Ch.15 - Acid and Base EquilibriumWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Acid Identification

Most acids have one common feature and that is the presence of the hydronium ion, which is represented by H+ or H3O+.

Concept #1: Identifying Binary Acids. 

Binary acids can be identified by the fact that they all possess an H+ ion attached to an electronegative element. 

Oxyacids can be identified by the fact that they all possess an H+ ion connected to a nonmetal and oxygen, hence the prefix “oxy”. 

Concept #2: Identifying Oxyacids. 

They are created by the hydration of nonmetal oxides. 

Conversely, metal oxides create bases when hydrated by water. 

Practice: Which of the following compound(s) cannot be classified as an acid?


Binary Acid Strength

Concept #3: Acids and  Electrolytes

Strong Acids are strong electrolytes that completely dissociate into ions when dissolved in water. 

Weak acids are weak electrolytes that don’t completely ionize, but instead reach a state of equilibrium. 

Concept #4: Strength of Binary Acids.

When looking at a binary acid we look at both electronegativity and size to determine their strength. 

Practice: Which is the weakest acid from the following?

Practice: Which of the following acids would be classified as the strongest?

Oxyacid Strength

The strength of an oxyacid depends on the number of oxygen atoms and the electronegativity of the nonmetal. 

Concept #5: The Strength of Oxyacids.

If your oxyacid has 2 or more oxygens than hydrogens then your oxyacid is a strong acid. 

Concept #6: Comparing the Strength of Oxyacids. 

When comparing the strengths of different oxyacids remember:

If they have different number of oxygens then the more oxygens the more acidic 

 

If they have the same number of oxygens then the more electronegative the nonmetal the more acidic.

 

With some rules there are exceptions. Oxalic acid and Iodic acid have two more oxygens than hydrogens but are weak acids because carbon are iodine have low electronegativity. 

Amphoteric species (compounds that can act as both an acid or a base) are also an exception to the rule for oxyacids. 

Practice: Rank the following oxyacids in terms of increasing acidity. 

a) HClO3

b) HBrO4

c) HBrO3

d) HClO4

Base Strength

Concept #7: Bases and Electrolytes. 

Strong Bases are strong electrolytes that completely dissociate into ions when dissolved in water. 

Weak bases are weak electrolytes that don’t completely ionize, but instead reach a state of equilibrium. 

Bases are characterized by THREE major features: they may possess metals, they may have a negative charge or they may be an amine

Concept #8: Bases and Group 1A. 

Any Group 1A metal when combined with OH , H , O2– or NH2 makes a STRONG BASE.

Concept #9: Bases and Group 2A. 

Group 2A metals, from Ca2+ to Ba2+, when combined with OH , H , O2– or NH2 makes a STRONG BASE. 

Amines are compounds with only nitrogen or hydrogen (i,e. NH3) or with carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen (i,e. CH3NH2). 

Concept #10: Amines. 

Neutral Amines are considered weak bases

Positive Amines are considered weak acids

Example #1: Classify each of the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base or weak base:

a)   HCHO2                                                        c)   H2NNH2

b)   (CH3CH2)3NH+                                       d)   HBrO3

Practice: Classify each of the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base or weak base.

Practice: Classify each of the following as a strong acid, weak acid, Strong base, or weak base. 

Practice: Classify each of the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base or weak base.

Additional Problems
Which of the following cannot be an acid? a. HCN           b) H2SO3              c)  C6H5OH       d)  C5H12           e) All are acids.
Which of the following statements is/are correct? a)  CH3OH is an Arrhenius Base. b)  BF3 is a Bronsted-Lowry Acid. c)  NH4+ is a Bronsted-Lowry Base. d)  CN – is a Lewis Base. 
Which of the following solutions will have the highest concentration of hydronium ions? 0.250 moles CH3COOH 0.250 moles CH2ClCOOH 0.250 moles CHCl2COOH 0.250 moles CCl3COOH They would all have equal concentrations of hydronium ions  
Identify the weakest acid. A) HF B) HCl C) HBr D) HI E) not enough information is available
Chlorine forms four oxyacids.  Two of these are HClO 2 and HClO4.  Of these a. HClO2 is a strong acid and HClO4 is a weak acid.  b. HClO4 is a strong acid and HClO2 is a weak acid.  c. Both HClO2 and HClO4 are strong acids.  d. Both HClO2 and HClO4 are weak acids. 
Rank the following​ oxyacids in terms of increasing acidity. a) HNO3                                         b) HBrO4                                 c) H2CO3                                 d) HClO4
Which is the strongest acid from the following? a) H 2S                      b) HF                      c) H 2Te                    d) H 2O                    e) NH 3
Which of the following lists contain both a strong acid and a strong base? i. KBr and CH3OH ii. HCIO4 and NaH iii. HNO3 and KOH a. i only b. ii only c. iii only d. ii and iii e. i, ii and iii
Which of the following lists contains both a strong acid and a strong base? i. HI and Na2O ii. HCl and C3H7OH iii. HBrO3 and LiOH A. i only B. ii only C. iii only D. ii and iii E. i and iii
For each of the sets of compounds or ions given below, circle the most basic species and explain your reasoning. 1. PO43-       HPO42-     H2PO4 - 2. ClO -        ClO2-         CIO 3- 3. HBrO       HClO          HClO 2
Which of the following statements is true about an acidic solution at 25  oC i. [H3O+] > [OH – ] ii. pH > 7 iii. [H3O+][OH – ] = 1.0 X 10 -14 A. i only B. iii only C. i and ii D. i and iii E. ii and iii
Knowing if you have a weak or strong acid or base is important in determining if you use an ICE Chart or not. 
The reason HI is a stronger acid than HCl is because      A) the difference in electronegativity gets larger as the atoms get farther apart on the periodic table. B) electronegativity increases as you go up the periodic table. C) the bond strength decreases down a group in the periodic table. D) anion radius decreases as you go down the periodic table. E) HI is an Arrehnius acid and HCl is not.
Of the following, which is the weakest acid?      A) HIO           B) HIO 2          C) HIO 3          D) HIO 4    E) The acid strength of all of the above is the same.
Which of the following acids will be the strongest?      A) H2SO4                    B) HSO4−        C) H2SO3        D) HSO3−        E) H2SeO4
Which indication of relative acid strengths is INCORRECT?       A) HClO2 > HClO B) H2SO4 > H2SO3 C) HCl > HF D) H2SO3 > HNO3
List the following acids in order of increasing strength:             H2SO4             H2SeO4           H2TeO4       A) H2SO4 < H2SeO4 < H2TeO4 B) H2SeO4 < H2SO4 < H2TeO4 C) H2SeO4 < H2TeO4 < H2SO4 D) H2TeO4 < H2SeO4 < H2SO4 E) H2SO4 < H2TeO4 < H2SeO4
Which of the following list contains both a strong acid and a strong base? i. HBr and CH3OH ii. HClO4 and NaH iii. HNO3 and KOH A. i only B. ii only C. iii only D. ii and iii E. i and iii
Place the following in order of increasing acid strength.      HBrO2      HBrO3       HBrO      HBrO 4 A) HBrO2  <  HBrO4  <  HBrO   <  HBrO3 B) HBrO    <  HBrO2  <  HBrO3  <  HBrO4 C) HBrO2  <  HBrO3   <  HBrO4  <  HBrO D) HBrO4  <  HBrO2   <  HBrO3   <  HBrO E) HBrO    <  HBrO4   <  HBrO3   <  HBrO2
Which of the following is a  STRONG acid? A) C6H5CO2H B) HCN C) HClO4 D) NH4+ E) H2O
Which of the following is  TRUE? A) A neutral solution contains [ H 2O ] = [ H 3O+ ] B) A neutral solution does not contain any H 3O+ or OH- C) An acidic solution has [ H 3O+ ] > [ OH - ] D) A basic solution does not contain H 3O+ E) None of the above are true.  
Which one of the following is a strong acid? A) H2CO3 B) H2SO3 C) H2SO4 D) H3PO4 E) CH3COOH
Which one of the following is a strong base? A) LiOH B) CH3COOH C) NH3 D) H3PO4 E) HClO2
The following compounds given below are all acids What common features would help you identify these compounds as acids? Circle the acidic hydrogen on all compounds. Match the name with the acid. a) benzoic acid b) hydrochloric acid c) acetic acid d) nitrous acid e) nitric acid f) formic acid g) hydrocyanic
The following compounds are all bases: What common features would help you identify these compounds as bases? Match the name with the base: a) barium hydroxide b) ammonia c) trimethyl amine d) potassium hydroxide e) sodium hydroxide f) phenyl amine (aniline)
Based on your observations of some common acids and bases, predict whether the following compounds are acids or bases and why:
Which one of the following statements about strong acids is true? a) all strong acids react 100% with all strong bases but not 100% with all weak bases b) Strong acids have no effect on the degree of ionization of weak acid c) the conjugate base of a strong acids is a weak base d) all strong acids react 100% with all weak bases and 100% with all strong bases e) strong acids have no effect or decrease the solubility of metal hydroxides
Order the following acids in increasing acid strength. A.  HI < HF < HBr < HCl B.  HF < HCl < HBr < HI C.  HBr < HF < HI < HCl D.  HCl < HF < HBr < HI E.  HBr < HCl < HI < HF
Arrange the compounds in order of increasing acid strength A.  HClO4 < HClO < HClO2 < HClO3 B.  HClO < HClO2 < HClO4 < HClO3 C.  HClO2 < HClO3 < HClO4 < HClO D.  HClO3 < HClO4 < HClO < HClO2 E.  HClO < HClO2 < HClO3 < HClO4
In which of the following solutions will the acid have the greatest percent ionization?  a) 0.1M CHCl2COOH dissolved in 0.1 M HClO4 b) 0.1M CH2ClCOOH dissolved in 0.05 M HClO4 c) 0.01M CH3COOH dissolved in 0.05 M HClO2 d) 0.1M CH3COOH dissolved in 0.05M HClO2 e) 0.1M CH3COOH dissolved in 0.1M HClO2
Select the strong acid from the set a-e. a) NaOH b) HOCl c) H2S d) HF e) HNO3
Which of these compounds can be classified as a strong base? a) NH3 b) CuCl c) CsOH d) H2CO3 e) Ni(OH)2
Which of the following is the most acidic: HBrO 3, HFO3, HIO3, and HClO3? A) HBrO3 B) HFO3 C) HIO3 D) HClO3 E) none of the above
Which of the following can accept a H+ from water to form a polyatomic ion? HCl, H2O, NH3, KOH a) KOH only b) H2O and HCl c) HCl and KOH d) NH3 and H2O e) HCl and NH3
Which of the following can donate a proton, H + , to water? NaCl, AgNO3, NH3, HNO3 a) NaCl b) AgNO3 c) HNO3 d) NH3 and NaCl e) AgNO3 and NH3
Which of the following statements is/are true? i. HNO3 is a strong acid ii. NaH is a strong base iii. HCIO2 is a strong acid a. i only  b. iii only c. i and iii d. i and ii e. ii and iii
Select the compound that is most likely a weak base. a) LiOH b) HCl c) CH3CO2H d) Sr(OH)2 e) NH3
Which of the following compounds is the most acidic?    A) HClO4    B) HClO3    C) HClO2    D) HClO
Which of the following is a weak acid? A)  H2SO4             B)  HNO3                              C)  HF                                    D)  HBr                                 E)  HCl
Which of the following is a strong acid? A)  H3PO4             B)  HNO3                              C)  HF                                    D)  CH3COOH                     E)  H2O
Which of the following is a weak base? A)  NH3                 B)  Ca(OH)2                         C)  Ba(OH)2                         D)  NaOH                             E)  CH3COOH
When it comes to naming acids we must follow these rules. Naming ACIDS. 1)  BINARY ACIDS                   Features:   HYDROGEN  +   NONMETAL(S)  +  NO OXYGEN Rules for Naming: The prefix will be hydro-. Use the root of the nonmetal as the base name. The suffix will be –ic acid. a. HCN                                                                           b. Hydrotelluric acid         2)  OXOACIDS or OXYACIDS             Features:   HYDROGEN +  POLYATOMIC ION W/ OXYGEN Rules for Naming: When naming oxyacids, if the polyatomic ion ends with –ate then change the ending to –ic acid. When naming oxyacids, if the polyatomic ion ends with –ite then change the ending to –ous acid.  a. HNO2                                      b. Carbonic acid                          c. Sulfurous acid
Acid rain consists primarily of ________. A) nitric and sulfuric acids B) sulfuric acid C) nitric acid D) acetic acid E) benzoic acid
The common constituent in all acid solutions is A)  H2                    B)  H+                     C)  OH–                 D)  H2SO4             E)  Cl–
Briefly describe the difference between Bronsted acid and bases and Lewis acid and bases. For example, are all Bronsted acids also Lewis acids; are all Lewis acids also Bronsted acids?
Predict the direction of the following reaction (be sure to explain your reasoning): F - (aq) + H2O (l) ⇌ HF (aq) + OH - (aq)
Whenever we have a WEAK ACID or a WEAK BASE then we must use an ICE CHART.  Remember in this case the units in this chart are in _______________.
When comparing acids with a formula HA, where A can be any one element, what is the trend in terms of acid strength? A. Increases as A goes toward the top, left of the periodic table B. Increases as A goes toward the top, right of the periodic table C. Increases as A goes toward the bottom, left of the periodic table D. Increases as A goes toward the bottom, right of the periodic table
Which of the following solutions will have the lowest pH? a) 0.10 M H3PO3 b) 0.10 M HF c) 0.10 M HC2H3O2 d) 0.10 M HBrO3 e) 0.10 M HClO2
Which of the following solutions will have the  lowest concentration of hydronium ions?  a) 0.100 moles C6H5NH2 b) 0.100 moles Be(OH)2 c) 0.100 moles SrH2 d) 0.100 moles (CH3)2NH  
Which is the strongest acid? (a) H2O   (b) H2Se   (c) H2Te   (d) H2S
Hydride ion, H– is a much stronger base than hydroxide ion. Predict the products and whether the equilibrium lies towards to reactants or products for the following reaction: H– (aq) + H2O ⇌ ? a) H3O+ (aq), equilibrium lies towards reactants b) H2 (g) + OH– (aq), equilibrium lies greatly towards products c) H2 (g) + OH– (aq), equilibrium lies greatly towards reactants d) H2O2 (aq), equilibrium lies towards product e) No reaction occurs  
Acid strength decrease in the series HI > HSO4- > H2CO3 > HCN. Which of these anions is the weakest base? A) I- B) SO42- C) F- D) CN- E) HCO3-
Place the following in order of increasing acid strength (weakest to strongest).            HBr            H  3PO3            H 3PO4 A) HBr            < H 3PO3       < H3PO4 B) HBr            < H 3PO4       < H 3PO3  C) HBr             < HBrO 3       < HBrO4 D) H3PO3        < H3PO4       < HBr E) H3PO4         < H3PO3        < HBr
Assuming equal concentrations, rank these solutions by pH from highest pH to lowest pH.  Sr(OH)2 (aq) NaOH (aq) NH3 (aq) HBrO (aq) HBr (aq)
Which acid is stronger? 1. They have the same strength. 2. HBrO 3. HBrO3
Which of the following is described incorrectly? A. sodium hydroxide is a strong base B. hydrochloric acid is a strong acid C. phosphoric acid is a strong acid D. acetic acid is a weak acid E. ammonia is a weak base
Which is a stronger base, S2 - or Se2-?
Which is a stronger base, PO4 3 - or AsO43-?
The hypochlorite ion, ClO-, acts as a weak base.Is ClO- a stronger or weaker base than hydroxylamine?
Predict which member of each pair produces the more acidic aqueous solution?Fe2 + or Fe3 + .
Predict which member of each pair produces the more acidic aqueous solution?Al3 + or Ga3 + .
Arrange the following 0.10 M solutions in order of increasing acidity: (i) NH4 NO3, (ii) NaNO3, (iii) CH3 COONH4, (iv) NaF, (v) CH3 COONa.
Why is there more than one definition of acid-base behavior? Which definition is the right one?
Will NO3- ions affect the pH of a solution?
Indicate whether each of the following statements is correct or incorrect.Every Brønsted-Lowry acid is also a Lewis acid.
Indicate whether each of the following statements is correct or incorrect.Every Lewis acid is also a Brønsted-Lowry acid.
Define each of the following with complete sentences, and provide an example chemical equation: an Arrhenius acid, a Brønsted-Lowry base, and a Lewis acid.
In many reactions the addition of AlCl3 produces the same effect as the addition of H+.Which acid-base theory is most suitable for discussing the similarities between AlCl3 and H+?
Based on their molecular structure, pick the stronger acid from the following pair of binary acids: HF and HCl.
Based on their molecular structure, pick the stronger acid from the following pair of binary acids: H2 O or HF.
Based on their molecular structure, pick the stronger acid from the following pair of binary acids: H2 Se or H2S.
For a binary acid, H Y, what factors affect the relative ease with which the acid ionizes?
Trends in acid strength for the binary hydrides of periods 2-4.Are the acid properties of HI what you would expect from this figure?
Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false.In general, the acidity of binary acids increases from left to right in a given row of the periodic table.
Based on their molecular structure, pick the stronger acid from the following pair of oxyacids: H2 SO4 or H2SO3.
Based on their molecular structure, pick the stronger acid from the following pair of oxyacids: HClO2 or HClO.
Based on their molecular structure, pick the stronger acid from the following pair of oxyacids: HClO or HBrO.
Based on their molecular structure, pick the stronger acid from the following pair of oxyacids: CCl3 COOH or CH3COOH.
What factors affect the relative acidity of an oxyacid?
Which acid has the larger acid-dissociation constant, HIO2 or HBrO3?
Consider the molecular models shown here, where X represents a halogen atom.If X is the same atom in both molecules, which one will be more acidic?
Consider the molecular models shown here, where X represents a halogen atom.Does the acidity of each molecule increase or decrease as the electronegativity of the atom X increases?
You may want to reference (Pages 273 - 278)Section 7.6 while completing this problem.Suppose that a metal oxide of formula M2O3 were soluble in water. What would be the major product or products of dissolving the substance in water?
State whether each of the following statements is true or false. Justify your answer in each case.Methanol is a base.
How can you determine whether an anion will act as a weak base?
What kinds of cations act as weak bases? List some examples.
Ammonia, NH3, acts as an Arrhenius base, a Brønsted-Lowry base, and a Lewis base, in aqueous solution.Write out the reaction NH3(aq) undergoes with water.
Based on these molecular views, determine whether each pictured base is weak or strong.Picture (a) .
Based on these molecular views, determine whether each pictured base is weak or strong.Picture (b) .
Based on these molecular views, determine whether each pictured base is weak or strong.Picture (c) .
Based on these molecular views, determine whether each pictured base is weak or strong.Picture (d) .
The hypochlorite ion, ClO-, acts as a weak base.When ClO- acts as a base, which atom acts as the proton acceptor?
Consider the base hydroxylamine, NH2OH.When it acts as a base, which atom in hydroxylamine accepts a proton?
What are the general physical and chemical properties of acids?
Explain the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid and list one example of each.
State whether each of the following statements is true or false. Justify your answer in each case.HCl is a weak acid.
Classify each of the following acids as strong or weak.HNO3
Classify each of the following acids as strong or weak.HCl
Classify each of the following acids as strong or weak.HBr
Classify each of the following acids as strong or weak.H2 SO3
Classify each of the following acids as strong or weak.HF
Classify each of the following acids as strong or weak.HCHO2
Classify each of the following acids as strong or weak.H2 SO4
Classify each of the following acids as strong or weak.H2 CO3
Explain the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid.
Based on the entries in the following table, which element is most commonly bonded to the acidic hydrogen? TABLE Some Weak Acids in Water at 25 oC
For Mn3 + , write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid.
Based on these molecular views, determine whether is pictured acid is weak or strong.Picture (a) .
Based on these molecular views, determine whether is pictured acid is weak or strong.Picture (b) .
Based on these molecular views, determine whether is pictured acid is weak or strong.Picture (c) .
Based on these molecular views, determine whether is pictured acid is weak or strong.Picture (d) .
For NH4+, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid.
For Co3 + , write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid.
For CH2NH3+, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid.
How do you know if an acid is strong or weak?
Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false.In a series of acids that have the same central atom, acid strength increases with the number of hydrogen atoms bonded to the central atom.
In many reactions the addition of AlCl3 produces the same effect as the addition of H+.Predict the result of the reaction between AlCl3 and NH3 in a solvent that does not participate as a reactant.
If Ka of HXO3 is > than Ka of HZO3 at 25°C, then it is most likely that:a. X is more electronegative than Zb. X exhibits a higher oxidation state than Zc. The H―X bond is weaker than the H―Z bondd. HXO3(aq) + ZO3−(aq) ⇌ XO3−(aq) + HZO3(aq) is reactant-favored at 25°Ce. Z is larger than X
Of the following acids, __________ is not a strong acid.      A) H 2SO 4        B) HNO 3          C) HCl           D) HNO 2         E) HClO 4
Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer.a. For NH4+, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acidb. For Co3+, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acidc. For CH2NH3+, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid.
Nitric acid is a strong acid, but nitrous acid is a weak acid. Why? 
Write equations showing how each of the following weak bases ionizes water to form OH-. a.) CO32-.  b.) C6H5NH2.  c.) C2H5NH2. Express your answer as a chemical equation.
Rank the acids from strongest to weakest, overlap them if they are equivalent:HClHlLiHH2S
When dissolved in water, of HClO4, NH3, KOH, Hl, and CH3OH which are acids?a. HClO4 and Hlb. NH3 and KOHc. Only KOHd. Only Hl
Which of the compounds of HCO2H, Ba(OH)2, CsOH, and HBr, behave as acids when they are dissolved in water?a. HCO2H and HBrb. only HBrc. only CsOHd. Ba(OH)2 and CsOH
Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing acid strength using periodic trends. Rank the acids from strongest to weakest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. H2Se HBr H2O HI
Which of the following statements(s) is/are correct i. Strontium amide, Sr(NH2)2,is a weak base. ii. Dichromic acid H2Cr2O7 is a strong acid. iii. Potassium oxide, K2O, is a strong base A. i only B. ii only C. iii only D. i and iii E. ii and iii
Rank the oxoacids of chlorine according to strength.HClO3, HClO4, HClO, HClO2
Arrange the compounds in order of increasing acid strength A) HClO4  < HClO < HClO2  < HClO3 B) HClO < HClO2  < HClO4  < HClO3 C) HClO2  < HClO3  < HClO4  < HClO D) HClO3  < HClO4  < HClO < HClO2 E) HClO < HClO2  < HClO3  < HClO4
Which of the following is not a property of an acid? a) Acids have a slippery feel. b) Acids have a sour taste. c) Acids dissolve many metals. d) Acids turn litmus paper red. e) All of the above are properties of acids.
Complete the following sentences about strong and weak acids and bases. Strong acids are generally either hydrohalic acids (ex. _____) or oxoacids in which the number of oxygen atoms exceeds the number of ionizable _____ by 2 or more (ex. HNO3). Weak acids are usually one of the following: 1. hydrofluoric acid, _____, 2. acids in which the proton is not bonded to an oxygen atom or a halogen (ex. _____), 3. _____ where the number of oxygen atoms equals or only exceeds by 1 the number of ionizable _____ (ex. _____) or 4. _____ (ex. _____). Strong bases are _____ of group _____ metals (ex. _____) or larger group _____ metals (ex. _____), or oxides of the same metals. Weak bases are usually compounds containing a nitrogen atom with _____ bond(s) and 1 lone pair(s) (ex. _____).
What is an acid and what is a base? An acid–base reaction is sometimes called a proton-transfer reaction. Explain.
Write equations showing how each of the following weak bases ionizes water to form OH-. a) HCO3- b) CH3NH2 Identify all of the phases in the answer.
Arrange the following oxoacids in order of decreasing acid strength. Rank from strongest to weakest acid. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. HClO3, HClO2, HClO, HBrO
A substance that contains hydrogen that may be replaced by a metal is a/an a. nonmetal. b. colloid. c. acid. d. base.
Classify each substance as a strong acid, strong base, weak acid, or weak base. HCl KOH HCN HF CH3NH2 CsOH HBr LiOH Ba(OH)2 H2SO4
Classify each substance as a strong acid, strong base, weak acid, or weak base. HCCOH HClO4 HI NH3 NaOH HNO2 CH3COOH (CH3)2NH HNO3 Ca(OH)2  
What is the principle difference between a strong and weak acid?a. strong acids completely ionize while weak acids only partially ionizeb. strong acids are polyprotic while weak acids are monoproticc. when neutralized, strong acids form salt and water while weak acids only form waterd. strong acids have high concentrations of the hydroxide ion while in solution
Classify each substance as a strong acid, strong base, weak acid, or weak base. HCCOH, HClO4, HI, NH3, NaOH, HNO2, CH3COOH, (CH3)2NH, HNO3, Ca(OH)2, HCl, KOH, HCN, HF, CH3NH2, CsOH, HBr, LiOH, Ba(OH)2, H2SO4
Classify each of the following acids as strong or weak. If the acid is weak, write an expression for the acid ionization constant (Ka).a. HFb. HCHO2c. H2SO4d. H2CO3
In aqueous solution, classify these compounds as strong acids, weak acids, strong bases, weak bases, or other.
 For ClO2-, write an equation that shows how the anion acts as a base.
What is the pH of a 0.20 M HCl solution?a. 0.70b. < 0c. 12.39d. 13.30e. 1.61
In which case could the given gas be identified by the reaction given?     Gas                                           Reaction(A) Chlorine                                will turn starch blue(B) ammonia                               will turn moist red litmus paper blue(C) nitrogen                                will support combustion(D) hydrogen chloride                will etch glass  
Arrange the following oxoacids in order of decreasing acid strength. Rank from strongest to weakest acid. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. HClO2, HClO, HBrO, HClO3
Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing acid strength using periodic trends. Rank the acids from strongest to weakest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. HBr, H2O, HCl, LiH
Which of the following is the strongest acid?a. HBrOb. HBrO4c. HBrO3d. HBrO2
Which of the following are oxoacids (also known as oxyacids)? Check all that apply.a. HFb. HClc. HCNd. H3PO4e. Ba(OH)2 f. Chloric acidg. Nitrous acid
Assuming equal concentrations, rank these solutions by pH. Ca(OH)2(aq), LiOH(aq), NH3(aq), HBrO(aq), HBr(aq)
Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing acid strength using periodic trends. Rank from strongest to weakest. HCl, HI, NaH, LiH
Which of the following is a  strong acid?a. C6H5CO2Hb. HCNc. HNO2d. HNO3e. H2O
Match each of the following definitions with the correct term. Lewis Acid                   Arrhenius Acid                         Bronsted-Lowry Acid               Arrhenius Base                                     Bronsted-Lowry Base                          Lewis Base.                  a. Increases the H + concentration when dissolved in a solvent.b. Increases the OH– concentration when dissolved in a solvent.c. A proton (H +) donor.d. A proton (H +) acceptor.e. An electron pair acceptor.f.  An electron pair donor
Predict the following pair is the stronger and explain your reasoning.(b) B(OH)3 or Al(OH)3
Rank the compound in the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.(b) basicity: H2O, OH−, H−, Cl−
Rank the compound in the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.(c) basicity: Mg(OH)2, Si(OH)4, ClO3(OH) (Hint: Formula could also be written as HClO4).
Rank the compound in the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.(b) basicity: BrO2 −, ClO2 −, IO2 −
Rank the compound in the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.(e) basicity: NH2 −, HS−, HTe−, PH2 −
Rank the compound in the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.(f) basicity: BrO−, BrO2 −, BrO3 −, BrO4 −
Which of the following is the strongest base?a. HOMgBrb. H2Oc. CH4d. CH3OHe. CH3MgBr
Pick the stronger base from each of the following pairs: F– or Cl–
Pick the stronger base from each of the following pairs: NO2– or NO3–
Pick the stronger base from each of the following pairs: F– or ClO–
Pick the stronger base from each of the following pairs: ClO4– or ClO2–
Pick the stronger base from each of the following pairs: Cl– or H2O
Pick the stronger base from each of the following pairs: CN– or ClO–
Place the specie in the following group in order of increasing base strength. Give your reasoning in the case.a. IO3-, BrO3-
Place the specie in the following group in order of increasing base strength. Give your reasoning in the case.b. NO2-, NO3-
Place the specie in the following group in order of increasing base strength. Give your reasoning in the case.c. OCl-, OI-
Using your results from Exercise 133, place the specie in the following groups in order of increasing base strength.a. OH -, SH -, SeH -
Using your results from Exercise 133, place the specie in the following groups in order of increasing base strength.b. NH3, PH3
Using your results from Exercise 133, place the specie in the following groups in order of increasing base strength.c. NH3, HONH2
Which is the stronger base, (CH3)3N or H2 BO3 − ?
Rank the following 0.10 M solution in order of increasing pH.a. HI, HF, NaF, NaI
The following scene represent three weak acid HA (where A = X, Y, or Z) dissolved in water (H2O is not shown):(e) If equimolar amounts of the sodium salts of the acids (NaX, NaY, and NaZ) were dissolved in water, which solution would have the highest pOH? The lowest pH?
The following three diagrams represent three different solutions of the binary acid HA. Water molecules have been omitted for clarity and hydronium ions (H3O+) are represented by hydrogen ions (H+). Rank the acids in order of decreasing acid strength.
Without doing any calculations, determine which of the following solutions would be most acidic.a. 0.0100 M in HCl and 0.0100 M in KOHb. 0.0100 M in HF and 0.0100 M in KBrc. 0.0100 M in NH4Cl and 0.0100 M in CH3NH3Brd. 0.100 M in NaCN and 0.100 M in CaCl2
Rank the following solutions in order of decreasing [H3O+]. Rank solutions from largest to smallest [H3O+]. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. 0.10 M HBr 0.10 M HNO2 0.10 M HClO 0.10 M HCN
Place the specie in the following group in order of increasing acid strength.c. NH4+, HONH3+Give reasons for the orders you chose.
Which solution is most acidic (that is, which one has the lowest pH)?(a) 0.10 M HCl(b) 0.10 M HF(c) 0.20 M HF
Rank the solutions from most acidic to most basic: 1.0 x 10-3 M HCl, 1.0 x 10-7 M HCl, 1.0 x 10-3 M NaOH, 1.0 x 10-7 M NaOH.
Arrange the following solutions in order of increasing acidity: NaCl, NH4Cl, NaHCO3, NH4ClO2, NaOH
The following diagrams represent aqueous solutions of two monoprotic acids, HA (A = X or Y). The water molecules have been omitted for clarity.Which is the stronger acid, HX or HY?
In the reaction HF + H2O → F- + H3O+ which is the acid and which is the base? 
Classify the following as Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, or Lewis acid-base reactions. A reaction may fit all, two, one, or none of the categories:(a) Ag+ + 2NH3 ⇌ Ag(NH3)2+
Classify the following as Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, or Lewis acid-base reactions. A reaction may fit all, two, one, or none of the categories:(d) AlCl3 + Cl− ⇌ AlCl4−
Classify the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base, or weak base in aqueous solution.a. HNO2
Classify the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base, or weak base in aqueous solution.b. HNO3
Classify the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base, or weak base in aqueous solution.c. CH3NH2
Classify the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base, or weak base in aqueous solution.d. NaOH
Classify the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base, or weak base in aqueous solution.e. NH3
Classify the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base, or weak base in aqueous solution.f. HF
Classify the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base, or weak base in aqueous solution.
Classify the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base, or weak base in aqueous solution.h. Ca(OH)2
Classify the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base, or weak base in aqueous solution.i. H2SO4
The following illustration displays the relative number of specie when an acid, HA, is added to water.a. Is HA a weak or strong acid? How can you tell?
A codeine-containing cough syrup lists codeine sulfate as a major ingredient instead of codeine. The Merck Index gives C36H44N2O10S as the formula for codeine sulfate. Describe the composition of codeine sulfate. (See Exercise 155.) Why is codeine sulfate used instead of codeine?Exercise 155. Codeine (C18H21NO3) is a derivative of morphine that is used as an analgesic, narcotic, or antitussive. It was once commonly used in cough syrups but is now available only by prescription because of its addictive properties. If the pH of a 1.7 x 10-3-M solution of codeine is 9.59, calculate Kb.
Identify each of the following as an acid or a base.a. HNO3(aq)b. NH4+(aq)c. KOH(aq)d. HC2H3O2(aq)
Predict the products of the following acid-base reactions, and predict whether the equilibrium lies to the left or to the right of the reaction arrow.O2- (aq) + H2O (l) ⇌
Students are often surprised to learn that organic acid, such as acetic acid, contain OOH group. Actually, all oxyacids contain hydroxyl group. Sulfuric acid, usually written as H2SO4, has the structural formula SO2(OH)2, where S is the central atom. Identify the acid whose structural formula is shown below. Why do it behave as acid, while NaOH and KOH are bases?a. SO(OH)2
Students are often surprised to learn that organic acid, such as acetic acid, contain OOH group. Actually, all oxyacids contain hydroxyl group. Sulfuric acid, usually written as H2SO4, has the structural formula SO2(OH)2, where S is the central atom. Identify the acid whose structural formula is shown below. Why do it behave as acid, while NaOH and KOH are bases?b. ClO2(OH)
Students are often surprised to learn that organic acid, such as acetic acid, contain OOH group. Actually, all oxyacids contain hydroxyl group. Sulfuric acid, usually written as H2SO4, has the structural formula SO2(OH)2, where S is the central atom. Identify the acid whose structural formula is shown below. Why do it behave as acid, while NaOH and KOH are bases?c. HPO(OH)2
Phenylephrine, an organic substance with molecular formula C9H13NO2, is used as a nasal decongenstant in over-the-counter medications. The molecular structure of phenylephrine is shown below using the usual shortcut organic nomenclature.Would you expect a solution of phenylephrine to be acidic, neutral, or basic?
Phenylephrine, an organic substance with molecular formula C9H13NO2, is used as a nasal decongenstant in over-the-counter medications. The molecular structure of phenylephrine is shown below using the usual shortcut organic nomenclature.One of the active ingredients in Alka-Seltzer PLUS cold medication is "phenylephrine hydrochloride." How does this ingredient differ from the structure shown below?
Phenylephrine, an organic substance with molecular formula C9H13NO2, is used as a nasal decongenstant in over-the-counter medications. The molecular structure of phenylephrine is shown below using the usual shortcut organic nomenclature.Would you expect a solution of phenylephrine hydrochloride to be acidic, neutral, or basic?
For each of these reactions, identify the acid and base among the reactants, and state if the acids and bases are Lewis, Arrhenius, and/or Brønsted-Lowry:NH3 + BF3 ⇌ H3NBF3
Classify the following as Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, or Lewis acid-base reactions. A reaction may fit all, two, one, or none of the categories:(a) Cu2++ 4Cl− ⇌ CuCl42−
For each of these reactions, identify the acid and base among the reactants, and state if the acids and bases are Lewis, Arrhenius, and/or Brønsted-Lowry:[Al(H2O)6]3+ + H2O ⇌ [Al(H2O)5OH]2+ + H3O+
Classify the following as Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, or Lewis acid-base reactions. A reaction may fit all, two, one, or none of the categories:(b) Al(OH)3 + 3HNO3 ⇌ Al 3+ + 3H2O + 3NO3−
Classify the following as Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, or Lewis acid-base reactions. A reaction may fit all, two, one, or none of the categories:(c) N2 + 3H3 ⇌ 2NH3
Classify the following as Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, or Lewis acid-base reactions. A reaction may fit all, two, one, or none of the categories:(d) CN− + H2O ⇌ HCN + OH−
When carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it undergoes a multistep equilibrium process, with Koverall = 4.5 x 10−7, which is simplified to the following: CO2(g) + H2O(l) ⇌ H2CO3(aq) H2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ HCO3−(aq) + H3O+(aq)(a) Classify each step as a Lewis or a Brønsted-Lowry reaction.
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(a) H3AsO4
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(b) Sr(OH)2
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(c) HIO
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(d) HClO4
Calcium propionate [Ca(CH3CH2COO)2; calcium propanoate] is a mold inhibitor used in food, tobacco, and pharmaceuticals.(a) Use balanced equations to show whether aqueous calcium propionate is acidic, basic, or neutral.
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(a) CH3NH2
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(b) K2O
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(c) HI
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(d) HCOOH
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(a) RbOH
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(b) HBr
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(c) H2Te
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(d) HClO
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(a) HOCH2CH2NH2
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(b) H2SeO4
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(c) HS−
Classify it as a strong or weak acid or base:(d) B(OH)3
Rank the following 0.10 M solution in order of increasing pH.b. NH4Br, HBr, KBr, NH3
Rank the following 0.10 M solution in order of increasing pH.c. C6H5NH3NO3, NaNO3, NaOH, HOC6H5, KOC6H5, C6H5NH2, HNO3
Without doing any calculations, determine which solution in each pair is more basic.a. 0.100 M in NaClO and 0.100 M in NaFb. 0.0100 M in KCl and 0.0100 M in KClO2c. 0.0100 M in HNO3 and 0.0100 M in NaOHd. 0.0100 M in NH4Cl and 0.0100 M in HCN
Consider 0.10 M solutions of the following compounds: AlCl 3, NaCN, KOH, CsClO4, and NaF. Place these solutions in order of increasing pH.
Arrange the following 0.10 M solutions in order of most acidic to most basic.             KOH, KNO 3, KCN, NH4Cl, HCl
You may want to reference (Pages 131 - 137) Section 4.3 while completing this problem.Which of the following solutions is the most basic?(a) 0.6 M NH3 (b) 0.150 M KOH (c) 0.100 M Ba(OH)2
Arrange the following solutions in order of increasing basicity: CH3NH3Br, KOH, KBr, KCN, C5H5NHNO2
Classify these compounds as acid, base, salt, or other. Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins.
Predict the following pair is the stronger and explain your reasoning.(a) H2O or HF
Predict the following pair is the stronger and explain your reasoning.(d) NH3 or H2S
Predict the following pair is the stronger and explain your reasoning.(e) H2O or H2Te
Predict the following pair of compound is more acidic and explain your reasoning.(b) NH3 or H2O
Predict the following pair of compound is more acidic and explain your reasoning.(c) PH3 or HI
Predict the following pair of compound is more acidic and explain your reasoning.(d) NH3 or PH3
Predict the following pair of compound is more acidic and explain your reasoning.(e) H2S or HBr
Rank the compound in the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.(a) acidity: HCl, HBr, HI
Rank the compound in the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.(d) acidity: HF, H2O, NH3, CH4
Based on molecular structure, arrange the following binary compounds in order of increasing acid strength: H2Te, HI, H2S, NaH
Which of the following solutions is the most acidic?(a) 0.2 M LiOH(b) 0.2 M HI(c) 1.0 M methanol (CH3OH)
Choose the weaker acid in each of the following pairs:(a) HBr or H2Se 
Choose the stronger acid in each of the following pairs:(a) H2Se or H3As 
Choose the weaker acid in each of the following pairs:(a) HI or HBr 
Liquid ammonia autoionizes like water:2NH3(l) ⟶ NH4+(am) + NH2−(am)where (am) represents solvation by NH3.(b) What are the strongest acid and base that can exist in NH 3(l)?
Place the specie in the following group in order of increasing acid strength.a. H2O, H2S, H2Se (bond energies: H—O, 467 kJ/mol; H—S, 363 kJ/mol; H—Se, 276 kJ/mol)Give reasons for the orders you chose.
Place the specie in the following group in order of increasing acid strength.d. NH4+, PH4 + (bond energies: N—H, 391 kJ/mol; P—H, 322 kJ/mol)Give reasons for the orders you chose.
HX (ℳ = 150. g/mol) and HY (ℳ = 50.0 g/mol) are weak acids. A solution of 12.0 g/L of HX has the same pH as one containing 6.00 g/L of HY. Which is the stronger acid? Why?
Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false.Hydrotelluric acid (H2Te) is a stronger acid than H2 S because Te is more electronegative than S.
Explain why the ionization constant, K a, for HI is larger than the ionization constant for HF.
Which is the stronger acid, NH4 + or HBrO?
Rank the oxoacids of iodine according to strength. (strongest-weakest) HIO4 HIO HIO3 HIO2
Predict the following pair is the stronger and explain your reasoning.(c) HSO3 − or HSO4 −
Part A  Arrange the following oxoacids in order of decreasing acid strength. Rank from strongest to weakest acid. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. 1. HClO2 2. HClO3 3. HBrO 4. HClO Part B Arrange the following carboxylic acids in order of decreasing acid strength. 1. CHCl2COOH 2. CH2ClCOOH 3. CH3COOH 4. CH3CH2COOH   Part C Arrange the following amines in order of decreasing base strength.   1. CH3NH2 2. NH3 3. NH2Br 4. (CH3)2NH  
Predict the following pair of compound is more acidic and explain your reasoning.(a) HSO4 − or HSeO4 −
Rank the following acids from weakest to strongest based on their molecular structure. HClO3, HBrO3, HClO4
Rank the compound of the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.(a) acidity: NaHSO3, NaHSeO3, NaHSO4
Rank the compound in the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.(c) acidity: HOCl, HOBr, HOI
Rank the compound in the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.(d) acidity: HOCl, HOClO, HOClO2, HOClO3
Rank the oxoacids of bromine according to strength. (strongest-weakest) HBrO4 HBrO3 HBrO2 HBrO  
Arrange the following substances in order from weakest to strongest acid: HClO3, HOI, HClO3, HBrO2, HClO2, HIO2
Choose the stronger acid in each of the following pairs:(a) H2SeO3 or H2SeO4 
Which acid has the largest Ka: HClO2(aq), HBrO2(aq) or HIO2(aq)?
Based on molecular structure, arrange the following oxyacids in order of increasing acid strength:HClO3, HIO3, HBrO3
Place the specie in the following group in order of increasing acid strength. Explain the order you chose for the group.a. HIO3, HBrO3
Place the specie in the following group in order of increasing acid strength. Explain the order you chose for the group.b. HNO2, HNO3
Place the specie in the following group in order of increasing acid strength. Explain the order you chose for the group.c. HOCl, HOI
Place the specie in the following group in order of increasing acid strength. Explain the order you chose for the group.d. H3PO4, H3PO3
Place the specie in the following group in order of increasing acid strength.b. CH3CO2H, FCH2CO2H, F2CHCO2H, F3CCO2HGive reasons for the orders you chose.
Which of the protons shown in red is more acidic?
You may want to reference (Pages 274 - 278) Section 7.6 while completing this problem.Arrange the following oxides in order of increasing acidity: CO2, CaO, Al2O3, SO3, SiO2, P2O5.
Explain why the ionization constant, K a, for H2SO4 is larger than the ionization constant for H2SO3.
Write a generic equation showing how a weak base ionizes water.
Basicity in the gas phase can be defined as the proton affinity of the base, for example, CH3NH2(g) + H+(g) ⇌ CH3NH3+(g). In the gas phase, (CH3)3N is more basic than CH3NH2, while in solution the reverse is true.Account for this observation.
The fluoride ion reacts with water to produce HF. Write out the chemical equation for this reaction.
You may want to reference (Pages 131 - 137) Section 4.3 while completing this problem.State whether each of the following statements is true or false. Justify your answer in each case.(a) NH3 contains no OH- ions, and yet its aqueous solutions are basic.
When hydroxylamine acts as a base, which atom accepts the proton?
Write an equation for the reaction in which H2C6H7O5–(aq) acts as a base in H2O(l).
Write equations showing how each of the following weak bases ionizes water to form OH–.NH3
Write equations showing how each of the following weak bases ionizes water to form OH–.HCO3–
Write equations showing how each of the following weak bases ionizes water to form OH–.CH3NH2
Classify each anion as a weak base or pH neutral.(a) CHO2–(b) ClO4–
Write equations showing how each of the following weak bases ionizes water to form OH–.CO32– 
Write equations showing how each of the following weak bases ionizes water to form OH–.C6H5NH2
Write equations showing how each of the following weak bases ionizes water to form OH–.C2H5NH2
For ClO–, write an equation that shows how the anion acts as a base.
For CN–, write an equation that shows how the anion acts as a base.
Which of the following anions act as weak bases in solution?
For F–, write an equation that shows how the anion acts as a base.
For C7H5O2–, write an equation that shows how the anion acts as a base.
Classify each of the following anions as basic or neutral.
Write balanced equations that describe the following reactions.a. the dissociation of perchloric acid in water
Write balanced equations that describe the following reactions.b. the dissociation of propanoic acid (CH3CH2CO2H) in water
Write balanced equations that describe the following reactions.c. the dissociation of ammonium ion in water
How can you determine if an anion will act as a weak base? Write a generic equation showing the reaction by which an anion, A–, acts as a weak base.
Classify each of the following as a strong acid or a weak acid.
Classify each of the following as a strong acid or a weak acid.
Classify each of the following as a strong acid or a weak acid.
Classify each of the following as a strong acid or a weak acid.
Rank the following 0.10 M solution in order of increasing pH.a. NH3b. KOHc. HC2H3O2d. KCle. HCl
Rank the acids in order of decreasing acid strength: CH3COOH, CH2ClCOOH, CHCl2COOH, CCl3COOH
Consider the following illustrations:Which beaker best illustrates what happens when the following acids are dissolved in water?a. HNO2 
Consider the following illustrations:Which beaker best illustrates what happens when the following acids are dissolved in water?b. HNO3 
Consider the following illustrations:Which beaker best illustrates what happens when the following acids are dissolved in water?c. HCl
Consider the following illustrations:Which beaker best illustrates what happens when the following acids are dissolved in water?d. HF
The disinfectant phenol, C6H5OH, has a pKa of 10.0 in water, but 14.4 in methanol.(c) Write the dissociation reaction of phenol in methanol.
Consider the following illustrations:Which beaker best illustrates what happens when the following acids are dissolved in water?e. HC2H3O2
The scene below represents a sample of a weak acid HB (blue and purple) dissolved in water. Draw a scene that represents the same volume after the solution has been diluted with water.
For C5H5NH+, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid.
How would you differentiate between a strong and a weak monoprotic acid from the result of the following procedure?(b) Equal molarities of each are tested with pH paper.
Determine whether each cation is acidic or pH-neutral.
How would you differentiate between a strong and a weak monoprotic acid from the result of the following procedure?(c) Zinc metal is added to solutions of equal concentration.
The following diagrams represent aqueous solutions of three acids, HX, HY, and HZ. The water molecules have been omitted for clarity, and the hydrated proton is represented as a simple sphere rather than as a hydronium ion.Which of the acids is a strong acid?
Write an equation for the reaction in which H2C6H7O5–(aq) acts as an acid in H2O(l).
Classify each cation as a weak acid or pH neutral (neither acidic nor basic).(a) Li+(b) CH3NH3+(c) Fe3+
Determine whether each of the following cations is acidic or pH-neutral.
In aqueous solution, classify these compounds as strong acids, weak acids, strong bases, weak bases, or other:HNO3, HCl, H3PO4, HCN, NaOH, Ba(OH)2, CH3NH2, NH3, CH3COOH, NaCl
Rank the following compounds in order of decreasing acid strength using periodic trends.Rank the acids from strongest to weakest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.BH3, HBr, H2Se, H2S
Assuming equal concentrations, rank these solutions by pH. 
Assuming equal concentrations, rank these solutions by pH. Highest pH(1) Lowest pH(5)RbOH(aq), Sr(OH)2(aq), HCl(aq), HF(aq), NH3(aq), from highest to lowest.
Consider three generic acids: HX, HY, and HZ. Rank these acids according to strength.
In aqueous solution, classify these compounds as strong adds, weak acids, strong bases, or weak bases.
Identifty the following acids as monoprotic, diprotic, or triprotic. Place each acid in the appropriate bin. 
What are the weak acid/weak base pair for this experiment?a. HCI/NaOHb. HCH3CO2/NaOHc. CH3CO2/NaOHd. HCH3CO2/CH3CO2
Classify these compounds as strong acids or weak acids.
Assuming equal concentrations, rank these solutions by pH from highest pH to lowest pHSr(OH)2(aq), NaOH(aq), NH3(aq), HBrO(aq), HBr(aq)Please explain with explanation.