Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond TheoryWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

How would an s orbital combine with a p orbital to form a covalent bond? The answer is through hybridization where a hybrid oribital is formed. 

Atomic Orbitals vs. Hybrid Orbitals

Concept #1: Understanding Overlapping Atomic Orbitals 

A sigma bond is formed by the direct end to end overlapping of atomic orbitals. 

Concept #2: Understanding Hybrid Orbitals 

For an s orbital to bond with a p orbital the central element must first undergo hybridization. 

Determining Hybridization

Concept #3: Simplifying Hybridization 

To determine the hybridization of a central element we look at the number of groups around it. 

Example #1: For each of the given covalent compounds draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the questions.  

CH2Cl2                   Hybridization,                                                          

                               Unhybridized Orbitals,                                             

                               Bonding orbitals (C – H).


XeCl5+                   Hybridization,                                                          

                               Unhybridized Orbitals,                                             

                               Bonding orbitals (Xe – Cl).

Practice: For the given covalent compound draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the questions. 

IF2:  Hybridization,

       Unhybridized Orbitals, 

       Bonding orbitals (I-F).

Practice: For the given covalent compound draw out the Lewis Structure and answer the questions. 

CH3+:  Hybridization: 

         Unhybridized Orbitals:

         Bonding orbitals (C - H):

Additional Problems
N,N-diethyl-m-tolumide (DEET) is the active ingredient in many mosquito repellents. What is the hybridization state of the atoms indicated by the arrows in the structure of DEET shown below.
Consider the line formula for the migraine medication, Imitrex. What is the correct empirical formula for this compound? 1. C14H21N3O2S 2. C14H19N3O2S 3. C13H20N3O2S 4. C12H20N3O2S 5. C12H21N3O2S 6. C13H19N3O2S Which of the following best represents the bond angle labeled a? 1. 90° 2. 118° 3. 178° 4. 120° 5. 107° 6. 109.5° 7. 180° What is the hybridization of the atom that is labeled b? 1. sp2 2. sp3 3. sp3d2 4. sp3d 5. sp
What is the hybridization of carbon in CH 2O? C is the central atom. 1. sp3d 2. sp3 3. sp 4. sp2 5. sp3d2
ICl3 is sp3 d hybridized. What is the electronic and molecular geometry? 1. tetrahedral; pyramidal 2. trigonal bipyramidal; T-shaped 3. trigonal planar; trigonal planar 4. octahedral; T-shaped 5. trigonal bipyramidal, seesaw
In which one of the following molecules is the central atom sp 2 hybridized?             A)  SO2    B)  N2O    C)  BeCl2    D)  NF3    E)  PF5
Determine the hybridization for the central element of each compound given below. (a) SO42− (b) CH4 (c) SF6 (d) PCl5 (e) H2O
What hybrid orbitals are used for bonding by the central atom N in NOF3? (N is the central atom) 1. sp 2. sp2 3. sp3 4. sp3d 5. sp3d2
The orbital or orbitals shown below is or are most correctly described by which of the following answers?
A central atom in a species with a square planar molecular geometry use this typical hybrid orbital. 1. sp         2. sp 2         3. sp 3         4. sp 3d         5. sp 3d2
The central atom in ICl2 – uses which kind of hybrid orbitals? 1. sp         2. sp 2          3. sp 3          4. sp 3d          5. sp 3d 2
How many nitrogens are sp3 hybridized? 5 3 2 1 0
What is the hybridization of the oxygen atom labeled x in the structure below? a. sp b. sp2 c. sp3 d. sp3d e. sp3d2
What type of hybridization is exhibited by the central atom in CH 2O? a. sp2 b. sp c. sp3 d. sp3d e. sp3d2
What hybridization would you expect for the carbon atoms in the cyclic compound benzene (C6H6)? 1. sp3d 2. sp3d2 3. sp3 4. sp2 5. sp
A molecule has one lone pair of electrons on the central atom and three atoms bonded to the central atom. The central atom follows the octet rule. What is its electronic arrangement and its hybridization? 1. tetrahedral; sp3 2. tetrahedral; sp2 3. trigonal planar; sp3 4. angular; sp3 5. trigonal planar; sp2 6. pyramidal; sp3 7. pyramidal; sp  
Consider the hybridizations at the four different carbons in the molecule. The bond between C2 and C3 can be described as between orbitals: a) sp hybrid on C2 and sp2 hybrid on C3 b) sp2 hybrid on C2 and sp2 hyrid on C3 c) sp3 hybrid on C2 and sp3 hybrid on C3 d) unhybridized p on C2 and unhybridized p on C3 e) sp hyrid on C2 and sp hybrid on C3
One product of the combustion of methane is carbon dioxide. What change in hybridization of the carbon occurs in this reaction?   a) sp to sp3 b) sp2 to sp c) sp2 to sp3 d) sp3 to sp e) sp3 to sp2
A molecule has two lone non-bonded pairs of electrons on the central atom and four atoms bonded to the central atom. What is its molecular shape and its hybridization? 1. octahedral; sp3d 2. pyramidal; sp3 3. square pyramidal; sp3d2 4. tetrahedral; sp3d2 5. square planar; sp3d2 6. tetrahedral; sp3 7. square planr; sp3
Which of the following describes sp 2 hybridzation? A. Three orbitals are hybridized, one p-orbital remains unhybridized B. Three orbitals are hybridized, one s-orbital remains unhybridized C. Three orbitals are hybridized, no orbitals remain unhybridized D. Four orbitals are hybridized, no orbitals remain unhybridized E. Four orbitals are hybridized, one s-orbital remains unhybridized
Which type of hybrid orbital is used in CO2? a) sp b) sp2 c) sp3 d) dsp3
Give the hybridization for the O in OCl 2, assume that O is the central atom. A. sp B. sp2 C. sp3 D. sp3d E. sp3d2
Indicate the type of hybrid orbitals used by the central atom in PCl 3. 
N,N-diethyl-m-tolumide (DEET) is the active ingredient in many mosquito repellents. What is the hybridization state of carbon indicated by the arrow in the structure of DEET shown below?
(A) Complete the following table.  Hybrid type                      Geometry of electron pairs  a  ___________                linear  b     sp3                           _________  c  ___________                trigonal bipyramidal  d  ___________                octahedral  e      sp2                          __________      
Which image below is the correct depiction of the hybridized orbital for a carbon in a molecule of formaldehyde (CH2O)?
In the molecule below, how many of the atoms have sp 3 hybridization? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 (e) 5
Consider the Lewis structure shown below. What hybridization is exhibited by each of the carbon atoms?
Write a hybridization and bonding scheme for each molecule or ion.Select the correct hybridization for the central atom based on the electron geometry for BrF5.
Write a hybridization and bonding scheme for each molecule or ion.Select the correct hybridization for the central atom based on the electron geometry for I3-.
Bromine can form compounds or ions with any number of fluorine atoms from one to five.Assign a hybridization, and describe their electron and molecular geometry.
Shown here are three pairs of hybrid orbitals, with each set at a characteristic angle. For each pair, determine the type of hybridization, if any, that could lead to hybrid orbitals at the specified angle.
Consider the molecule BF3.What hybrid orbitals should be constructed on the B atom to make the B-F bonds in BF3?
Consider the molecule BF3.What valence orbitals, if any, remain unhybridized on the B atom in BF3?
For each statement, indicate whether it is true or false.To create a hybrid orbital, you could use the s orbital on one atom with a p orbital on another atom.
For each statement, indicate whether it is true or false.Nonbonding electron pairs cannot occupy a hybrid orbital.
The ion CH5+, can form under very special high-energy conditions in the vapor phase in a mass spectrometer.Propose a hybridization for the carbon atom.
Neither the VSEPR model nor the hybridization model is able to account for the experimental observation that the F  - Ba  - F bond angle in gaseous BaF2 is 108 rather than the predicted 180^circ . Suggest some possible explanations for this observation.
Propylene, C3 H6, is a gas that is used to form the important polymer called polypropylene. Its Lewis structure is shown in the diagram. the figure What is the hybridization at each carbon atom in the molecule?
In ozone, O3, the two oxygen atoms on the ends of the molecule are equivalent to one another.What is the best choice of hybridization scheme for the atoms of ozone?
Azo dyes are organic dyes that are used for many applications, such as the coloring of fabrics. Many azo dyes are derivatives of the organic substance azobenzene, C12 H10 N2. A closely related substance is hydrazobenzene, C12 H12 N2. The Lewis structures of these two substances are showin in the diagram. (Recall the shorthand notation used for organic molecules.)What is the hybridization at the N atom in each of the substances?
Consider the Lewis structure for glycine, the simplest amino acid: What are the hybridizations of the orbitals on each of the two carbon atoms?
Azo dyes are organic dyes that are used for many applications, such as the coloring of fabrics. Many azo dyes are derivatives of the organic substance azobenzene, C12 H10 N2. A closely related substance is hydrazobenzene, C12 H12 N2. The Lewis structures of these two substances are showin in the diagram. (Recall the shorthand notation used for organic molecules.)How many unhybridized atomic orbitals are there on the N and the C atoms in azobenzene?
Azo dyes are organic dyes that are used for many applications, such as the coloring of fabrics. Many azo dyes are derivatives of the organic substance azobenzene, C12 H10 N2. A closely related substance is hydrazobenzene, C12 H12 N2. The Lewis structures of these two substances are showin in the diagram. (Recall the shorthand notation used for organic molecules.)How many unhybridized atomic orbitals are there on the N and the C atoms in hydrazobenzene?
What is hybridization?
Why is hybridization necessary in valence bond theory?