Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond TheorySee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

How would an s orbital combine with a p orbital to form a covalent bond? The answer is through hybridization where a hybrid oribital is formed. 

Atomic Orbitals vs. Hybrid Orbitals

Concept #1: Understanding Overlapping Atomic Orbitals 

A sigma bond is formed by the direct end to end overlapping of atomic orbitals. 

Concept #2: Understanding Hybrid Orbitals 

For an s orbital to bond with a p orbital the central element must first undergo hybridization. 

Determining Hybridization

Concept #3: Simplifying Hybridization 

To determine the hybridization of a central element we look at the number of groups around it. 

Example #1: For each of the given covalent compounds draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the questions.  

CH2Cl2                   Hybridization,                                                           

                               Unhybridized Orbitals,                                             

                               Bonding orbitals (C – H).

Example #2: For each of the given covalent compounds draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the questions.  

XeCl5+                     Hybridization:                                                                    

                                Unhybridized Orbitals:                                       

                                Bonding orbitals (Xe – Cl):

Practice: For the given covalent compound draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the questions. 

IF5:  Hybridization,

       Unhybridized Orbitals, 

       Bonding orbitals (I-F).

Practice: For the given covalent compound draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the questions. 

NH3:  Hybridization, 

         Unhybridized Orbitals, 

         Bonding orbitals (N - H).

Additional Problems
N,N-diethyl-m-tolumide (DEET) is the active ingredient in many mosquito repellents. What is the hybridization state of the atoms indicated by the arrows in the structure of DEET shown below.
Consider the line formula for the migraine medication, Imitrex. What is the correct empirical formula for this compound? 1. C14H21N3O2S 2. C14H19N3O2S 3. C13H20N3O2S 4. C12H20N3O2S 5. C12H21N3O2S 6. C13H19N3O2S Which of the following best represents the bond angle labeled a? 1. 90° 2. 118° 3. 178° 4. 120° 5. 107° 6. 109.5° 7. 180° What is the hybridization of the atom that is labeled b? 1. sp2 2. sp3 3. sp3d2 4. sp3d 5. sp
What is the hybridization of carbon in CH 2O? C is the central atom. 1. sp3d 2. sp3 3. sp 4. sp2 5. sp3d2
ICl3 is sp3 d hybridized. What is the electronic and molecular geometry? 1. tetrahedral; pyramidal 2. trigonal bipyramidal; T-shaped 3. trigonal planar; trigonal planar 4. octahedral; T-shaped 5. trigonal bipyramidal, seesaw
Consider the compound ethene, C2H4. The bond between the two carbons that is formed above and below the internuclear axis is a     ?      bond. The atomic orbitals that combine to form this bond are      ?      orbitals. 1. σ ; sp3 2. π ; sp2 3. π ; 2p 4. π ; 1p 5. σ ; sp2
In which one of the following molecules is the central atom sp 2 hybridized?             A)  SO2    B)  N2O    C)  BeCl2    D)  NF3    E)  PF5
Determine the hybridization for the central element of each compound given below. (a) SO42− (b) CH4 (c) SF6 (d) PCl5 (e) H2O
What hybrid orbitals are used for bonding by the central atom N in NOF3? (N is the central atom) 1. sp 2. sp2 3. sp3 4. sp3d 5. sp3d2
The orbital or orbitals shown below is or are most correctly described by which of the following answers?
A central atom in a species with a square planar molecular geometry use this typical hybrid orbital. 1. sp         2. sp 2         3. sp 3         4. sp 3d         5. sp 3d2
The central atom in ICl2 – uses which kind of hybrid orbitals? 1. sp         2. sp 2          3. sp 3          4. sp 3d          5. sp 3d 2
How many nitrogens are sp3 hybridized? 5 3 2 1 0
What is the hybridization of the oxygen atom labeled x in the structure below? a. sp b. sp2 c. sp3 d. sp3d e. sp3d2
What type of hybridization is exhibited by the central atom in CH 2O? a. sp2 b. sp c. sp3 d. sp3d e. sp3d2
What hybridization would you expect for the carbon atoms in the cyclic compound benzene (C6H6)? 1. sp3d 2. sp3d2 3. sp3 4. sp2 5. sp
A molecule has one lone pair of electrons on the central atom and three atoms bonded to the central atom. The central atom follows the octet rule. What is its electronic arrangement and its hybridization? 1. tetrahedral; sp3 2. tetrahedral; sp2 3. trigonal planar; sp3 4. angular; sp3 5. trigonal planar; sp2 6. pyramidal; sp3 7. pyramidal; sp  
Consider the hybridizations at the four different carbons in the molecule. The bond between C2 and C3 can be described as between orbitals: a) sp hybrid on C2 and sp2 hybrid on C3 b) sp2 hybrid on C2 and sp2 hyrid on C3 c) sp3 hybrid on C2 and sp3 hybrid on C3 d) unhybridized p on C2 and unhybridized p on C3 e) sp hyrid on C2 and sp hybrid on C3
One product of the combustion of methane is carbon dioxide. What change in hybridization of the carbon occurs in this reaction?   a) sp to sp3 b) sp2 to sp c) sp2 to sp3 d) sp3 to sp e) sp3 to sp2
A molecule has two lone non-bonded pairs of electrons on the central atom and four atoms bonded to the central atom. What is its molecular shape and its hybridization? 1. octahedral; sp3d 2. pyramidal; sp3 3. square pyramidal; sp3d2 4. tetrahedral; sp3d2 5. square planar; sp3d2 6. tetrahedral; sp3 7. square planr; sp3
Which of the following describes sp 2 hybridzation? A. Three orbitals are hybridized, one p-orbital remains unhybridized B. Three orbitals are hybridized, one s-orbital remains unhybridized C. Three orbitals are hybridized, no orbitals remain unhybridized D. Four orbitals are hybridized, no orbitals remain unhybridized E. Four orbitals are hybridized, one s-orbital remains unhybridized
Which type of hybrid orbital is used in CO2? a) sp b) sp2 c) sp3 d) dsp3
Give the hybridization for the O in OCl 2, assume that O is the central atom. A. sp B. sp2 C. sp3 D. sp3d E. sp3d2
Indicate the type of hybrid orbitals used by the central atom in PCl 3. 
N,N-diethyl-m-tolumide (DEET) is the active ingredient in many mosquito repellents. What is the hybridization state of carbon indicated by the arrow in the structure of DEET shown below?
(A) Complete the following table.  Hybrid type                      Geometry of electron pairs  a  ___________                linear  b     sp3                           _________  c  ___________                trigonal bipyramidal  d  ___________                octahedral  e      sp2                          __________      
Which image below is the correct depiction of the hybridized orbital for a carbon in a molecule of formaldehyde (CH2O)?
If a molecule has square planar molecular geometry, what must be its hybridization? 1. sp2 2. sp3d 3. sp3 4. sp3d 2 5. sp
In the molecule below, how many of the atoms have sp 3 hybridization? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) 5
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. SiBr42– Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry: Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:Bonding orbitals (Si – Br):Intermolecular Force:
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. SF6                              Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry:Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:Bonding orbitals (S – F):Intermolecular Force:
Provide the following information for the molecule BrF3. Be sure to assign all non-zero formal charges, use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds  going into the plane of the paper, and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the molecule SeO 2. Be sure to assign all non-zero formal charges, use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper, and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the molecule AsF3. Be sure to assign all non-zero formal charges, use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper, and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the molecule SeF3-. Be sure to assign all non-zero formal charges, use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper, and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the molecule SeCl2O2. Be sure to assign all non-zero formal charges, use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper, and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the generic dot structure given below. Be sure to use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the generic dot structure given below. Be sure to use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Provide the following information for the generic dot structure given below. Be sure to use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Consider a molecule of PCl5. Indicate whether the statements below are true or false. Cl has a larger atomic radius than P.When the preferred Lewis structure is drawn, no lone pairs appear on P.PCl5 is a polar molecule.Its molecular geometry is trigonal bipyramidal.Its electron configuration is 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d2Cl has higher first ionization energy than P.The molecule has sp3 hybridization.PCl5 is phosphorus pentachloride.The bond between P and Cl is polar.
Provide the following information for the generic dot structure given below. Be sure to use wedges for bonds coming out of the paper and dashed lines for bonds going into the plane of the paper and only show the lone pairs on the central atom.
Determine the electron geometry (eg), molecular geometry (mg), and hybridization of XeF4 .A) Eg = tetrahedral, mg = tetrahedral, sp3 hybridizationB) Eg = linear, mg = linear, sp hybridization C) Eg = trigonal bipyramidal, mg = tetrahedral, sp3d hybridizationD) Eg = octahedral, mg = square planar, sp3d 2 hybridization
a. Draw the Lewis structure for methanol, CH 3OHb. Apply VSEPR theory to determine the electron geometry around the carbon and the oxygen atoms.c. Name the types of hybridizations on both carbon and oxygen atoms.d. Sketch the molecule showing overlapping hybrid orbitals and label all bond types using the sigma, and pi notation (if any).e. How many sigma bonds are present in this molecule? How many pi bonds are present in this molecule?
In which species can we describe the central atom as having sp 2 hybridization? a) BeF2 b) CO2 c) KrF2 d) SO2
What type of hybridization is exhibited by the central atom in CH 2O? a) sp2 b) sp c) sp3 d) sp3d e) sp3d2
Which compound has the longest carbon-carbon bond length?A) CH3CH3B) CH2CH2C) HCCHD) all bond lengths are the same
Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.
What is the name of the hybrid orbitals used by phosphorus in PCl 3?
Which of the following ions have the same hybridization at the central atom? SF3+     SO42-     I3-     PCl6-a) SF and SOb) I and PClc) SO and Id) SO and PCle) SF and PCl
Consider the following Lewis structure below and select which statement is false.a) there are 10 sigma and 2 pi bondsb) the C-2 atom is sp2 hybridized with bond angles of about 120°c) the oxygen atom is sp3 hybridizedd) this molecule contains 28 valence electronse) there are some H—C—H bond angles of about 109° in the molecule
For each molecule shown here, indicate the hybridization of the central atom.
For each molecule shown here, indicate the hybridization of the central atom.
Consider CH4 and CF4. Electronegativities: C = 2.5, H = 2.1, F = 4.0. Which statement is  false?a. Both are sp3 hybridized at carbon.b. The bond angles in CF4 are smaller than those in CH 4.c. The C-F bonds are more polar than the C-H bonds.d. Both molecules are nonpolar.e. The bond dipoles in CF4 are directed toward the fluorine, but those in CH 4 are directed toward the carbon atom.
What is the hybridization of the central atom of each of the following molecules? Match the atoms below with their number - sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d, sp3d2 COH2 H2S PBr5
For the compound ClF3:a. Draw the best Lewis structure.b. Determine the formal charge for all atoms.c. What is the electron domain geometry?d. What is the molecular shape?e. Is the molecule polar?f. What is the hybridization around the central atom?g. How many sigma bonds are present?h. How many pi bonds are present? 
For the compound N3-:a. Draw the best Lewis structure.b. Determine the formal charge for all atoms.c. What is the electron domain geometry?d. What is the molecular shape?e. Is the molecule polar?f. What is the hybridization around the central atom?g. How many sigma bonds are present?h. How many pi bonds are present? 
What is the hybridization of the central atom of each of the following molecules?
Which of the following hybridization schemes allows the formation of at least one π  bond?I spII sp2III sp3 a) only Ib) only IIc) only IIId) I and IIe) I, II, and III
For the molecule below, write the correct Lewis dot structure. Be sure to indicate any resonance structures, then draw the free dimensional structure based on VSEPR theory. Be sure to name the molecular structure, the geometry from which it is derived, and give the hybridization of the central atom(s).SeF4  VSEPR structure:Molecular structure:Hybridization:
What is the hybridization of the central atom of each of the following molecules? SiCl4 BCl3 PCl5
What is the hybridization of the central iodine atom in I 3−?
How many of the following molecules have sp hybridization on the central atom? C2Cl2     CO2     O3     H2O A) 0 B) 3 C) 2 D) 4 E) 1
What is the electron-domain (charge-cloud)geometry of BrF5?What is the molecular geometry of BrF5?Ignoring lone pair effects, what is the smallest bond angle in BrF5?Express your answer as an integerWhat is the hybridization about the central atom in BrF5?Express your answer in analogy to the following example: sp2.Which choice best describes the polarity of BrF5? 
Label each carbon atom with the appropriate hybridization.
CO2 Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Note: not all labels will be used. 
If you assume sp3 hybridization for a free nitrogen atom, how many lone pairs of electrons will the free (not bonded to other atoms) nitrogen atom have? a. 0 b. 1 c. 2 d. 3 e. 4
Draw the Lewis Dot Structure for acetone, C3H6O. Identify any pi bonds present in this structure. Identify the hybridization state and the bone angles/geometry for each carbon atom in the molecule.
What is the molecular geometry around a central atom that is sp3d hybridized and has one lone pair of electrons? 
a. Draw the lewis structure of acetone, (CH 3)2CO. What is the hybridization on each carbon atom in the molecule?b. On the lewis structure, identify every bond as a sigma or pi bond. (σ or π).c. For the Carbon-Hydrogen bond, what are the orbitals that overlap to make that bond?
Fill in the following table (see the ClF3 example). For the determination of formal charge(s) consider the Lewis formula with the smallest formal charges (lowest energy).
Write down Lewis structure of ICl 3 and provide answer of its electron pair geometry, molecular geometry and hybridization of iodine.
Which species is incorrectly matched with hybridization at the central atom? 1. NH4+ : sp3 2. BeBr2 : sp 3. BCl3 : sp2 4. SeF6 : sp3d  5. NH3 : sp3
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. KrF5+Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry:Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. IF2– Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry:Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:Bonding Orbitals (I – F):Intermolecular Force:
Which of the following  molecular geometries would have an sp3 hybrid orbital structure? a. linear b. t-shaped c. bent d. triangular planar e. square pyramid
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. NO2+Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry:Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. COCl2Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry:Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:Bonding Orbitals (C – O):Intermolecular Force:
Draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the following questions. C2H4Number of Valence Electrons:Molecular Geometry:Electronic Geometry:Hybridization:Unhybridized Orbitals:Polarity:Bonding Orbitals (C – H):Intermolecular Force:
What is the name of the hybrid orbitals used by phosphorus in PCl 3?
For XeO4 a) Draw the lewis structure, optimizing formal charges. b) Identify the electron pair geometry for each center. c) Identify the molecular geometry for each center. d) Identify the hybridization for each center. e) Label all sigma bonds. f) Label all pi bonds. note the orbitals involved in the pibond. g) Draw the hybridization diagram.
The hybridization of iodine in IF3 and IF5 are ____ and ____ respectively.
Indicate the type of hybrid orbitals used by the central atom in CCl 4. 1) sp 2) sp2 3) sp3 4) sp3d 5) sp3d2
A molecule has four unshared electrons on the central atom and four chlorine atoms bonded to the central atom. What is its molecular shape and its hybridization?1. square planar; sp32. pyramidal; sp33. octahedral; sp3d24. tetrahedral; sp35. square pyramidal; sp3d26. tetrahedral; sp3d27. square planar; sp3d2
For the molecule IF5 determine the following: Molecular geometry Electron domain geometry Hybridization Bond angle       For the molecule SeO2 determine the following: Molecular geometry Electron domain geometry Hybridization Bond angle
What is the hybridization of phosphorus in each of the following molecules or ions?
Provide one example of each of the following molecular geometries, provide the approximate bond angle around the central atom, determine the hybridization of the central atom, and comment on the molecule’s polarity. a. Bentb. Octahedral ionc. Linear
Provide one example of each of the following molecular geometries, provide the approximate bond angle around the central atom, determine the hybridization of the central atom, and comment on the molecule’s polarity.             a. Tetrahedral             b. T-shaped             c. Square planar
What is the hybridization of the phosphorus of the following molecule PS2-?a. sp3b. sp2c. spd. sp3d
After sp3 hybridization, the carbon atom has: Check all that apply a. a total of four unpaired electrons b. four equal energy hybrid orbitals c. two unpaired electrons d.  hybrid orbitals of four distinctly different energies e. no unpaired electrons f. hybrid orbitals of two distinctly different energies g. hybrid orbitals with energy between that of the 2s and 2p orbitals h. the ability to form four bonds I. three hybrid orbitals and an unhybridized p orbital
What is the name of the hybrid orbitals used by chlorine in ClF 5?
If the symbol X represents a central atom, Y represents outer atoms, and Z represents lone pairs on the central atom, the structure Y--X(with 2 lone pairs)--Y can be abbreviated as XY2Z2 Classify these structures by the hybridization of the central atom in either. Classify the abbreviations into each hybridization categoryHYBRIDIZATIONS:sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d, sp3d2ABREVIATIONS:XY2, XY3, XY4, XY5, XY6, XY2Z3, XY2Z, XY3Z2, XY4Z, XY4Z2, XY3Z, XY5Z, XY2Z2
What is the hybridization of the phosphorus in the following molecule PS43-?a. sp3b. sp2c. spd. sp3d
What is the hybridization of the phosphorus in the following molecule PS3-?a. sp3b. sp2c. spd. sp3d
For the carbon atom highlighted in the given structure, indicate the hybridization, bond and the shape around the atom.
A. What is the hybridization of the central atom in PCl5? What are the approximate bond angles in this substance? B. What is the hybridization of the central atom in SeF6? What are the approximate bond angles in this substance?
A. What is the hybridization of the central atom in SF4? What are the approximate bond angles in this substance? B. What is the hybridization of the central atom in XeF4? What are the approximate bond angles in this substance?
Tag all the hybridized carbon atoms in this molecule. (Just press check if there are none.)
A. What is the hybridization of the central atom in BeF2? What are the approximate bond angles in this substance? 
Identify the weakest covalent bond. A. N-Na B. N-C C. N=C D. N≡C E. All covalent bonds have the same strength
What is the hybridization of the central atom of each of the following molecules? Match the atoms below with their number---sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d, sp3d2COH2H2SPBr5
For the following structure, predict the hybridization about the central atom. Use superscripts as needed.