Ch.5 - GasesSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

A gas is seen as a collection of molecules or individual atoms that are in constant motion. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory tries to use data of real gases to predict how an ideal gas would behave if they existed.  

Examining the Kinetic-Molecular Theory

Concept #1: Understanding the Kinetic-Molecular Theory

Ideal gases are imaginary and don’t actually exist. However, if they did exist then there would be certain characteristics that a gas would need to possess in order to be an ideal gas. 

Concept #2: The Characteristics of an Ideal Gas

Example #1: Two identical 10.0 L flasks each containing equal masses of O2 and N2 gas are heated to the same temperature. Which of the following statements is/are true?  

a) The flask with the oxygen gas will have a greater overall pressure.

b) The nitrogen and oxygen gases will have the same average speed or velocity.

c) The nitrogen and oxygen gases will have the same average kinetic energy.

Additional Problems
Which set of temperature and pressure conditions will cause a gas occupying a volume of 300 mL to deviate from ideal gas behavior? (A) 100°C and 4 atm (B) 100°C and 2 atm (C) —100°C and 4 atm (D) 0°C and 2 atm
The graph (below) shows the distribution of molecular velocities.  How many of the statements are true? At a given temperature, curve A represents gas particles with the smallest molar mass For a given gas sample, curve D represents the highest temperature At a given temperature, curve D represents gas particles with the highest molar mass For a given gas sample, the broader the velocity distribution, the lower the temperature 0                      b) 1                  c) 2                  d) 3                  e) 4 
A change in temperature from 10°C to 20°C is found to double the rate of a particular chemical reaction. How did the change in temperature affect the reacting molecules? (A) The average velocity of the molecules doubled (B) The average energy of the molecules doubled (C) The number of collisions per second doubled (D) The number of molecules above the reaction energy threshold doubled. 
The partial pressure of an ideal gas is equal to:   a) The pressure it would exert if it were at high pressure, same volume, and alone in a container. b) The pressure it woudl exert if it were at low pressure, same volume, and alone in a container.  c) The pressure it would exert if it occupied the same volume, alone in a container, at the same temperature.  d) The pressure it would exert if it were at low temperature, same volume, and alone in a container.  e) The pressure it would exert if it were at high temperature, same volume, and alone in a container.   
Which of these properties is/are characteristic(s) of gases? a) High compressibility b) Relatively large distances between molecules c) Formation of homogeneous mixtures regardless of the nature of gases d) A and B, and C. 
What is different for 100 mL of water at 0°C versus 100 mL of ice at 0°C?   A. Average kinetic energy of molecules. B. The mass. C. Arrangement of atoms within the molecule. D. Size of H2O molecules. 
Which of the following statements is/are true molecules according to the Kinetic Molecular Theory? i. increasing the amount of gas molecules increases the pressure by increasing the force of the collisions. ii. decreasing the temperature of a gas decreases the pressure by increasing the force of the collisions. iii. decreasing the volume of a gas increases pressure by increasing the frequency of the collisions. a. i only b. ii only c. iii only d. i and ii e. ii and iii
If equal masses of O 2(g) and HBr(g) are in separate containers of equal volume and temperature, which one of the following statements is true?   a) The pressure in the O 2 container is greater than that in the HBr container. b) There are more HBr molecules than O 2 molecules. c) The average velocity of the O 2 molecules is less than that of the HBr molecules. d) The average kinetic energy of HBr molecules is greater than that of O 2 molecules. e) The pressures of both gases are the same. 
At the particle level, why do most substances expand when heated? a) The density of the particles increases b) The density of the particles decreases c) The particle motion increases and the spacing between the particles increases d) The particle motion increases and the spacing between particles decreases e) The substances undergo a chemical change
At very high pressures (~ 1000 atm), the measured pressure exerted by real gases is greater than that predicted by the ideal gas equation. This is mainly because a) such high pressures cannot be accurately measured. b) real gases will condense to form liquids at 1000 atm pressure. c) gas phase collisions prevent molecules from colliding with the walls of the container. d) of attractive intermolecular forces between gas molecules. e) the volume occupied by the gas molecules themselves becomes significant.
Which of the following statements is false? a. Condensed states have much higher densities than gases. b. Molecules are very far apart in gases and closer together in liquids and solids. c. Gases completely fill any container they occupy and are easily compressed. d. Vapor refers to a gas formed by evaporation of a liquid or sublimation of a solid. e. Solid water (ice), unlike most substances, is denser than its liquid form (water).
At constant temperature, which of the following statement(s) is/are  TRUE according to the figure?             I)  Every molecule of gas A has a faster speed than every molecule of gas D. II) Gas D has the smallest molar mass. III) Gas B has a smaller molar mass than gas C.   A) I only       B) II only      C) III only        D) both I and III          E) both II and III
Which of the following statements about the phases of matter is TRUE? A) In both solids and liquids, the atoms or molecules pack closely to one another. B) Solids are highly compressible. C) Gaseous substances have long-range repeating order. D) There is only one type of geometric arrangement that the atoms or molecules in any solid can adopt. E) Liquids have a large portion of empty volume between molecules.
According to Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT), which statement is   TRUE? A. The density of a gas is usually comparable to the density of solids. B. The average kinetic energy of a particle is proportional to the temperature in degree Celsius. C. The collisions of particles with one another are completely elastic. D. A single particle does not move in a straight line. E. At constant temperature, the pressure of a gas in a container will decrease if the volume of the container decreases.
Which is heavier, humid air or dry air?   Briefly explain your reasoning.
Which of the following is one of the postulates of the kinetic theory of gases?   a. The average kinetic energy of the molecules of a gas depends only on the temperature and is independent of the mass of the molecules or the gas density. b. A pure gas consists of a large number of identical molecules separated by distances that are large compared with their size c. Temperature has meaning in a system of gaseous molecules only when their distribution of speeds is the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. d. At constant temperature, the volume of a sample of gas is a liner function of its temperature. e. The total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the portial pressures of the individual gases.
For a substance that remains a gas under the conditions listed, deviation from the Ideal Gas Law would be most pronounced at   1. 0ºC and 2.0 atm. 2. 100ºC and 2.0 atm. 3. -100ºC and 2.0 atm. 4. 100ºC and 4.0 atm. 5. -100ºC and 4.0 atm. 
Which of the following is not part of the kinetic molecular theory?   a. Atoms are neither created nor destroyed by ordinary chemical reactions. b. Attractive and repulsive forces between gas molecules are negligible. c. Gases consist of molecules in continuous, random motion. d. Collisions between gas molecules do not result in the loss of energy. e. The volume occupied by all the gas molecules in a container is negligible compared to the volume of the container
The following information is to be used for the next three problems. A lab bench has three one liter stopped flasks. Flask A contains one mole of NH3 gas. Flask B contains one mole of N2 gas and Flask C contains one mole of SO 2 gas. All are at the same temperature. Which flask has molecules with the greatest average kinetic energy? a. cannot be determined without more information b. all are the same c. A d. B e. C   Which flask has gas with the greatest density in g/L? a. cannot be determined without more information b. all are the same c. A d. B e. C   Which flask has the molecules with the greatest average speed (velocity)? a. cannot be determined without more information b. all are the same c. A d. B e. C
Which of the following statements are false? a. Standard temperature and pressure are 25.0°C and 1.000 atm b. The volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained at constant temperature is inversely proportional to temperature c. Gas molecules occupy –0.1% of the total volume of a container d. In a given sample of an ideal gas. gas molecule behavior is dependent on molecular attraction and repulsion e. Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same numbers of molecules   a) a, c, e b) b, d c) a, b, d d) c, d, e e) b, c, d
An ideal gas differs from a real gas in that the particles of an ideal gas   a. have very large molecular volume b. are assumed to occupy an infinitely small volume c. have a molecular weight of zero d. generally have no kinetic energy e. do not exert any pressure
Which of the following statements is false? a. gases are highly compressible b. distances between molecules of gases are very large compared to bond distances within molecules c. non-reacting gas mixtures are homogeneous d. gases expand spontaneously to fill the container they are placed in e. gases have densities higher than solids
Which of the gases in the graph below has the largest molar mass? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) There is not enough information to determine. ‖
Consider two separate 1 L gas samples, both at the same temperature and pressure. The two gases have different molar masses. Which is true?  1. The particles in both gas samples have different average kinetic energies. 2. You would need more information to be able to compare the average kinetic energies of these two gas samples. 3. The particles in both gas samples have the same average kinetic energies. 
You have an evacuated container of fixed volume and known mass and introduce a known mass of a gas sample. Measuring the pressure at constant temperature over time, you are surprised to see it slowly dropping. You measure the mass of the gas-filled container and find that the mass is what it should be--gas plus container--and the mass does not change over time, so you do not have a leak. You may want to reference (Pages 416 - 419) Section 10.8 while completing this problem.Suggest an explanation for your observations.
Consider the sample of gas depicted below: What would the drawing look like if the volume and temperature remained constant while you removed enough of the gas to decrease the pressure by a factor of 2?
Explain why hot air balloons float above the ground, and why the second story of a two-story home is often warmer than the ground story.
What are the basic postulates of kinetic molecular theory?
How does the concept of pressure follow from kinetic molecular theory?
How is the kinetic energy of a gas related to temperature?
What is mean free path?
In any real gas, attractive intermolecular forces reduce pressure to values lower than in an ideal gas.How would you expect the pressure of a gas to change if suddenly the intermolecular forces were repulsive rather than attractive?
The following graph shows the distribution of molecular velocities for the same molecule at two different temperatures (T1 and T2).Which temperature is greater?
Indicate which of the following statements regarding the kinetic-molecular theory of gases are correct. For those that are false, formulate a correct version of the statement.The average kinetic energy of a collection of gas molecules at a given temperature is proportional to m1/2.
Indicate which of the following statements regarding the kinetic-molecular theory of gases are correct. For those that are false, formulate a correct version of the statement.The gas molecules are assumed to exert no forces on each other.
Which postulate of the kinetic molecular theory breaks down under conditions of high pressure?
Indicate which of the following statements regarding the kinetic-molecular theory of gases are correct. For those that are false, formulate a correct version of the statement.All the molecules of a gas at a given temperature have the same kinetic energy.
Indicate which of the following statements regarding the kinetic-molecular theory of gases are correct. For those that are false, formulate a correct version of the statement.The volume of the gas molecules is negligible in comparison to the total volume in which the gas is contained.
Which postulate of the kinetic molecular theory breaks down under conditions of low temperature?
Indicate which of the following statements regarding the kinetic-molecular theory of gases are correct. For those that are false, formulate a correct version of the statement.All gas molecules move with the same speed if they are at the same temperature.
When the driver of an automobile applies the brakes, the passengers are pushed toward the front of the car, but a helium balloon is pushed toward the back of the car. Upon forward acceleration, the passengers are pushed toward the back of the car, but the helium balloon is pushed toward the front of the car.Why?
Will these changes increase, decrease, or have no effect on the mean free path of the molecules in a gas sample?increasing pressure.
Will these changes increase, decrease, or have no effect on the mean free path of the molecules in a gas sample?increasing temperature.
A box contains equal amounts of helium, argon, and krypton (all gases) at 25 C. Describe the temperatures, masses, average velocities, and average kinetic energy of the three kinds of gas in the mixture. What do they have in common? What are the differences? How are these properties related?
As described by kinetic molecular theory, depict a gas sample containing equal molar amounts of argon and xenon. Use red dots to represent argon atoms and blue dots to represent xenon atoms. Give each atom a "tail" to represent its velocity relative to the others in the mixture.
Consider three gases all at 298 K: HCl, H2, and O2. List the gases in order of increasing average speed.
Consider a 1.0-L sample of helium gas and a 1.0-L sample of argon gas, both at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.Do the atoms in the helium sample have the same average kinetic energy as the atoms in the argon sample?
Consider a 1.0-L sample of helium gas and a 1.0-L sample of argon gas, both at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.Do the atoms in the helium sample have the same average velocity as the atoms in the argon sample?
Consider a 1.0-L sample of helium gas and a 1.0-L sample of argon gas, both at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.Do the argon atoms, since they are more massive, exert a greater pressure on the walls of the container?
Calculate the root-mean-square velocity and kinetic energy of CO, CO2, and SO3 at 286 K . You may want to reference (Pages 224 - 230) Section 5.8 while completing this problem.Which gas has the greatest velocity?
Calculate the root-mean-square velocity and kinetic energy of CO, CO2, and SO3 at 286 K . You may want to reference (Pages 224 - 230) Section 5.8 while completing this problem.Which gas has the greatest kinetic energy?
Which gas sample has the greatest pressure? Assume that all the samples are at the same temperature.
The following graphshows the distribution of molecular velocities for two different molecules (A and B) at the same temperature.Which molecule has the higher molar mass?
Place the following gases in order of decreasing average molecular speed at 28 oC: Ne, HBr, SO2, NF3, CO.
Consider the following samples of gases: You may want to reference (Pages 413 - 417) Section 10.7 while completing this problem.If the three samples are all at the same temperature, rank them with respect to density (d).
Consider the following samples of gases: You may want to reference (Pages 413 - 417) Section 10.7 while completing this problem.If the three samples are all at the same temperature, rank them with respect to average kinetic energy (Ek) of particles.
The effect of molar mass on molecular speed at 25 oC.Which of these gases has the largest molar mass?
The effect of molar mass on molecular speed at 25 oC.Which has the smallest?
Place the following gases in order of decreasing average molecular speed at 315 K : CO, SF6, H2S, Cl2, HBr.
Select a depiction of a gas sample, as described by kinetic molecular theory, containing equal molar amounts of helium, neon, and krypton. Each atom has a "tail" to represent its velocity relative to the others in the mixture.
Explain the negative deviation from ideal gas behavior of N2 below 300 atm in the figure on the left.
The planet Jupiter has a surface temperature of 140 K and a mass 318 times that of Earth. Mercury has a surface temperature between 600 K and 700 K and a mass 0.05 times that of Earth.On which planet is the atmosphere more likely to obey the ideal-gas law?
The effect of temperature and pressure on the behavior of nitrogen gas.True or false: Nitrogen gas behaves more like an ideal gas as the temperature increases.
Under which conditions do you expect helium gas to deviate most from ideal behavior?
Which of the noble gases other than radon would you expect to depart most readily from ideal behavior? Use the density data in Table 7.8 in the textbook to show evidence in support of your answer.
Deviations from the ideal gas law are often observed at high pressure and low temperature.Explain why in light of kinetic molecular theory.
Which of the following gases would you expect to deviate most from ideal behavior under conditions of low temperature: F2, Cl2, Br2?
List two experimental conditions under which gases deviate from ideal behavior.
List two reasons why the gases deviate from ideal behavior.
The graph shows the distribution of molecular velocities for the same molecule at two different temperatures (T1 and T2). Which temperature is greater? Explain. 
Which postulate of the kinetic molecular theory breaks down under conditions of high pressure? Explain. 
Which postulate of the kinetic molecular theory breaks down under conditions of low temperature? Explain. 
Which gas molecules have the highest average kinetic energy at a given temperature? a) HBr b) NO2 c) C2H6 d) all have the same
A gas is showing a considerable amount of attractive forces. What is the likely value for the compressibility factor?1. It will be slightly above one.2. It will be slightly below one.3. It will be equal to one.
Samples containing equal numbers of moles of H 2, N2, O2, and He are placed into separate 1 L containers at the same temperature. Assuming each gas behaves ideally, which container has the highest pressure?a. H2b. N2c. O2d. Hee. All the gases would all exhibit the same pressure.
Which gas has molecules with the greatest average molecular speed at 25°C?A) ArB) N2C) CO2D) CH4 E) Kr
Under what conditions is a gas most likely to deviate from ideal behavior?1. high temperatures2. when considering noble gases3. low density4. high pressure
Deviations from the ideal gas law are less at:a. high temperatures and high pressuresb. high temperatures and low pressuresc. low temperatures and high pressuresd. low temperatures and low pressures
Under which conditions will a gas behave most ideally?1. high T and low P 2. low V and low P3. high P and low V4. high T and low V5. low n and high P6. high T and high n7. high n and high P8. high V and low T9. high n and high V
Which of the following is a postulate of the kinetic molecular theory of gases?a. The volume occupied by the individual particles that compose a gas is very small. However, the distances between gas particles are comparable to the sizes of the gas particles, so the volume occupied by the individual gas particles cannot be assumed to be negligible.b. The particles that compose a gas are so small compared to the distances between them that the volume of the individual particles can be assumed to be negligible.c. Despite being very small, the volume occupied by the individual particles that compose a gas cannot be assumed to be negligible.d. Because the distances between gas particles are so small relative to the sizes of the gas particles themselves, the volume of the individual particles can be assumed to be negligible.
A bottle of highly volatile perfume with molecular formula C5H8O4N2 spills inside a large infinitely expandable bubble and the bubble expands to its maximum size consistent with the fact that the perfume liquid/vapor equilibrium still exists i.e. the perfume “gas” molecules cause the bubble to expand with no work involved. How many molecules of perfume remain in the liquid phase?a. not enough information is given to sayb. 22.4 litersc. none should be left in the liquid phased. one molee. about one or two molecules
The pressure exerted by a gas is caused by a) collisions of the gas molecules with the container. b) the density of the gas molecules. c) the temperature of the gas molecules. d) intermolecular forces. e) the volume that the gas molecules occupy. 
Which of the following statements about gases is true?Heavier gas particles effuse faster than lighter gas particles.Particles of different masses have the same average speed at a given temperature.The higher the temperature, the lower the average kinetic energy of a gas sample.At very high pressures, a gas will occupy a larger volume than predicted by the ideal gas law.Particles of lighter masses have a lower average speed then particles of a higher mass at a given temperature
Select the gas with the highest average kinetic energy per mole at 298 K.a. O2b. CO2c. H2Od. H2e. All have the same average kinetic energy.
Which of the following compounds will behave MOST like an ideal gas at low temperatures? a. H2 b. SO2 c. H2O d. CO2 e. I2
Select the gas with the highest average kinetic energy per mole at 298K:a. O2b. CO2c. H2Od. H2e. All have the same average kinetic energy. 
Which of the following gases has the highest average speed at 400K?A) N2B) O2C) F2D) Cl2
Helium is preferable to hydrogen for filling balloons because helium isa) less dense.b) less expensive.c) easier to obtain.d) chemically inert.
Consider two cylinders of gas. One cylinder contains N2 at 2 atm and 25◦C. The other cylinder contains F2 at 1 atm and 50◦C. Which statements is/are true?I) The N2 molecules and the F2 molecules have the same average kinetic energy.II) Every molecule in the N2 sample has the exact same speed.III) If the pressure of N2 was increased without a change in n or V, the temperature would have to increase.IV) The N2 gas would behave less ideally if the pressure was increased.Which of these statements is true?1. III and IV only 2. I and II only3. II and III only4. II and IV only5. I and IV only
Which of the following statements is/are true? Check all that apply.a) There are gas molecules that move slower than the average speed.b) There are gas molecules that move faster than the average speed.c) All the gas molecules in a sample have the same kinetic energy.d) The average kinetic energy of gas molecules increases with temperature.f) The average speed of gas molecules increases with temperature.
The graph shows the Maxwell distribution plots for a given gas at three different temperatures. Which plot corresponds to the highest temperature?1. B2. Cannot be determined from this type of plot.3. C4. A
The average speed of a gas is dependent only on:a. the temperature of the gasb. the temperature and the mass of the gasc. the temperature, the mass and the density of the gasd. the mass of the gase. the density of the gas
Rank these real gases according to how closely they resemble an ideal gas.CO, N2, Ne, He, NH 3
The pressure of a sample of gas describes: A) the speed of the gas moleculesB) the number of gas moleculesC) the number of gas molecules in a set volumeD) the force of gas molecules hitting the surfaceE) the mass of the gas molecules
The graph shows the distribution of molecular velocities. Which of the following statement is TRUE? 
If a real gas has a volume that is larger than you would predict based on the ideal gas law, then the intermolecular forces for that gas are dominated by1. compression forces2. attractive forces3. repulsive forces4. gravitational forces5. neither attractive nor repulsive forces
Which gas sample representation has the greatest pressure? Assume that all the samples are at the same temperature. Explain 
According to the kinetic molecular theory, the pressure of a gas in a container decreases if the     A) number of collisions with the container wall increases.B) temperature of the gas increases.C) another ideal gas is added to the container but volume is kept constant.D) volume of the container increases.
Which of the following is true:a) The mean free path of a molecule at atmospheric pressure is approximately equal to the molecular diameter or bond length.b) The mean free path of a molecule is independent of the pressure at constant temperature.c) The mean free path of a molecule is independent of molecular diameter.d) The mean free path of a molecule determines its diffusion rate.e) The mean free path of a molecule is the average distance a molecule travels before hitting the walls of a container. 
A gas mixture at T = 300.K contains an equal number of moles of chlorine, (Cl  2), ethane (C2H6), nitrous oxide (N2O), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Which gas molecules will have the highest average speed?a. Cl2b. C2H6c. N2Od. SF6e. All of the molecules will have the same average speed
Liquids have a higher vapor pressure at a higher temperature because1. the molar enthalpy of vaporization is decreased as the temperature is raised.2. the more rapidly moving molecules in the gas phase exert a higher pressure on the container walls.3. a higher temperature is required to supply the heat of vaporization of the liquid.4. more molecules in the liquid have enough kinetic energy to escape from the surface.5. the higher temperature may exceed the critical temperature of the liquid.
Consider a 1.0-L sample of helium gas and a 1.0-L sample of argon gas, both at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. b. Do the atoms in the helium sample have the same average velocity as the atoms in the argon sample? 
Consider a 1.0-L sample of helium gas and a 1.0-L sample of argon gas, both at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.  Do the argon atoms, because they are more massive, exert a greater pressure on the walls of the container? Explain. 
A flask at room temperature contains exactly equal amounts (in moles) of nitrogen and xenon.b. The molecules or atoms of which gas have the greater average velocity?
Which of the following gases has the highest average speed at 400K?a. O2b. Cl2c. F2d. Br2e. N2
Answer the following questions:(a) Is the pressure of the gas in the hot air balloon shown at the opening of this chapter greater than, less than, or equal to that of the atmosphere outside the balloon?
Answer the following questions:(b) Is the density of the gas in the hot air balloon shown at the opening of this chapter greater than, less than, or equal to that of the atmosphere outside the balloon?
Answer the following questions:(h) A balloon flight can last about 90 minutes. If all of the fuel is burned during this time, what is the approximate rate of heat loss (in kJ/min) from the hot air in the bag during the flight?
Graphs showing the behavior of several different gases follow. Which of these gases exhibit behavior significantly different from that expected for ideal gases?
Explain why the plot of PV for CO2 differs from that of an ideal gas
Answer the following questions: (a) If XX behaved as an ideal gas, what would its graph of Z vs. P look like?
Answer the following questions:(c) What is the effect of the volume of gas molecules on Z? Under what conditions is this effect small? When is it large? Explain using an appropriate diagram.
Answer the following questions:(d) What is the effect of intermolecular attractions on the value of Z? Under what conditions is this effect small? When is it large? Explain using an appropriate diagram.
Answer the following questions:(e) In general, under what temperature conditions would you expect Z to have the largest deviations from the Z for an ideal gas?
When a car accelerates quickly, the passengers feel a force that presses them back into their seats, but a balloon filled with helium floats forward. Why?
Propane, C3H8, liquefies under modest pressure, allowing a large amount to be stored in a container. Calculate the ratio of the number of moles of liquid to moles of gas.
Propane, C3H8, liquefies under modest pressure, allowing a large amount to be stored in a container. Discuss this ratio in light of the kinetic-molecular theory of gases.
Does the effect of intermolecular attraction on the properties of a gas become more significant or less significant if the gas is compressed to a smaller volume at constant temperature
You may want to reference (Pages 416 - 419) Section 10.8 while completing this problem.At constant pressure, the mean free path (λ) of a gas molecule is directly proportional to temperature (T). At constant temperature, {lambda} is inversely proportional to pressure (P). If you compare two different gas molecules at the same temperature and pressure, {lambda} is inversely proportional to the square of the diameter (d) of the gas molecules. Put these facts together to create a formula for the mean free path of a gas molecule with a proportionality constant (call it  Rmfp , like the ideal-gas constant).
Using the postulates of the kinetic molecular theory, explain why a gas uniformly fills a container of any shape.
The graph below shows the distribution of molecular speeds for argon and helium at the same temperature.(a) Does curve 1 or 2 better represent the behavior of argon?
The graph below shows the distribution of molecular speeds for argon and helium at the same temperature.(c) Which curve more closely represents the behavior of fluorine gas? Explain.
The graph below shows the distribution of molecular speeds for a gas at two different temperatures.(a) Does curve 1 or 2 better represent the behavior of the gas at the lower temperature?
The graph below shows the distribution of molecular speeds for a gas at two different temperatures.(b) Which curve represents the gas when it has a higher k?
The graph below shows the distribution of molecular speeds for a gas at two different temperatures.(c) Which curve is consistent with a higher diffusion rate?
A sample of gaseous neon atoms at atmospheric pressure and 0 oC contains 2.69 x 1022 atoms per liter. The atomic radius of neon is 69 pm. What does this reveal about the separation between atoms in the gaseous phase?
On a single plot, qualitatively sketch the distribution of molecular speeds for(a) Kr(g) at -50˚C(b) Kr(g) at 0˚C(c) Ar(g) at 0˚C.
Consider separate 1.0-L gaseous samples of He, N2, and O2, all at STP and all acting ideally. Rank the gases in order of increasing average kinetic energy and in order of increasing average velocity.
Consider two gases, A and B, each in a 1.0-L container with both gases at the same temperature and pressure. The mass of gas A in the container is 0.34 g and the mass of gas B in the container is 0.48 g.a. Which gas sample has the most molecules present? Explain.
Consider two gases, A and B, each in a 1.0-L container with both gases at the same temperature and pressure. The mass of gas A in the container is 0.34 g and the mass of gas B in the container is 0.48 g.b. Which gas sample has the largest average kinetic energy? Explain.
Consider two gases, A and B, each in a 1.0-L container with both gases at the same temperature and pressure. The mass of gas A in the container is 0.34 g and the mass of gas B in the container is 0.48 g.c. Which gas sample has the fastest average velocity? Explain.
Consider three identical flasks filled with different gases.Flask A: CO at 760 torr and 0°CFlask B: N2 at 250 torr and 0°CFlask C: H2 at 100 torr and 0°Ca. In which flask will the molecules have the greatest average kinetic energy?
Consider three identical flasks filled with different gases.Flask A: CO at 760 torr and 0°CFlask B: N2 at 250 torr and 0°CFlask C: H2 at 100 torr and 0°Cb. In which flask will the molecules have the greatest average velocity?
Consider separate 1.0-L gaseous samples of H2, Xe, Cl2, and O2 all at STP.a. Rank the gases in order of increasing average kinetic energy.
Consider separate 1.0-L gaseous samples of H2, Xe, Cl2, and O2 all at STP.b. Rank the gases in order of increasing average velocity.
Consider separate 1.0-L gaseous samples of H2, Xe, Cl2, and O2 all at STP.c. How can separate 1.0-L samples of O2 and H2 each have the same average velocity?
Three equal volumes of gas mixtures, all at the same  T, are depicted below (with gas A red, gas B green, and gas C blue):(c) In which sample, if any, do the gas particles have the highest average kinetic energy?
The graph below shows the distribution of molecular speeds for argon and helium at the same temperature.(b) Which curve represents the gas that effuses more slowly?
The distribution of molecular velocities in a sample of helium is shown in Figure 9.34. If the sample is cooled, will the distribution of velocities look more like that of H2 or of H2O? Explain your answer.
Do interparticle attractions cause negative or positive deviations from the  PV/RT ratio of an ideal gas? Use Table 5.3 to rank Kr, CO2, and N2 in order of increasing magnitude of these deviations.
Under which of the following sets of conditions does a real gas behave most like an ideal gas, and for which conditions is a real gas expected to deviate from ideal behavior? Explain.(a) high pressure, small volume(b) high temperature, low pressure(c) low temperature, high pressure
Does particle volume cause negative or positive deviations from the  PV/RT ratio of an ideal gas? Use Table 5.3 to rank Cl2, H2, and O2 in order of increasing magnitude of these deviations.
Does N2 behave more ideally at 1 atm or at 500 atm? Explain.
Does SF6 (boiling point = 16°C at 1 atm) behave more ideally at 150°C or at 20°C? Explain.
Consider two gases, A and B, each in a 1.0-L container with both gases at the same temperature and pressure. The mass of gas A in the container is 0.34 g and the mass of gas B in the container is 0.48 g.d. How can the pressure in the two containers be equal to each other since the larger gas B molecules collide with the container walls more forcefully?
Does the effect of intermolecular attraction on the properties of a gas become more significant or less significant if the temperature of the gas is increased at constant volume
Which of the following gases has the lowest average speed at 25°C?a. H2Seb. PH3c. C2H6d. F2 
Five samples of helium gas are described in the table below. Rank the samples in order of increasing average kinetic energy of the atoms in them. That is, select "1" next to the sample in which the helium atoms have the lowest average kinetic energy. Select "2" next to the sample in which the helium atoms have the next lowest average kinetic energy, and so on. 
Identify the gas particle that travels the fastest. a. Neb. Cl2c. N2d. COe. H2  
Rank these real gases according to how closely they resemble an ideal gas. CO, N  2, Ne, He, NH3