pb3(PO4)2 is 6.2 X 10-12 mol/L.
A certain town gets its water from an underground aquifer that contains water in equilibrium with calcium carbonate limestone. What is the symbol for the equilibrium constant that describes calcium carbonate dissolving in water? What is the numerical value?
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentrations of ions in asaturated solution of each of the following (see Appendix J for solubility products).(d) CaC2O4•H2O
Use the following data to calculate the K sp value for the solid.b. The solubility of Li2CO3 is 7.4 X 10-2 mol/L.
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentrations of ions in asaturated solution of each of the following (see Appendix J for solubility products).(e) the mineral anglesite, PbSO4
Approximately 0.14 g nickel(II) hydroxide, Ni(OH)2(s), dissolves per liter of water at 20°C. Calculate Ksp for Ni(OH)2(s) at this temperature.
The solubility of the ionic compound M 2X3, having a molar mass of 288 g/mol, is 3.60 X 10-7 g/L. Calculate the Ksp of the compound.
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentrations of ions in asaturated solution of each of the following (see Appendix J for solubility products):(a) AgI
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentrations of ions in asaturated solution of each of the following (see Appendix J for solubility products):(b) Ag2SO4
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentrations of ions in asaturated solution of each of the following (see Appendix J for solubility products):(c) Mn(OH)2
The concentration of Ag+ in a solution saturated with Ag 2C2O4(s) is 2.2 X 10-4 M. Calculate Ksp for Ag2C2O4.
A series of chemicals were added to some AgNO3(aq). NaCl(aq) was added first to the silver nitrate solution with the end result shown below in test tube 1, NH3(aq) was then added with the end result shown in test tube 2, and HNO3(aq) was added last with the end result shown in test tube 3.Explain the results shown in each test tube. Include a balanced equation for the reaction(s) taking place.
You add 10.0 grams of solid copper(II) phosphate, Cu3(PO4)2, to a beaker and then add 100.0 mL of water to the beaker at T = 298 K. The solid does not appear to dissolve. You wait a long time, with occasional stirring and eventually measure the equilibrium concentration of Cu2+(aq) in the water to be 5.01 10-8 M. What is the Ksp of copper(II) phosphate?
The following concentrations are found in mixtures of ions in equilibrium with slightly soluble solids. From the concentrations given, calculate Ksp for each of the slightly soluble solids indicated:(a) AgBr: [Ag+] = 5.7 x 10–7 M, [Br–] = 5.7 x 10–7 M
The following concentrations are found in mixtures of ions in equilibrium with slightly soluble solids. From the concentrations given, calculate Ksp for each of the slightly soluble solids indicated:(b) CaCO3: [Ca2+] = 5.3 x 10–3 M, [CO32−] = 9.0 x 10–7 M
The following concentrations are found in mixtures of ions in equilibrium with slightly soluble solids. From the concentrations given, calculate Ksp for each of the slightly soluble solids indicated:(c) PbF2: [Pb2+] = 2.1 x 10–3 M, [F–] = 4.2 x 10–3 M
The following concentrations are found in mixtures of ions in equilibrium with slightly soluble solids. From the concentrations given, calculate Ksp for each of the slightly soluble solids indicated:(d) Ag2CrO4: [Ag+] = 5.3 x 10–5 M, 3.2 x 10–3 M
The solubility of KCl is 3.7 M at 20°C. Two beakers each contain 100. mL of saturated KCl solution: 100. mL of 6.0 M HCl is added to the first beaker and 100. mL of 12 M HCl is added to the second. (a) Find the ion-product constant for KCl at 20°C.
The following concentrations are found in mixtures of ions in equilibrium with slightly soluble solids. From the concentrations given, calculate Ksp for each of the slightly soluble solids indicated:(e) InF3: [In3+] = 2.3 x 10–3 M, [F–] = 7.0 x 10–3 M
Manganese(II) sulfide is one of the compounds found in the nodules on the ocean floor that may eventually be a primary source of many transition metals. The solubility of MnS is4.7 × 10−4 g/100. mL solution. Estimate the Ksp of MnS.
The following concentrations are found in mixtures of ions in equilibrium with slightly soluble solids. From the concentrations given, calculate Ksp for each of the slightly soluble solids indicated:(a) TlCl: [Tl+] = 1.21 × 10–2 M, [Cl–] = 1.2 x 10–2 M
The following concentrations are found in mixtures of ions in equilibrium with slightly soluble solids. From the concentrations given, calculate Ksp for each of the slightly soluble solids indicated:(b) Ce(IO3)4: [Ce4+] = 1.8 x 10–4 M, [IO3−] = 2.6 x 10–13 M
The following concentrations are found in mixtures of ions in equilibrium with slightly soluble solids. From the concentrations given, calculate Ksp for each of the slightly soluble solids indicated:(c) Gd2(SO4)3: [Gd3+] = 0.132 M, [SO42−] = 0.198 M
The following concentrations are found in mixtures of ions in equilibrium with slightly soluble solids. From the concentrations given, calculate Ksp for each of the slightly soluble solids indicated:(d) Ag2SO4: [Ag+] = 2.40 x 10–2 M, [SO42−] = 2.05 x 10–2 M
The following concentrations are found in mixtures of ions in equilibrium with slightly soluble solids. From the concentrations given, calculate Ksp for each of the slightly soluble solids indicated:(e) BaSO4: [Ba2+] = 0.500 M, [SO42−] = 2.16 x 10–10 M
a. Use the molar solubility 1.08 x 10 -5 in pure water to calculate Ksp for BaCrO4. b. Use the molar solubility 1.55 x 10 -5 in pure water to calculate Ksp for Ag2SO3. c. Use the molar solubility 2.22 x 10 -8 in pure water to calculate Ksp for Pd(SCN)2.
The scene at right depicts a saturated solution of MCl 2(s) in the presence of dilute aqueous NaCl; each sphere represents 1.0 × 10−6 mol of ion, and the volume is 250.0 mL (solid MCl2 is shown as green chunks, M 2+ is blue, and Cl− is yellow; Na+ ions and water molecules are not shown). (a) Calculate the Ksp of MCl2.
The scene at right depicts a saturated solution of MCl 2(s) in the presence of dilute aqueous NaCl; each sphere represents 1.0 × 10−6 mol of ion, and the volume is 250.0 mL (solid MCl2 is shown as green chunks, M 2+ is blue, and Cl− is yellow; Na+ ions and water molecules are not shown). (b) If M(NO3)2(s) is added, is there an increase, decrease, or no change in the number of Cl − particles? In the Ksp? In the mass of MCl 2(s)?
On a hot day, a 200.0-mL sample of a saturated solution of Pb 2 was allowed to evaporate until dry. If 240 mg of solid PbI2 was collected after evaporation was complete, calculate the Ksp value for PbI2 on this hot day.
The molar solubility of PbBr2 at 25 oC is 1.0 10-2/L. Calculate Ksp.
Quantitative analysis of Cl− ion is often performed by a titration with silver nitrate, using sodium chromate as an indicator. As standardized AgNO3 is added, both white AgCl and red Ag2CrO4 precipitate, but as long as some Cl− remains, the Ag2CrO4 redissolves as the mixture is stirred. When the red color is permanent, the equivalence point has been reached. (a) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction2AgCl(s) + CrO42−(aq) ⇌ Ag2CrO4(s) + 2Cl−(aq)
If 0.0490 g of AgIO3 dissolves per liter of solution, calculate the solubility-product constant.
Quantitative analysis of Cl− ion is often performed by a titration with silver nitrate, using sodium chromate as an indicator. As standardized AgNO3 is added, both white AgCl and red Ag2CrO4 precipitate, but as long as some Cl− remains, the Ag2CrO4 redissolves as the mixture is stirred. When the red color is permanent, the equivalence point has been reached. (b) Explain why the silver chromate redissolves.
0.150 M Na 2SO4 solution that is saturated with Ag 2SO4 has [Ag+] = 9.7 times 10 -3 M. What is the value of Ksp for Ag2SO4 obtained with these data? Express your answer using two significant figures.
Some kidney stones form by the precipitation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC2O4·H2O, Ksp = 2.3 × 10−9). The pH of urine varies from 5.5 to 7.0, and the average [Ca 2+] in urine is 2.6 × 10−3 M.(a) If the [oxalic acid] in urine is 3.0 × 10−13 M, will kidney stones form at pH = 5.5?
Some kidney stones form by the precipitation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC2O4·H2O, Ksp = 2.3 × 10−9). The pH of urine varies from 5.5 to 7.0, and the average [Ca 2+] in urine is 2.6 × 10−3 M.(b) Will they form at pH = 7.0?
Some kidney stones form by the precipitation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC2O4·H2O, Ksp = 2.3 × 10−9). The pH of urine varies from 5.5 to 7.0, and the average [Ca 2+] in urine is 2.6 × 10−3 M.(c) Vegetarians have a urine pH above 7. Are they more or less likely to form kidney stones?
Because of the toxicity of mercury compounds, mercury(I) chloride is used in antibacterial salves. The mercury(I) ion (Hg22+) consists of two bonded Hg + ions.(d) How many grams of mercury(I) chloride are needed to saturate 4900 km 3 of pure water (the volume of Lake Michigan)?
What mass of ZnS (K sp = 2.5 X 10 -22) will dissolve in 300.0 mL of 0.050 M Zn(NO 3)2? Ignore the basic properties of S 2-.
Perform these calculations for nickel(II) carbonate. (a) With what volume of water must a precipitate containing NiCO3 be washed to dissolve 0.100 g of this compound? Assume that the wash water becomes saturated with NiCO3 (Ksp = 1.36 × 10–7).
Calculate the volume of 1.50 M CH3CO2H required to dissolve a precipitate composed of 350 mg each of CaCO3, SrCO3, and BaCO3.
One of the main components of hard water is CaCO3. When hard water evaporates, some of the CaCO3 is left behind as a white mineral deposit.If a hard water solution is saturated with calcium carbonate, what volume of the solution has to evaporate to deposit 1.00 x 102 mg of CaCO3?
Consider 1.0 L of an aqueous solution that contains 0.10 M sulfuric acid to which 0.30 mole of barium nitrate is added. Assuming no change in volume of the solution, determine the pH, the concentration of barium ions in the final solution, and the mass of solid formed.
How many grams of Milk of Magnesia, Mg(OH)2 (s) (58.3 g/mol), would be soluble in 200 mL of water. Ksp = 7.1 × 10–12. Include the ionic reaction and the expression for Ksp in your answer. (Kw = 1 × 10–14 = [H3O+][OH–])
The solubility product of CaSO4•2H2O is 2.4 x 10–5. What mass of this salt will dissolve in 1.0 L of 0.010 M SO42−?
Solutions of sodium thiosulfate are used to dissolve unexposed AgBr (K sp = 5.0 X 10 -13) in the developing process for blackand- white film. What mass of AgBr can dissolve in 1.00 L of 0.500 M Na2S2O3? Ag+ reacts with S2O32- to form a complex ion:Ag+(aq) + 2S2O32-(aq) ⇌ Ag(S2O3)23-(aq)             K = 2.9 X 10 13
How many grams of Zn(CN)2(s) (117.44 g/mol) would be soluble in 100 mL of H2O? Include the balanced reaction and the expression for Ksp in your answer. The Ksp value for Zn(CN)2(s) is 3.0 × 10–16.
A solution contains 0.018 mole each of I -, Br -, and Cl -. When the solution is mixed with 200. mL of 0.24 M AgNO3, what mass of AgCl(s) precipitates out, and what is [Ag +]? Assume no volume change.AgI: Ksp = 1.5 X 10 -16AgBr: Ksp = 5.0 X 10 -13AgCl: Ksp = 1.6 X 10 -10
The solubility of KCl is 3.7 M at 20°C. Two beakers each contain 100. mL of saturated KCl solution: 100. mL of 6.0 M HCl is added to the first beaker and 100. mL of 12 M HCl is added to the second. (b) What mass, if any, of KCl will precipitate from each beaker?
Cream of tartar, a common ingredient in cooking, is the common name for potassium bitartrate (abbreviated KBT, molar mass = 188.2 g/mol). Historically, KBT was a crystalline solid that formed on the casks of wine barrels during the fermentation process. Calculate the maximum mass of KBT that can dissolve in 250.0 mL of solution to make a saturated solution. The Ksp value for KBT is 3.8 X 10-4.
Barium sulfate is a contrast agent for X-ray scans that are most often associated with the gastrointestinal tract. Calculate the mass of BaSO4 that can dissolve in 100.0 mL of solution. The Ksp value for BaSO4 is 1.5 X 10-9.
A student wants to dissolve the maximum amount of CaF 2 (Ksp = 3.2 × 10−11) to make 1 L of aqueous solution.(b) Which would dissolve the least amount of salt?(i) Pure water (ii) 0.01 M HF(iii) 0.01 M NaOH (iv) 0.01 M HCl(v) 0.01 M Ca(OH)2
Even though Ca(OH)2 is an inexpensive base, its limited solubility restricts its use. What is the pH of a saturated solution of Ca(OH)2?
The Ksp of Al(OH)3 is 2 X 10-32. At what pH will a 0.2-M Al 3+ solution begin to show precipitation of Al(OH)3?
Consider the following equilibrium:B(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ HB+(aq) + OH-(aq)Suppose that a salt of HB+ is added to a solution of B at equilibrium.Will the pH of the solution increase, decrease, or stay the same?
The solubility rules outlined in Chapter 6 say that Ba(OH) 2, Sr(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2 are marginally soluble hydroxides. Calculate the pH of a saturated solution of each of these marginally soluble hydroxides.
What is the pH of a solution of 6.5 × 10 −9 mol of Ca(OH)2 in 10.0 L of water [K sp of Ca(OH)2 = 6.5 × 10−6]?
Using the appropriate Ksp value from Appendix D in the textbook, calculate the pH of a saturated solution of Ca(OH)2 .
Because of the toxicity of mercury compounds, mercury(I) chloride is used in antibacterial salves. The mercury(I) ion (Hg22+) consists of two bonded Hg + ions.•Calculate [Hg22+] in a saturated solution of mercury(I) chloride (Ksp = 1.5×10−18).•A seawater sample contains 0.20 lb of NaCl per gallon. Find [Hg22+] if the seawater is saturated with mercury(I) chloride.(e) How many grams of mercury(I) chloride are needed to saturate 4900 km 3 of seawater?
Consider a beaker containing a saturated solution of PbI2 in equilibrium with undissolved PbI2(s). Now solid KI is added to this solution.Indicate how the amount of solid PbI2 at the bottom of the beaker, concentration of Pb2+ ions, and concentration of I- ions changes.
Calculate the solubility (in mole per liter) of Fe(OH) 3 (Ksp = 4 X 10 -38) in the following.b. a solution buffered at pH = 5.0
Calculate the solubility (in mole per liter) of Fe(OH) 3 (Ksp = 4 X 10 -38) in the following.c. a solution buffered at pH = 11.0
Calculate the solubility of Co(OH) 2(s) (Ksp = 2.5 X 10 -16) in a buffered solution with a pH of 11.00.
Calculate the concentration of Pb2+ in the following.b. a saturated solution of Pb(OH)2 buffered at pH = 13.00
The Ksp for silver sulfate (Ag 2SO4) is 1.2 X 10 -5. Calculate the solubility of silver sulfate in the following.b. 0.10 M AgNO3
The Ksp for silver sulfate (Ag 2SO4) is 1.2 X 10 -5. Calculate the solubility of silver sulfate in the following.c. 0.20 M K2SO4
The Ksp for lead iodide (PbI2) is 1.4 X 10-8. Calculate the solubility of lead iodide in the following.b. 0.10 M Pb(NO3)2
The Ksp for lead iodide (PbI2) is 1.4 X 10-8. Calculate the solubility of lead iodide in the following.c. 0.010 M NaI
Calculate the solubility of solid Ca 3(PO4)2 (Ksp = 1.3 X 10 -32) in a 0.20-M Na 3PO4 solution.
The Ksp of AgCl is 1.6 x 10 -10. What is the solubility of AgCl in 0.0010 M FeCl 3?
Calculate the solubility of solid Pb3(PO4)2 (Ksp = 1 X 10-54) in a 0.10-M Pb(NO3)2 solution.
The solubility of Ce(IO3)3 in a 0.20-M KIO3 solution is 4.4 X 10 -8 mol/L. Calculate Ksp for Ce(IO3)3.
The solubility of Pb(IO3)2(s) in a 0.10-M KIO3 solution is 2.6 X 10 -11 mol/L. Calculate Ksp for Pb(IO3)2(s).
Which of the following substances show increased solubility as the pH of the solution becomes more acidic? Write equations for the reactions that occur to increase the solubility.• Ag3PO4, Ksp = 1.8 x 10-18• CaCO3, Ksp = 8.7 x 10-9• Hg2Cl2, Ksp = 1.1 x 10-18 (Hg22+ is the cation in solution.)• PbI2, Ksp = 1.4 x 10-8• CdCO3, Ksp = 5.2 x 10-12• Sr3(PO4)2, Ksp = 1 x 10-31
Calculate the molar solubility of barium fluoride in each of the following.0.12 M Ba(NO3)2
Calculate the molar solubility of CuX (Ksp = 1.27 x 10–36) in each of the following.0.26 M CuCl2
Calculate the molar solubility of CuX (Ksp = 1.27 x 10–36) in each of the following.0.21 M Na2X
Calculate the molar solubility of calcium hydroxide in a solution buffered at each of the following pHs.pH = 5
Calculate the molar solubility of calcium hydroxide in a solution buffered at each of the following pHs.pH = 10
Calculate the solubility (in grams per 1.00 x 102 mL of solution) of magnesium hydroxide in a solution buffered at pH exttip{pH}{pH}= 12.
Calculate the molar solubility of Sn(OH)2 in a buffer solution containing equal concentrations of NH3 and NH4+.
Calculate the solubility (in grams per 1.00 x 102 mL of solution) of magnesium hydroxide in a solution buffered at pH = 10. How does this compare to the solubility of Mg(OH)2 in pure water?
Calculate the molar solubility of Al(OH)3 in a buffer solution with 0.100 M NH3 and 0.400 M NH4+.
What is the molar solubility of CaF2 in a 0.100-M solution of HF? Ka for HF = 7.2 × 10–4.
What is the molar solubility of BaSO4 in a 0.250-M solution of NaHSO4? Ka for HSO4− = 1.2 × 10–2.
What is the molar solubility of Tl(OH)3 in a 0.10-M solution of NH3?
What is the molar solubility of Pb(OH)2 in a 0.138-M solution of CH3NH2?
Find the molar solubility of SrCO 3 (Ksp = 5.4 × 10−10) in(b) 0.13 M Sr(NO3)2
Calculate the molar solubility of BaF2 in a buffer solution containing 0.20 M HF and 0.20 M NaF.
Find the molar solubility of BaCrO 4 (Ksp = 2.1 × 10−10) in(b) 1.5 × 10−3 M Na 2CrO4.
Calculate the molar solubility of CdCO3 in a buffer solution containing 0.115 M Na2CO3 and 0.120 M NaHCO3
Calculate the molar solubility of Ca(IO3)2 in (a) 0.060 M Ca(NO3)2 (See Appendix C.)
How do the concentrations of Pb2+ and S2– change when K2S is added to a saturated solution of PbS?
Calculate the molar solubility of Ag 2SO4 in (a) 0.22 M AgNO3 (See Appendix C.)
Calculate the molar solubility of Ag 2SO4 in (b) 0.22 M Na 2SO4. (See Appendix C.)
Perform these calculations for nickel(II) carbonate. (b) If the NiCO3 were a contaminant in a sample of CoCO3 (Ksp = 1.0 × 10–12), what mass of CoCO3 would have been lost? Keep in mind that both NiCO3 and CoCO3 dissolve in the same solution.
The following question is taken from a Chemistry Advanced Placement Examination and is used with the permission of the Educational Testing Service.Solve the following problem:MgF2(s) ⇌ Mg2+(aq) + 2F−(aq)In a saturated solution of MgF2 at 18°C, the concentration of Mg2+ is 1.21 × 10–3 M. The equilibrium isrepresented by the preceding equation.(b) Calculate the equilibrium concentration of Mg2+ in 1.000 L of saturated MgF2 solution at 18 °C to which 0.100 mol of solid KF has been added. The KF dissolves completely. Assume the volume change is negligible.
What reagent might be used to separate the ions in each of the following mixtures, which are 0.1 M with respect to each ion? In some cases it may be necessary to control the pH. (Hint: Consider the Ksp values given in Appendix J.)(a) Hg22+ and Cu2+
What reagent might be used to separate the ions in each of the following mixtures, which are 0.1 M with respect to each ion? In some cases it may be necessary to control the pH. (Hint: Consider the Ksp values given in Appendix J.)(b) SO42− and Cl–
Which of the following compounds, when dissolved in a 0.01-M solution of HClO4, has a solubility greater than in pure water: CuCl, CaCO3, MnS, PbBr2, CaF2? Explain your answer.
Which of the following compounds, when dissolved in a 0.01-M solution of HClO4, has a solubility greater than in pure water: AgBr, BaF2, Ca3(PO4)2, ZnS, PbI2? Explain your answer.
What reagent might be used to separate the ions in each of the following mixtures, which are 0.1 M with respect to each ion? In some cases it may be necessary to control the pH. (Hint: Consider the Ksp values given in Appendix J.)(c) Hg2+ and Co2+
What is the effect on the amount of solid Mg(OH)2 that dissolves and the concentrations of Mg2+ and OH– when each of the following are added to a mixture of solid Mg(OH)2 and water at equilibrium?(a) MgCl2
What is the effect on the amount of solid Mg(OH)2 that dissolves and the concentrations of Mg2+ and OH– when each of the following are added to a mixture of solid Mg(OH)2 and water at equilibrium?(b) KOH
What reagent might be used to separate the ions in each of the following mixtures, which are 0.1 M with respect to each ion? In some cases it may be necessary to control the pH. (Hint: Consider the Ksp values given in Appendix J.)(f) CO32− and OH–
What is the effect on the amount of solid Mg(OH)2 that dissolves and the concentrations of Mg2+ and OH– when each of the following are added to a mixture of solid Mg(OH)2 and water at equilibrium?(c) HClO4
What reagent might be used to separate the ions in each of the following mixtures, which are 0.1 M with respect to each ion? In some cases it may be necessary to control the pH. (Hint: Consider the Ksp values given in Appendix J.)(e) Ba2+ and Mg2+
What is the effect on the amount of solid Mg(OH)2 that dissolves and the concentrations of Mg2+ and OH– when each of the following are added to a mixture of solid Mg(OH)2 and water at equilibrium?(d) NaNO3
What reagent might be used to separate the ions in each of the following mixtures, which are 0.1 M with respect to each ion? In some cases it may be necessary to control the pH. (Hint: Consider the Ksp values given in Appendix J.)(d) Zn2+ and Sr2+
What is the effect on the amount of solid Mg(OH)2 that dissolves and the concentrations of Mg2+ and OH– when each of the following are added to a mixture of solid Mg(OH)2 and water at equilibrium?(e) Mg(OH)2
What is the effect on the amount of CaHPO4 that dissolves and the concentrations of Ca2+ and HPO4− when each of the following are added to a mixture of solid CaHPO4 and water at equilibrium?(a) CaCl2
What is the effect on the amount of CaHPO4 that dissolves and the concentrations of Ca2+ and HPO4− when each of the following are added to a mixture of solid CaHPO4 and water at equilibrium?(b) HCl
What is the effect on the amount of CaHPO4 that dissolves and the concentrations of Ca2+ and HPO4− when each of the following are added to a mixture of solid CaHPO4 and water at equilibrium?(c) KClO4
What is the effect on the amount of CaHPO4 that dissolves and the concentrations of Ca2+ and HPO4− when each of the following are added to a mixture of solid CaHPO4 and water at equilibrium?(d) NaOH
What is the effect on the amount of CaHPO4 that dissolves and the concentrations of Ca2+ and HPO4− when each of the following are added to a mixture of solid CaHPO4 and water at equilibrium?(e) CaHPO4
A solution contains 1.0 × 10–5 mol of KBr and 0.10 mol of KCl per liter. AgNO3 is gradually added to this solution. Which forms first, solid AgBr or solid AgCl?
A solution contains 1.0 × 10–2 mol of KI and 0.10 mol of KCl per liter. AgNO3 is gradually added to this solution. Which forms first, solid AgI or solid AgCl?
Which compound, when added to water, is most likely to increase the solubility of CuS?(a) NaCl(b) KNO3(c) NaCN(d) MgBr2
The Ksp for PbI2(s) is 1.4 X 10-8. Calculate the solubility of PbI 2(s) in 0.048 M NaI.
Calculate the solubility of Au(OH)3 in a solution maintained at a nitric acid concentration of 1.3 M.
The solubility of Pb(IO3)2(s) in a 7.2 X 10 -2-M KIO3 solution is 6.0 X 10 -9 mol/L. Calculate the Ksp value for Pb(IO3)2(s).
Consider the following equilibrium:B(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ HB+(aq) + OH-(aq)Suppose that a salt of HB+ is added to a solution of B at equilibrium.Will the equilibrium constant for the reaction increase, decrease, or stay the same?
Consider the following equilibrium:B(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ HB+(aq) + OH-(aq)Suppose that a salt of HB+ is added to a solution of B at equilibrium.Will the concentration of B(aq) increase, decrease, or stay the same?
The Ksp for Q, a slightly soluble ionic compound composed of M 22+ and X- ions, is 4.5 X 10-29. The electron configuration of M + is [Xe]6s14f145d10. The X- anion has 54 electrons. What is the molar solubility of Q in a solution of NaX prepared by dissolving 1.98 g NaX in 150. mL solution?
Aluminum ions react with the hydroxide ion to form the precipitate Al(OH) 3(s), but can also react to form the soluble complex ion Al(OH)4-. In terms of solubility, Al(OH)3(s) will be more soluble in very acidic solutions as well as more soluble in very basic solutions.a. Write equations for the reactions that occur to increase the solubility of Al(OH) 3(s) in very acidic solutions and in very basic solutions.
Describe the solubility of CaF2 in each solution compared to its solubility in water.a. in a 0.10 M NaCl solutionb. in a 0.10 M NaF solutionc. in a 0.10 M HCl solution
Calculate the molar solubility of CaF2 in a solution containing 0.550 M of Ca(NO3)2. The Ksp value for CaF2 is 1.46 x 10–10.
Which compound, FeCO3 or PbBr2, is more soluble in acid than in base?
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentration of all solute species in each of the following solutions of salts in contact with a solution containing a common ion. Show that changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions can be neglected.(a) AgCl(s) in 0.025 M NaCl
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentration of all solute species in each of the following solutions of salts in contact with a solution containing a common ion. Show that changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions can be neglected.(b) CaF2(s) in 0.00133 M KF
When blood is donated, sodium oxalate solution is used to precipitate Ca2+, which triggers clotting. A 104-mL sample of blood contains 9.7×10−5 g Ca2+/mL. A technologist treats the sample with 100.0 mL of 0.1550 M Na2C2O4. Calculate [Ca2+] after the treatment. (See Appendix C for Ksp of CaC2O4⋅H2O.)
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentration of all solute species in each of the following solutions of salts in contact with a solution containing a common ion. Show that changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions can be neglected.(c) Ag2SO4(s) in 0.500 L of a solution containing 19.50 g of K2SO4
Calculate the solubility of LaF3 in grams per liter in a solution that is 0.013 M in KF.
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentration of all solute species in each of the following solutions of salts in contact with a solution containing a common ion. Show that changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions can be neglected.(d) Zn(OH)2(s) in a solution buffered at a pH of 11.45
Calculate the solubility of LaF3 in grams per liter in a solution that is 0.055 M in LaCl3.
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentration of all solute species in each of the following solutions of salts in contact with a solution containing a common ion. Show that changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions can be neglected.(a) TlCl(s) in 1.250 M HCl
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentration of all solute species in each of the following solutions of salts in contact with a solution containing a common ion. Show that changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions can be neglected.(b) PbI2(s) in 0.0355 M CaI2
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentration of all solute species in each of the following solutions of salts in contact with a solution containing a common ion. Show that changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions can be neglected.(c) Ag2CrO4(s) in 0.225 L of a solution containing 0.856 g of K2CrO4
NaCl is purified by adding HCl to a saturated solution of NaCl (317 g/L). Will pure NaCl precipitate when 28.5 mL of 8.65 M HCl is added to 0.100 L of saturated solution?
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentration of all solute species in each of the following solutions of salts in contact with a solution containing a common ion. Show that changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions can be neglected.(d) Cd(OH)2(s) in a solution buffered at a pH of 10.995
Calculate the molar solubility of magnesium fluoride (MgF2) in a solution that is 0.250 M in NaF. For magnesium fluoride, Ksp = 5.16 x 10–11.
Calculate the molar solubility of AgBr in 0.035 M NaBr (Ksp = 5 × 10–13).
Which compound is more soluble in an acidic solution than in a neutral solution?a) PbBr2b) CuClc) AgId) BaF2
How many grams of Pb(OH)2 will dissolve in 500 mL of a 0.050-M PbCl2 solution (Ksp = 1.2 × 10–15)?
Scenes A to C represent aqueous solutions of the slightly soluble salt MZ (only the ions of this salt are shown):(c) Which scene represents the solution after Na2Z(aq) has been added?
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentration of all solute species in each of the following solutions of salts in contact with a solution containing a common ion. Show that it is not appropriate to neglect the changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions.(a) TlCl(s) in 0.025 M TlNO3
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentration of all solute species in each of the following solutions of salts in contact with a solution containing a common ion. Show that it is not appropriate to neglect the changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions.(b) BaF2(s) in 0.0313 M KF
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentration of all solute species in each of the following solutions of salts in contact with a solution containing a common ion. Show that it is not appropriate to neglect the changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions.(c) MgC2O4 in 2.250 L of a solution containing 8.156 g of Mg(NO3)2
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentration of all solute species in each of the following solutions of salts in contact with a solution containing a common ion. Show that it is not appropriate to neglect the changes in the initial concentrations of the common ions.(d) Ca(OH)2(s) in an unbuffered solution initially with a pH of 12.700
Explain why the changes in concentrations of the common ions below can be neglected.(a) TlCl(s) in 0.025 M TlNO3(b) BaF2(s) in 0.0313 M KF(c) MgC2O4 in 2.250 L of a solution containing 8.156 g of Mg(NO3)2(d) Ca(OH)2(s) in an unbuffered solution initially with a pH of 12.700
Explain why the changes in concentrations of the common ions below cannot be neglected.(a) TlCl(s) in 1.250 M HCl(b) PbI2(s) in 0.0355 M CaI2(c) Ag2CrO4(s) in 0.225 L of a solution containing 0.856 g of K2CrO4(d) Cd(OH)2(s) in a solution buffered at a pH of 10.995
Calculate the solubility of aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH)3, in a solution buffered at pH 11.00.
In which solution is BaSO4 most soluble?(a) a solution that is 0.10 M in BaNO3(b) a solution that is 0.10 M in Na2SO4(c) a solution that is 0.10 M in NaNO3
Determine whether or not Hg2Br2 will be more soluble in acidic solution than in pure water.
Determine whether or not Mg(OH)2 will be more soluble in acidic solution than in pure water.
The copper(I) ion forms a chloride salt that has Ksp = 1.2 X 10 -6. Copper(I) also forms a complex ion with Cl-:Cu+(aq) + 2Cl -(aq) ⇌ CuCl2-(aq)           K = 8.7 X 10 4Calculate the solubility of copper(I) chloride in 0.10 M NaCl.
The solubility of copper(II) hydroxide in water can be increased by adding either the base NH3 or the acid HNO3. Explain. Would added NH3 or HNO3 have the same effect on the solubility of silver acetate or silver chloride? Explain.
Tooth enamel is composed of the mineral hydroxyapatite. The K sp of hydroxyapatite, Ca5(PO4)3OH, is 6.8 X 10 -37. Calculate the solubility of hydroxyapatite in pure water in moles per liter. How is the solubility of hydroxyapatite affected by adding acid? When hydroxyapatite is treated with fluoride, the mineral fluorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3F, forms. The Ksp of this substance is 1 X 10 -60. Calculate the solubility of fluorapatite in water. How do these calculations provide a rationale for the fluoridation of drinking water?
Calculate the mass of manganese hydroxide present in 1300 mL of a saturated manganese hydroxide solution. For Mn(OH)2, Ksp = 2.0 X 10 -13.
A student wants to dissolve the maximum amount of CaF 2 (Ksp = 3.2 × 10−11) to make 1 L of aqueous solution.(a) Into which of the following solvents should she dissolve the salt?(i) Pure water (ii) 0.01 M HF(iii) 0.01 M NaOH (iv) 0.01 M HCl(v) 0.01 M Ca(OH)2
Calculate the molar solubility of Hg 2C2O4 (Ksp = 1.75 × 10−13) in 0.13 M Hg 2(NO3)2.
For the following pairs of solid, determine which solid has the smallest molar solubility.a. FeC2O4, Ksp = 2.1 X 10 -7, or Cu(IO4)2, Ksp = 1.4 X 10 -7
For the following pairs of solid, determine which solid has the smallest molar solubility.b. Ag2CO3, Ksp = 8.1 X 10 -12, or Mn(OH)2, Ksp = 2 X 10 -13
Calculate the solubility (in mole per liter) of Fe(OH) 3 (Ksp = 4 X 10 -38) in the following.a. water.
The Ksp for silver sulfate (Ag 2SO4) is 1.2 X 10 -5. Calculate the solubility of silver sulfate in the following.a. water.
The Ksp for lead iodide (PbI2) is 1.4 X 10-8. Calculate the solubility of lead iodide in the following.a. water.
Two compounds with general formulas AX and AX2 have Ksp = 1.5 x 10–5.Which of the two compounds has the higher molar solubility?
Calculate the molar solubility of CuX (Ksp = 1.27 x 10–36) in each of the following.pure water
Find the molar solubility of SrCO 3 (Ksp = 5.4 × 10−10) in(a) pure water
Find the molar solubility of BaCrO 4 (Ksp = 2.1 × 10−10) in(a) pure water
Order the following solid from least soluble to most soluble. Ignore any potential reaction of the ion with water.a. AgCl     Ksp = 1.6 X 10 -10b. Ag2S       Ksp = 1.6 X 10 -49c. CaF2       Ksp = 4.0 X 10 -11d. CuS     Ksp = 8.5 X 10 -45
Calculate the solubility of Au(OH)3 in water (Ksp = 5.5 x 10–46) (pH = 7).
a. Using the Ksp value for Cu(OH)2 (1.6 x 10-19) and the overall formation constant for Cu(NH3)42+ (1.0 x 1013), calculate the value for the equilibrium constant for the following reaction:Cu(OH)2 (s) + 4NH3 (aq) ⇌ Cu(NH3)42+(aq) + 2OH -(aq)b. Use the value of the equilibrium constant you calculated in part a to calculate the solubility (in mol/L) of Cu(OH)2 in 5.0 M NH3. In 5.0 M NH3 the concentration of OH - is 0.0095 M.
Use solubility products and predict which of the following salts is the most soluble, in terms of moles per liter, in pure water: CaF2, Hg2Cl2, PbI2, or Sn(OH)2.
Use the Ksp values to calculate the molar solubility of each of the following compounds in pure water.MX (Kspexttip{K_{ m sp}}{K_1} = 1.38×10−38)
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the molar solubility of each of the following from its solubility product:(a) KHC4H4O6
Use the Ksp values to calculate the molar solubility of each of the following compounds in pure water.Ag2CrO4 (Kspexttip{K_{ m sp}}{K_2} = 1.12×10−12)
Use the Ksp values to calculate the molar solubility of each of the following compounds in pure water.Ca(OH)2 (Kspexttip{K_{ m sp}}{K_3} = 4.68×10−6)
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the molar solubility of each of the following from its solubility product:(b) PbI2
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the molar solubility of each of the following from its solubility product:(c) Ag4[Fe(CN)6], a salt containing the Fe(CN)4− ion
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the molar solubility of each of the following from its solubility product:(d) Hg2I2
Calculate the molar solubility of Fe(OH)2 in pure water. The Ksp value for Fe(OH)2 is 4.87 x 10–17.
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the molar solubility of each of the following from its solubility product:(a) Ag2SO4
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the molar solubility of each of the following from its solubility product:(b) PbBr2
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the molar solubility of each of the following from its solubility product:(c) AgI
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the molar solubility of each of the following from its solubility product:(d) CaC2O4•H2O
Calculate the solubility of LaF3 in grams per liter in pure water.
Calculate the molar solubility of lead(II) bromide (PbBr2). For lead(II) bromide, Ksp = 4.67 x 10–6.
Which of the following carbonates will form first? Which of the following will form last? Explain.(a) MgCO3 Ksp = 3.5 × 10−8(b) CaCO3 Ksp = 4.2 × 10−7(c) SrCO3 Ksp = 3.9 × 10−9(d) BaCO3 Ksp = 4.4 × 10−5(e) MnCO3 Ksp = 5.1 × 10−9
Refer to Appendix J for solubility products for calcium salts. Determine which of the calcium salts listed ismost soluble in moles per liter and which is most soluble in grams per liter.
Calculate the molar solubility of AgI in pure water. K sp for AgI is 1.5 X 10 -16.
CompoundFormulaKspSilver bromideAgBr5.35×10−13Magnesium hydroxideMg(OH)22.06×10−13Calcium fluorideCaF21.46×10−10Use the Ksp values in the table to calculate the molar solubility of AgBr in pure water.
CompoundFormulaKspSilver bromideAgBr5.35×10−13Magnesium hydroxideMg(OH)22.06×10−13Calcium fluorideCaF21.46×10−10Use the Ksp values in the table to calculate the molar solubility of Mg(OH)2 in pure water.
CompoundFormulaKspSilver bromideAgBr5.35×10−13Magnesium hydroxideMg(OH)22.06×10−13Calcium fluorideCaF21.46×10−10Use the Ksp values in the table to calculate the molar solubility of CaF2 in pure water.
Use Ksp = 4.87 x 10–17 to calculate the solubility of iron(II) hydroxide in pure water in grams per 100.0 mL of solution.
Consider the following table:Selected Solubility Product Constants (Ksp) at 25 ˚CCompoundFomulaKspBarium fluorideBaF22.45 x 10-5Calcium fluorideCaF21.46 x 10-10Calcium hydroxideCa(OH)24.68 x 10-6Iron(II) hydroxideFe(OH)24.87 x 10-17Lead(II) chloridePbCl21.17 x 10-5Lead(II) bromidePbBr24.67 x 10-6Magnesium hydroxideMg(OH)22.06 x 10-13Calculate the molar solubility of BaF2.
The copper(I) ion forms a chloride salt that has Ksp = 1.2 X 10 -6. Copper(I) also forms a complex ion with Cl-:Cu+(aq) + 2Cl -(aq) ⇌ CuCl2-(aq)           K = 8.7 X 10 4Calculate the solubility of copper(I) chloride in pure water. (Ignore CuCl 2- formation for part a.)
Consider the following table:Selected Solubility Product Constants (Ksp) at 25 ˚CCompoundFomulaKspBarium fluorideBaF22.45 x 10-5Calcium fluorideCaF21.46 x 10-10Calcium hydroxideCa(OH)24.68 x 10-6Iron(II) hydroxideFe(OH)24.87 x 10-17Lead(II) chloridePbCl21.17 x 10-5Lead(II) bromidePbBr24.67 x 10-6Magnesium hydroxideMg(OH)22.06 x 10-13Do the numerical values suggest that the compound is soluble or insoluble?
The concentration of Pb2+ in a solution saturated with PbBr2(s) is 2.14 X 10-2 M. Calculate Ksp for PbBr2.
Calculate the solubility of the following compound in mole per liter. Ignore any acid–base property.a. Ag3PO4, Ksp = 1.8 X 10 -18
Calculate the solubility of the following compound in mole per liter. Ignore any acid–base property.b. CaCO3, Ksp = 8.7 X 10 -9
Calculate the solubility of the following compound in mole per liter. Ignore any acid–base property.c. Hg2Cl2, Ksp = 1.1 X 10 -18 (Hg2 2+ is the cation in solution.)
The solubility product, Ksp, for PbCl2 is 1.7 × 10–5. What is the solubility of PbCl 2 in water, in moles per litre? a. 1.6 × 10–2 mol L–1 b. 6.2 × 10–2 mol L–1 c. 2.4 × 10–4 mol L–1 d. 7.7 × 10–3 mol L–1
Calculate the solubility of the following compound in mole per liter. Ignore any acid–base property.a. PbI2, Ksp = 1.4 X 10 -8
Under what circumstances, if any, does a sample of solid AgCl completely dissolve in pure water?
Calculate the solubility of the following compound in mole per liter. Ignore any acid–base property.b. CdCO3, Ksp = 5.2 X 10 -12
Calculate the solubility of the following compound in mole per liter. Ignore any acid–base property.c. Sr3(PO4)2, Ksp = 1 x 10 -31
Tooth enamel consists of hydroxyapatite, Ca 5(PO4)3OH (Ksp = 6.8 × 10−37). Fluoride ion added to drinking water reacts with Ca5(PO4)3OH to form the more tooth decay–resistant fluorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3F (Ksp = 1.0 × 10−60). Fluoridated water has dramatically decreased cavities among children. Calculate the solubility of Ca5(PO4)3OH and of Ca 5(PO4)3F in water.
Calculate the molar solubility of Mg(OH)2, Ksp = 8.9 X 10 -12.
Calculate the molar solubility of Cd(OH) 2, Ksp = 5.9 X 10 -11
Calculate the molar solubility of Al(OH)3, Ksp = 2 X 10 -32.
Calculate the molar solubility of Co(OH)3, Ksp = 2.5 X 10 -43.
Calcium ion present in water supplies is easily precipitated as calcite (CaCO3):Ca2+(aq) + CO32−(aq) ⇌ CaCO3(s)Because the Ksp decreases with temperature, heating hard water forms a calcite “scale,” which clogs pipes and water heaters. Find the solubility of calcite in water (a) at 10°C (Ksp = 4.4 × 10−9)
For the following pairs of solid, determine which solid has the smallest molar solubility.a. CaF2(s), Ksp = 4.0 X 10 -11, or BaF2(s), Ksp = 2.4 X 10 -5
Calcium ion present in water supplies is easily precipitated as calcite (CaCO 3):Ca2+(aq) + CO32−(aq) ⇌ CaCO3(s)Because the Ksp decreases with temperature, heating hard water forms a calcite “scale,” which clogs pipes and water heaters. Find the solubility of calcite in water (b) at 30°C (Ksp = 3.1 × 10−9)
For the following pairs of solid, determine which solid has the smallest molar solubility.b. Ca3(PO4)2(s), Ksp = 1.3 X 10 -32, or FePO4(s), Ksp = 1.0 X 10 -22
Because of the toxicity of mercury compounds, mercury(I) chloride is used in antibacterial salves. The mercury(I) ion (Hg22+) consists of two bonded Hg + ions.(b) Calculate [Hg22+] in a saturated solution of mercury(I) chloride (K sp = 1.5 × 10−18).
Because of the toxicity of mercury compounds, mercury(I) chloride is used in antibacterial salves. The mercury(I) ion (Hg22+) consists of two bonded Hg + ions.(c) A seawater sample contains 0.20 lb of NaCl per gallon. Find [Hg 22+] if the seawater is saturated with mercury(I) chloride.
Calculate the concentration of Pb2+ in the following.a. a saturated solution of Pb(OH)2, Ksp = 1.2 X 10 -15
A 35.0-mL solution of 0.075 M CaCl 2 is mixed with 25.0 mL of 0.090 M BaCl 2.Describe how the metal ions can be separated using KF to form the fluorides.(c) Calculate the fluoride ion concentration that will accomplish the separation.
How do the concentrations of Ag+ and CrO42− in a saturated solution above 1.0 g of solid Ag2CrO4 change when 100 g of solid Ag2CrO4 is added to the system? Explain.
Calculate the concentration of Cd2+ resulting from the dissolution of CdCO3 in a solution that is 0.250 M in CH3CO2H, 0.375 M in NaCH3CO2, and 0.010 M in H2CO3.
Which of the following slightly soluble compounds has a solubility greater than that calculated from its solubility product because of hydrolysis of the anion present: CoSO3, CuI, PbCO3, PbCl2, Tl2S, KClO4?
Which of the following slightly soluble compounds has a solubility greater than that calculated from its solubility product because of hydrolysis of the anion present: AgCl, BaSO4, CaF2, Hg2I2, MnCO3, ZnS, PbS?
Calculate the final concentrations of K +(aq), C2O42-(aq), Ba2+(aq), and Br-(aq) in a solution prepared by adding 0.100 L of 0.200 M K2C2O4 to 0.150 L of 0.250 M BaBr 2. (For BaC2O4, Ksp = 2.3 X 10-8.)
A solution is prepared by mixing 75.0 mL of 0.020 M BaCl 2 and 125 mL of 0.040 M K2SO4. What are the concentrations of barium and sulfate ions in this solution? Assume only SO 4 2- ions (no HSO4 -) are present.
A 50.0-mL sample of 0.00200 M AgNO3 is added to 50.0 mL of 0.0100 M NaIO 3. What is the equilibrium concentration of Ag+ in solution? (Ksp for AgIO3 is 3.0 X 10-8.)
A solution is prepared by mixing 50.0 mL of 0.10 M Pb(NO 3)2 with 50.0 mL of 1.0 M KCl. Calculate the concentrations of Pb2+ and Cl- at equilibrium. [Ksp for PbCl2(s) is 1.6 X 10-5.]
Identify all chemical species present in an aqueous solution of Ca3(PO4)2 and list these species in decreasing order of their concentrations. (Hint: Remember that the PO43− ion is a weak base.)
About 50% of urinary calculi (kidney stones) consist of calcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2. The normal mid range calcium content excreted in the urine is 0.10 g of Ca2+ per day. The normal mid range amount of urine passed may be taken as 1.4 L per day. What is the maximum concentration of phosphate ion that urine can contain before a calculus begins to form?
In the chapter discussion of precipitate formation, we ran the precipitation reaction to completion and then let some of the precipitate redissolve to get back to equilibrium. To see why, solve the following:A solution is prepared by mixing 150.0 mL of Mg(NO3)2 and 250.0 mL of NaF. Calculate the concentrations of Mg2+ and F- at equilibrium with solid MgF2 (Ksp = 6.4 x 10-9) where:
The pH of normal urine is 6.30, and the total phosphate concentration ([PO43−] + [HPO42−] + [H2PO4−] + [H3PO4]) is 0.020 M. What is the minimum concentration of Ca2+ necessary to induce kidney stone formation? (See Exercise 15.49 for additional information.)
A 50.0-mL volume of 0.50 M Fe(NO3)3 is mixed with 125 mL of 0.25 M Cd(NO3)2.Describe how the metal ions can be separated using NaOH.(c) Calculate the [OH−] that will accomplish the separation.
Perform the following calculations involving concentrations of iodate ions:(b) Find the concentration of iodate ions in a saturated solution of Cu(IO3)2 (Ksp = 7.4 × 10–8).
Public Health Service standards for drinking water set a maximum of 250 mg/L (2.60 x 10–3 M) of SO42− because of its cathartic action (it is a laxative). Does natural water that is saturated with CaSO4 (“gyp” water) as a result or passing through soil containing gypsum, CaSO4•2H2O, meet these standards? What is the concentration of SO42− in such water?
Perform the following calculations:(a) Calculate [Ag+] in a saturated aqueous solution of AgBr.
Perform the following calculations:(b) What will [Ag+] be when enough KBr has been added to make [Br–] = 0.050 M?
Perform the following calculations:(c) What will [Br–] be when enough AgNO3 has been added to make [Ag+] = 0.020 M?
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentrations of ions in asaturated solution of each of the following (see Appendix J for solubility products):(d) Sr(OH)2•8H2O
Assuming that no equilibria other than dissolution are involved, calculate the concentrations of ions in asaturated solution of each of the following (see Appendix J for solubility products):(e) the mineral brucite, Mg(OH)2
Gout is caused by an error in metabolism that leads to a buildup of uric acid in body fluids, which is deposited as slightly soluble sodium urate (C5H3N4O3Na) in the joints. If the extracellular [Na+] is 0.15 M and the solubility of sodium urate is 0.085 g/100. mL, what is the minimum urate ion concentration (abbreviated [Ur−]) that will cause a deposit of sodium urate?
The U.S. Public Health Service recommends the fluoridation of water as a means for preventing tooth decay. The recommended concentration is 1 mg F- per liter. The presence of calcium ions in hard water can precipitate the added fluoride. What is the maximum molarity of calcium ions in hard water if the fluoride concentration is at the USPHS recommended level? (Ksp for CaF2 = 4.0 X 10 -11)
Aluminum ions react with the hydroxide ion to form the precipitate Al(OH) 3(s), but can also react to form the soluble complex ion Al(OH)4-. In terms of solubility, Al(OH)3(s) will be more soluble in very acidic solutions as well as more soluble in very basic solutions.c. The value of K is 40.0 and Ksp for Al(OH)3 is 2 X 10-32. Plot the solubility of Al(OH)3 in the pH range 4–12.
Quantitative analysis of Cl− ion is often performed by a titration with silver nitrate, using sodium chromate as an indicator. As standardized AgNO3 is added, both white AgCl and red Ag2CrO4 precipitate, but as long as some Cl− remains, the Ag2CrO4 redissolves as the mixture is stirred. When the red color is permanent, the equivalence point has been reached. (c) If 25.00 cm3 of 0.1000 M NaCl is mixed with 25.00 cm3 of 0.1000 M AgNO3, what is the concentration of Ag+ remaining in solution? Is this sufficient to precipitate any silver chromate?
A 35.0-mL solution of 0.075 M CaCl 2 is mixed with 25.0 mL of 0.090 M BaCl 2.(b) Describe how the metal ions can be separated using KF to form the fluorides.
Write an expression for Ksp for the dissolution of BaSO4.
Write an expression for Ksp for the dissolution of PbBr2.
Write an expression for Ksp for the dissolution of Ag2CrO4.
Write the ion-product expressions for (a) silver carbonate
Write the ion-product expressions for (b) barium fluoride
Write the ion-product expressions for (c) copper(II) sulfide.
Write the ion-product expressions for (a) iron(III) hydroxide
Write the ion-product expressions for (b) barium phosphate
Write the ion-product expressions for (c) magnesium fluoride.