Ch.12 - SolutionsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

According to Henry's Law, at a constant temperature the amount of a gas dissolved in a solvent is directly proportional to its partial pressure when it is in equilibrium with its liquid phase. 

Solutions & Solubility 

When an ionic solid dissolves, ions leave the solid and become dispersed in the solvent. This solution can be classified as saturatedunsaturated or supersaturated

Concept #1: Saturated, Unsaturated and Supersaturated Solutions. 

In a hypothetical solution 100 mL of water can dissolve up to 100 g of solute. In a SATURATED solution the water has reached its maximum amount of dissolve solute. 

In an UNSATURATED solution additional amounts of solute can be further dissolved in the solvent. 

In a SUPERSATURATED solution the solvent has dissolved beyond its maximum solubility. 

Example #1: Caffeine is about 10 times as soluble in warm water as in cold water. A student puts a hot-water extract caffeine into an ice bath, and some caffeine crystallizes. What is the identity of the solution before it’s been placed in an ice bath?

a) Saturated

b) Supersaturated

c) Unsaturated

d) Not enough information to answer the question. 

Concept #2: Understanding Henry's Law

Henry's Law relates the solubility of a gas over a solution based on the factors of temperature, volume and pressure. 

Example #2: Henry’s Law Constant for nitrogen in water is 1.67 x 10-4 M•atm-1. If a closed canister contains 113 ppb nitrogen, what would be its pressure in atm? 

As the temperature of the solution increases more and more gas molecules will exit the solvent. 

Practice: In general, as the temperature increases, the solubility of gas in a given liquid ________________, and the solubility of most solids in a given liquid ________________. 

a. Increases, increases

b. increases, decreases

c. decreases, increases

d. decreases, decreases

Practice: At a partial pressure of acetylene 1.35 atm, 1.21 moles of it dissolves in 1.05 L of acetonitrile. If the partial pressure of acetylene in acetone is increased to 12.0 atm, then what is its solubility?

Additional Problems
The solubility of an uknown gas at 1.28 atm is 0.528 mg/mL. Calculate the pressure at which the solubility of the gas is 0.367 mg/mL. a. 0.151 atm b. 0.889 atm c. 1.12 atm d. 0.248 atm e. 1.84 atm
True or false: The Henry's Law constant for a gas should decrease with an increase in temperature. __________
 The solubility of ammonia gas, NH 3, at 25 oC is 5.8 x 101 M/ atm. If the partial pressure of ammonia gas in air is 0.87 atm, what is the concentration (molarity) of the dissolved ammonia?  a. 4.05 x 101 M b. 7.68 x 101 M c. 6.98 x 101 M d. 5.05 x 101 M e. 1.41 x 101 M 
At what pressure will the solubility of carbon monoxide (CO) gas be 1.26 x 10  -1 g/L at 25 oC? The Henry's Law constant for carbon monoxide at 25 oC is 3.40 x 10-2 M/atm A. 3.71 atm B. 0.132 atm C. 7.56 atm D. 0.270 atm E. 1.53 x 10-4 atm
The "fizz" in a carbonated beverage is from carbon dioxide that has been dissolved in the aqueous solution. This is typically achieved by pressuring the "head space" (the empty space above the liquid in the bottle) with carbon dioxide gas.  a. What is the concentration of CO 2 in a soda that has been pressurized with 3.0 atm of CO 2 (in molarity)? Assume a Henry's law constant of 0.0769 M/atm.          b. How does the solubility of CO 2 in water change after it is opened and is at equilibrium with the air (i.e. does it become more or less soluble)?
Determine the Henry's law constant for ammonia in water at 25°C if an ammonia pressure of 0.022 atm produces a solution with concentration of 1.3 M. A) 59 M/atm B) 0.017 M/atm C) 0.029 M/atm D) 35 M/atm E) 0.038 M/atm
Calculate the pressure of O2 necessary to generate an aqueous solution that is 6.0 x 10‐2 M in O 2 at 25° C. The Henry’s law constant for  O 2 in water at 25°C is 1.3 x 10 ‐3 mole/L•atm A) 7.8 x 10‐5 atm B) 2.1 x 10‐2 atm C) 46 atm D) 1.28 x 104 atm E) none of these      
The solubility of N2 in blood at 37°C and a partial pressure of 0.8 atm is 5.6 x 10 ‐4 mole/L. A deep‐sea diver breathes compressed air with a partial pressure of N2 equal to 4.8 atm. Assume that the total volume of blood in the body is 5.0 L. Calculate the amount of N2 gas released (in liters at 37°C and 1.00 Atm) when the diver returns to the surface, where the partial pressure of N2 is 0.80 atm. A) 0.356 L B) 0.0540 L C) 0.427 L D) 0.342 L E) 0.085 L  
Why is it that the contents of a bottle of soda opened at room temperature tend to expand all over the persons hand’s holding the bottle, but the same bottle if opened when chilled just makes a slight hissing sound? 1. The carbon dioxide gas intentionally dissolved in the soda is more soluble at lower temperatures. 2. The bottle allows more gas to expand through the pores of the plastic at lower temperatures. 3. The bottle shrinks at low temperatures, creating less headspace for the gas above the soda, which means more gas dissolves in it, so less escapes when the bottle is opened. 4. The nitrogen gas intentionally dissolved in the soda is more soluble at lower temperatures.
Calculate the mass of nitrogen (in g) dissolved at room temperature in 50 L of water. The atmospheric pressure is 1.3 atm. Assume that the mole fraction of nitrogen is 0.78 in air and the Henry's law constant for nitrogen in water at this temperature is 6.1 x 10-4 M/atm. A. 0.019 g B. 0.017 g C. 0.865 g D. 0.433 g E. 8.65 x 10-3 g
Fish breathe the dissolved air in water through their gills. Assuming the partial pressures of N2 and O2 in air to be 0.80 atm and 0.20 atm, respectively, calculate the concentrations of oxygen and nitrogen in water at 298 K. Henry’s law constant for N2 (g) and O2 (g) in water at 298 K are 6.8 x 10-4 and 1.3 x 10-3 mol L-1 atm-1, respectively.
The solution of nitrogen gas at 25°C and a nitrogen pressure of 522 mmHg is 4.7 x 10 -4 mol/L. What is the value of Henry's Law constant in mol/L•atm? A. 6.8 x 10-4 mol/L • atm B. 9.0 x 10-7  mol/L • atm C. 1.5 x 10-4  mol/L • atm D. 3.2 x 10-4  mol/L • atm E. 4.7 x 10-4  mol/L • atm  
Determine the solubility of N2 in water exposed to air at 25°C if the atmospheric pressure is 1.2 atm. Assume that the mole fraction of nitrogen is 0.78 in air and the Henry's law constant for nitrogen in water at this temperature is 6.1 x 10-4 M/atm. A. 1.5 x 10-4 M B. 6.5 x 10-4 M C. 5.7 x 10-4 M D. 1.8 x 10-4 M E. 3.6 x 10-4 M
Perfluorinated compounds are hydrocarbons where most or all of the hydrogens have been replaced by fluorine atoms. Perfluorinated solvents have a number of interesting and exploitable properties. For example, oxygen is very soluble in perfluorinated solvents. and they have been investigated as temporary means of supplying oxygen in the case of very premature births before the lungs are fully developed. The Henry's law constant for C7F14 is 2.5 x 10-2 mol/L•atm at 25°C, roughly ten times greater than the Henry's law constant for water at that temperature.   A. Calculate the concentration in M of oxygen dissolved in C 7F14 exposed to air at 25°C. Air is 21% oxygen.           B. The concentration of oxygen in the umbilical vein is in the neighborhood of 20 mg/100 mL of blood. Convert your answer from Part A to mg/100 mL
The solubility of nitrogen gas at 25 °C and 1 atm is 6.8 × 10  -4 mol/L. If the partial pressure of nitrogen gas in air is 0.76 atm, what is the concentration (molarity) of dissolved nitrogen? A. 6.8 × 10 -4 M B. 5.2 × 10 -4 M C. 4.9 × 10 -4 M D. 3.8 × 10 -4 M E. 1.1 × 10 -5 M
The solubility of oxygen in lakes in the Rocky Mountains is affected by the altitude. If the solubility of O2 from the air is 2.67 x 10-4 M at sea level and 25°C, what is the solubility of O 2 at an elevation of 12,000 ft where the atmospheric pressure is 0.657 atm? Assume the temperature is 25°C, and that the mole fraction of O2 in air is 0.209 at both 12,000 ft and at sea level. A) 1.75 x 10-4 M B) 2.67 x 10-4 M C) 3.66 x 10-4 M D)4.06 x 10-4 M E) none of the above
Identify the TRUE statement describing trends in solubility. a. Increasing the temperature of a solution increases the solubility of gases in solution. b. Increasing the partial pressure of a gas above solution decreases the solubility of the gas in solution. c. The solubility of a gas in a solution increases as its molar mass increases. d. The solubility of most solids in solution increases as the pressure increases.
The solubility of CO2 in water at 25 °C and 1 atm is 0.034 mol/L. What is its solubility under atmospheric conditions where the partial pressure of CO2  is 0.003 atm? 
Calculate the number of moles of oxygen that will dissolve in 45 L of water at 20°C if the partial pressure of oxygen is 0.21 atm. Henry's constant for oxygen is 0.0013 mol/ L•atm 1. 0.00027 mol 2.  0.0013 mol 3. 0.012 mol 4. 0.0062 mol 5. 0.28 mol
Recently, I was given laughing gas (N 2O, MW = 44.013 g/mol) during some dental work. They did this by applying a tube over my nose and flowing N2O into the tube, increasing the partial pressure of N2O to 0.4 atm. If the concentration of N2O in my blood after the dental procedure was 1.25 x 10-3 M, calculate the Henry's law constant for N2O.
Calculate the mass of oxygen (in mg) dissolved in a 5.00 L bucket of water exposed to a pressure of 1.13 atm of air.  Assume the mole fraction of oxygen in air to be 0.21 and the Henryʹs law constant for oxygen in water at this temperature to be 1.3 × 10 -3 M/atm. A) 23.5 mg      B) 27.3 mg      C) 49.4 mg      D) 13.7 mg      E) 47.0 mg
Coca-Cola took a public relations hit a few months ago when it was discovered that their “scientists” stated that obesity was due to insufficient exercise and not sugary soft drinks (New York Times, August 9, 2015).  The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the headspace of bottled Coke (the space above the liquid) is 3-4 atm, so let’s assume 3.5 atm. The Henry’s law constant for CO2(g) at 20°C is 3.91 x 10-2 mol/L∙atm. Calculate the solubility (mol/L) of carbon dioxide in water at 20°C.
In general, as the temperature increases, the solubility of gas in a given liquid ________________, and the solubility of most solids in a given liquid ________________.  Increases, increases Increases, decreases Decreases, increases Decreases, decreases
A mixture of gases contains 7.5 g H 2 and 29.6 g N 2 with a total pressure of 525 torr. Calculate the solubility of nitrogen gas if its Henry’s constant is 6.1 x 10  –4 M/atm. 
In deep sea diving, nitrogen is dissolved in the bloodstream under the high pressure. This leads to the condition known as “the bends.” Actually, nitrogen is much more soluble in fatty tissue than it is aqueous solutions (e.g. blood), and the nitrogen dissolved in the brain at a higher pressure can be a great concern for divers.   The Henry’s law constant for N2(g) in fatty tissue is around 2 x 10-3 mol/L•atm at 25°C (as opposed to 6.8 x 10-4 mol/L•atm in water at that same temperature). Calculate the concentration of N2(g) in fatty tissue if the air pressure is 2.5 atm (that would correspond to a depth of about 50 feet). Remember the air is roughly 79% nitrogen.
Calculate the number of grams of nitrogen gas that will dissolve in 125 L of water if the partial pressure of the nitrogen gas is 0.79 atm. Henry’s law constant for nitrogen gas is 0.00060 M/atm. A. 0.83 g B. 1.7 g C. 0.00047 g D. 0.059 g
Nitrogen gas, N2 (g), has a certain solubility when dissolved in octane (l). In which of the following cases would the solubility of N2 (g) decrease? I) lowering the temperature of the solvent II) increasing the amount of solvent III) reducing the pressure of N 2 (g) 1. I and II 2. II only 3. II and III 4. I and III 5. III only 6. I only 7. I, II and III
The Henry's law constant (k H) for O2 in water at 20°C is 1.28 x 10 -3 mol/L•atm. How many grams of O2 will dissolve in 1.75 L of H 2O in contact with air, where the partial pressure of O2 is 1.32 atm? A. 0.0541 g B. 0.0473 g C. 0.0946 g D. 0.0270 g E. 0.946 g
Henry's law constant for dissolved oxygen in water is k = 1.2 x 10  -3 M•atm-1. Suppose you could buy a bottle of water claiming that it contains 72 ppm oxygen. What pressure would the water have to be bottled under to obtain the claimed concentration? a. 60.0 atm b. 0.063 atm c. 3.68 atm d. 1.88 atm e. 1.61 atm  
How does the solubility of a gas in a liquid depend on temperature?
How does this temperature dependence affect the amount of oxygen available for fish and other aquatic animals?
How does the solubility of a gas in a liquid depend on pressure?
How does this pressure dependence account for the bubbling that occurs upon opening a can of soda?
What effect does increasing temperature have on the solubility of gas in water?
What effect does increasing pressure have on the solubility of gas in water?
What effect does increasing temperature have on the solubility of a solid in water?
What effect does increasing pressure have on the solubility of a solid in water?
Scuba divers breathing air at increased pressure can suffer from nitrogen narcosis - a condition resembling drunkenness - when the partial pressure of nitrogen exceeds about 4 atm. What property of gas/water solutions causes this to happen? How could the diver reverse this effect?
Scuba divers breathing air at increased pressure can suffer from oxygen toxicity - too much oxygen in their bloodstream - when the partial pressure of oxygen exceeds about 1.4 atm. What happens to the amount of oxygen in a divers bloodstream when he or she breathes oxygen at elevated pressures? How can this be reversed?
The solubility of a gas in water is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas. The solubilities are in millimoles per liter of solution.How do the slopes of the lines vary with the molecular weight of the gas?
The solubility of a gas in water is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas. The solubilities are in millimoles per liter of solution.Explain the trend.
Solubilities of four gases in water as a function of temperature. The solubilities are in millimoles per liter of solution, for a constant total pressure of 1 atm in the gas phase.Where would you expect N2 to fit on this graph?
You take a sample of water that is at room temperature and in contact with air and put it under a vacuum. Right away, you see bubbles leave the water, but after a little while, the bubbles stop. As you keep applying the vacuum, more bubbles appear. A friend tells you that the first bubbles were water vapor, and the low pressure had reduced the boiling point of water, causing the water to boil. Another friend tells you that the first bubbles were gas molecules from the air (oxygen, nitrogen, and so forth) that were dissolved in the water.Which friend is mostly likely to be correct?
You take a sample of water that is at room temperature and in contact with air and put it under a vacuum. Right away, you see bubbles leave the water, but after a little while, the bubbles stop. As you keep applying the vacuum, more bubbles appear. A friend tells you that the first bubbles were water vapor, and the low pressure had reduced the boiling point of water, causing the water to boil. Another friend tells you that the first bubbles were gas molecules from the air (oxygen, nitrogen, and so forth) that were dissolved in the water.What, then, is responsible for the second batch of bubbles?
Calculate the mass of nitrogen dissolved at room temperature in an 88.0 L home aquarium. Assume a total pressure of 1.0 atm and a mole fraction for nitrogen of 0.78.
Fluorocarbons (compounds that contain both carbon and fluorine) were, until recently, used as refrigerants. The compounds listed in the following table are all gases at 25 oC, and their solubilities in water at 25 oC and 1 atm fluorocarbon pressure are given as mass percentages. Fluorocarbon Solubility (mass %) CF4 0.0015 CClF3 0.009 CCl2F2 0.028 CHClF2 0.30 Infants born with severe respiratory problems are sometimes given liquid ventilation: They breathe a liquid that can dissolve more oxygen than air can hold. One of these liquids is a fluorinated compound, CF3(CF2)7Br. The solubility of oxygen in this liquid is 66 mL O2 per 100 mL liquid. In contrast, air is 21 % oxygen by volume. Calculate the moles of O2 present in an infants lungs (volume: 15.5 mL ) if the infant takes a full breath of air. Assume a pressure of 1 atm in the lungs.
Fluorocarbons (compounds that contain both carbon and fluorine) were, until recently, used as refrigerants. The compounds listed in the following table are all gases at 25 oC, and their solubilities in water at 25 oC and 1 atm fluorocarbon pressure are given as mass percentages. Fluorocarbon Solubility (mass %) CF4 0.0015 CClF3 0.009 CCl2F2 0.028 CHClF2 0.30 Using the information from part F, calculate the moles of O2 present in an infants lungs (volume: 15.5 mL ) if the infant takes a full "breath" of a saturated solution of O2 in the fluorinated liquid.
At ordinary body temperature (37 oC), the solubility of N2 in water at ordinary atmospheric pressure (1.0 atm) is 0.015 g/L. Air is approximately 78 mol % N2.Calculate the number of moles of N2 dissolved per liter of blood, assuming blood is a simple aqueous solution.
At ordinary body temperature (37 oC), the solubility of N2 in water at ordinary atmospheric pressure (1.0 atm) is 0.015 g/L. Air is approximately 78 mol % N2.If a scuba diver suddenly surfaces from this depth, how many milliliters of N2 gas, in the form of tiny bubbles, are released into the bloodstream from each liter of blood?
The following table presents the solubilities of several gases in water at 25 oC under a total pressure of gas and water vapor of 1 atm. Gas Solubility (m M) CH4 (methane) 1.3 C2H6 (ethane) 1.8 C2H4 (ethylene) 4.7 N2 0.6 O2 1.2 NO 1.9 H2S 99 SO2 1476 You may want to reference (Pages 524 - 567) Chapter 13 while completing this problem.What volume of CH4(g) under standard conditions of temperature and pressure is contained in 3.1  L of a saturated solution at 25 oC?
Effect of pressure on gas solubility. If the partial pressure of a gas over a solution is doubled, how has the concentration of gas in the solution changed after equilibrium is restored?
The Henrys law constant for helium gas in water at 30 oC is 3.7 10 - 4 M/atm; the constant for N2 at 30 oC is 6.0 10 - 4 M/atm.If helium gas is present at 1.7 atm pressure, calculate the solubility of this gas.
The Henrys law constant for helium gas in water at 30 oC is 3.7 10 - 4 M/atm; the constant for N2 at 30 oC is 6.0 10 - 4 M/atm.If N2 is present at 1.7 atm pressure, calculate the solubility of this gas.
The partial pressure of O2 in air at sea level is 0.21 atm . The solubility of O2 in water at 20 oC , at 1 atm gas pressure, is 1.38 10-3  M (from Table 13.1 in your textbook). You may want to reference (Pages 532 - 538) Section 13.3 while completing this problem.Using Henrys law and the data in the introduction, calculate the molar concentration of O2 in the surface water of a mountain lake saturated with air at 20 oC and an atmospheric pressure of 670 torr .
Fish need at least 4 ppm dissolved O2 for survival.What partial pressure of O2 above the water is needed to obtain this concentration at 10 oC? (The Henrys law constant for O2 at this temperature is 1.71 10-3 mol/L   atm.)
During a persons typical breathing cycle, the CO2 concentration in the expired air rises to a peak of 4.6% by volume.Calculate the partial pressure of the CO2 in the expired air at its peak, assuming 1 atm pressure and a body temperature of 37oC .
The presence of the radioactive gas radon (Rn) in well water presents a possible health hazard in parts of the United States.Assuming that the solubility of radon in water with 1 atm pressure of the gas over the water at 30 oC is 7.27 10 - 3 M, what is the Henrys law constant for radon in water at this temperature?
At ordinary body temperature (37 oC), the solubility of N2 in water at ordinary atmospheric pressure (1.0 atm) is 0.015 g/L. Air is approximately 78 mol % N2.At a depth of 100 ft in water, the external pressure is 4.0 atm. What is the solubility of N2 from air in blood at this pressure?
The volume over the solution in the container is 123 mL . Calculate the partial pressure of the hydrogen gas in this volume at 25 oC, ignoring any solubility of the gas in the solution.
You may want to reference (Pages 582 - 585) Section 13.4 while completing this problem.Determine the solubility of oxygen in water at 25oC exposed to air at 1.0 atm. Assume a partial pressure for oxygen of 0.21 atm . (kH,O2 = 1.310-3M/atm.)
As temperature increases, solubility of a solid in liquid generally ____________ while solubility of a gas in liquid generally ______________.A. Increases; DecreasesB. Increases; IncreasesC. Decreases; IncreasesD. Decreases; Decreases
Henry's Law constants (K) are the equilibrium constants for the reaction of a gas dissolving in a liquid; X(g)→X(aq). Which of the following should have the largest Henry's Law constant for dissolving in water?a. CO2b. Hec. Ard. N2e. NH3
Determine the partial pressure of oxygen necessary to form an aqueous solution that is 4.1 × 10–4 M O2 at 25°C. The Henry's law constant for oxygen in water at 25°C is 1.3 × 10 –3. A. 0.53 atm B. 0.24 atm C. 0.32 atm D.1.9 atm E. 0.77 atm
At 298 K, the Henry's law constant for oxygen is 0.00130 M/atm. Air is 21.0% oxygen. a) At 298 K, what is the solubility of oxygen in water exposed to air at 1.00 atm?     b) At 298 K, what is the solubility of oxygen in water exposed to air at 0.900 atm?     c) If atmospheric pressure suddenly changes from 1.00 atm to 0.900 atm at 298 K, how much oxygen will be released from 4.10 L of water in an unsealed container?
All carbonated beverages are bottled under pressure because____________________A) if the pressure is increased, the solubility of the gas will increase.B) this will avoid the external contamination during the storage process.C) if the pressure is increased, the solubility of the gas will decrease.D) the pressure is necessary to keep the gas above the solution.E) the temperature changes constantly but the gas will remain with the same solubility.
A) What is the Henry's law constant for CO 2 at 20°C? B) What pressure is required to achieve a CO 2 concentration of 9.60 x 10 -2? C) At 1 atm, how many moles of CO2 are released by raising the temperature of 1 liter of water from 20∘C to 25∘C?
What is Henry's law? For what kinds of calculations is Henry's law useful?
For a saturated aqueous solution of each of the following at 20°C and 1 atm, will the solubility increase, decrease, or stay the same when the indicated change occurs?(a) O2(g), increase P
For a saturated aqueous solution of each of the following at 20°C and 1 atm, will the solubility increase, decrease, or stay the same when the indicated change occurs?(b) N2(g), increase V
For a saturated aqueous solution of each of the following at 20°C and 1 atm, will the solubility increase, decrease, or stay the same when the indicated change occurs? (a) He(g), decrease T
For a saturated aqueous solution of each of the following at 20°C and 1 atm, will the solubility increase, decrease, or stay the same when the indicated change occurs?(b) RbI(s), increase P
Respiratory problems are treated with devices that deliver air with a higher partial pressure of O2 than normal air. Why?
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrocarbons with all H atoms replaced by F atoms, have very weak cohesive forces. One interesting consequence of this property is that a live mouse can breathe while submerged in O2-saturated PFCs.(c) Rank in descending order the kH for O2 in water, ethanol, C6F14, and C6H14. Explain your ranking
Use atomic properties to explain why xenon is 11 times as soluble as helium in water at 0°C on a mole basis.
Examine the Henry’s law constants in the table.Henry's Law Constants for Several Gases in Water at 25 oCGas kH (M/atm) O21.3 10-3N26.1 10-4CO23.4 10-2NH35.8 101He3.7 10-4Why is the constant for ammonia larger than the others?
Although other solvents are available, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) is still often used to “decaffeinate” drinks because the solubility of caffeine in CH2Cl2 is 8.35 times that in water.(a) A 100.0-mL sample of cola containing 10.0 mg of caffeine is extracted with 60.0 mL of CH2Cl2. What mass of caffeine remains in the aqueous phase?
Although other solvents are available, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) is still often used to “decaffeinate” drinks because the solubility of caffeine in CH2Cl2 is 8.35 times that in water.(b) A second identical cola sample is extracted with two successive 30.0-mL portions of CH2Cl2. What mass of caffeine remains in the aqueous phase after each extraction?
At 0 °C and 1.00 atm, as much as 0.70 g of O2 can dissolve in 1 L of water. At 0 °C and 4.00 atm, how many grams of O2 dissolve in 1 L of water?
The Henry’s law constant (kH) for O2 in water at 20°C is 1.28×10–3 mol/L·atm. (a) How many grams of O2 will dissolve in 2.50 L of H2O that is in contact with pure O2 at 1.00 atm?
The Henry’s law constant for O2 is 1.3 × 10−3 M/atm at 25 °C. What mass of oxygen would be dissolved in a 40-L aquarium at 25 °C, assuming an atmospheric pressure of 1.00 atm, and that the partial pressure of O2 is 0.21 atm?
The Henry’s law constant (kH) for O2 in water at 20°C is 1.28×10–3 mol/L·atm.(b) How many grams of O2 will dissolve in 2.50 L of H2O that is in contact with air, where the partial pressure of O2 is 0.209 atm?
The solubility of N2 in blood is a serious problem for divers breathing compressed air (78% N2 by volume) at depths greater than 50 ft.(c) Find the volume (in mL) of N2, measured at 25°C and 1.00 atm, released per liter of blood when a diver at a depth of 50. ft rises to the surface (kH for N2 in water at 25°C is 7.0×10−4 mol/L·atm and at 37°C is 6.2×10−4 mol/L·atm; assume d of water is 1.00 g/mL).
A gas has a Henry's law constant of 0.151 M/atm. How much water would be needed to completely dissolve 1.66 L of the gas at a pressure of 7.30×102 torr and a temperature of 26 oC?
Soft drinks are canned under 4 atm of CO2 and release CO2 when the can is opened. (a) How many moles of CO2 are dissolved in 355 mL of soda in a can before it is opened?
Soft drinks are canned under 4 atm of CO2 and release CO2 when the can is opened.(c) What volume (in L) would the released CO2 occupy at 1.00 atm and 25°C (kH for CO2 at 25°C is 3.3×10−2 mol/L·atm; PCO2 in air is 4×10−4 atm)?
The small bubbles that form on the bottom of a water pot that is being heated (before boiling) are due to dissolved air coming out of solution. Use Henry's law and the solubilities given below to calculate the total volume of nitrogen and oxygen gas that should bubble out of 1.6 L of water upon warming from 25 oC to 50 oC. Assume that the water is initially saturated with nitrogen and oxygen gas at 25 oC and a total pressure of 1.0 atm. Assume that the gas bubbles out at a temperature of 50 oC. The solubility of oxygen gas at 50 oC is 27.8 mg/L at an oxygen pressure of 1.00 atm. The solubility of nitrogen gas at 50 oC is 14.6 mg/L at a nitrogen pressure of 1.00 atm. Assume that the air above the water contains an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and a nitrogen partial pressure of 0.78 atm.
You may want to reference (Page) Section 13.4 while completing this problem.A 500.0 ml sample of pure water is allowed to come to equilibrium with pure oxygen gas at a pressure of 755 mmHg. What mass of oxygen gas dissolves in the water? (The Henrys law constant for oxygen gas is 1.3 x 10-3 M/atm.)
The release of volatile organic compounds into the atmosphere is regulated to limit ozone formation. In a laboratory simulation, 5% of the ethanol in a liquid detergent is released. Thus, a “down-the-drain” factor of 0.05 is used to estimate ethanol emissions from the detergent. The kH values for ethanol and 2-butoxyethanol (C4H9OCH2CH2OH) are 5×10−6 atm·m3 /mol and 1.6×10−6 atm·m3 /mol, respectively.(a) Estimate a “down-the-drain” factor for 2-butoxyethanol in the detergent.
The release of volatile organic compounds into the atmosphere is regulated to limit ozone formation. In a laboratory simulation, 5% of the ethanol in a liquid detergent is released. Thus, a “down-the-drain” factor of 0.05 is used to estimate ethanol emissions from the detergent. The kH values for ethanol and 2-butoxyethanol (C4H9OCH2CH2OH) are 5×10−6 atm·m3 /mol and 1.6×10−6 atm·m3 /mol, respectively.(b) What is the kH for ethanol in units of L·atm/mol?
The release of volatile organic compounds into the atmosphere is regulated to limit ozone formation. In a laboratory simulation, 5% of the ethanol in a liquid detergent is released. Thus, a “down-the-drain” factor of 0.05 is used to estimate ethanol emissions from the detergent. The kH values for ethanol and 2-butoxyethanol (C4H9OCH2CH2OH) are 5×10−6 atm·m3 /mol and 1.6×10−6 atm·m3 /mol, respectively.(c) Is the value found in part (b) consistent with a value given as 0.64 Pa·m3 /mol?
Suppose coal-fired power plants used water in scrubbers to remove SO2 from smokestack gases (see Chemical Connections, Section 6.6). (a) If the partial pressure of SO2 in the stack gases is 2.0×10−3 atm, what is the solubility of SO2 in the scrubber liquid (kH for SO2 in water is 1.23 mol/L·atm at 200.°C)?
The Henry’s law constant for CO2 is 3.4 × 10−2 M/atm at 25 °C. What pressure of carbon dioxide is needed to maintain a CO2 concentration of 0.10 M in a can of lemon-lime soda?
To effectively stop polymerization, certain inhibitors require the presence of a small amount of O2. At equilibrium with 1 atm of air, the concentration of O2 dissolved in the monomer acrylic acid (CH2=CHCOOH) is 1.64×10−3 M.(a) What is kH (mol/L·atm) for O2 in acrylic acid?
Argon makes up 0.93% by volume of air. Calculate its solubility (mol/L) in water at 20°C and 1.0 atm. The Henry’s law constant for Ar under these conditions is 1.5×10–3 mol/L·atm.
To effectively stop polymerization, certain inhibitors require the presence of a small amount of O2. At equilibrium with 1 atm of air, the concentration of O2 dissolved in the monomer acrylic acid (CH2=CHCOOH) is 1.64×10−3 M.(b) If 0.005 atm of O2 is sufficient to stop polymerization, what is the molarity of O2?
The partial pressure of CO2 gas above the liquid in a bottle of champagne at 20°C is 5.5 atm. What is the solubility of CO2 in champagne? Assume Henry’s law constant is the same for champagne as for water: at 20°C, kH = 3.7×10–2 mol/L·atm.
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrocarbons with all H atoms replaced by F atoms, have very weak cohesive forces. One interesting consequence of this property is that a live mouse can breathe while submerged in O2-saturated PFCs. (a) At 298 K, perfluorohexane (C6F14, ℳ = 338 g/mol and d = 1.674 g/mL) in equilibrium with 101,325 Pa of O2 has a mole fraction of O2 of 4.28×10−3. What is kH in mol/L·atm?
The solubility of nitrogen in water is 8.21 x 10-4 mol/L at 0°C when the N2 pressure above water is 0.790 atm. Calculate the Henry’s law constant for N2 in units of mol/L • atm for Henry’s law in the form C = kP, where C is the gas concentration in mol/L. Calculate the solubility of N2 in water when the partial pressure of nitrogen above water is 1.10 atm at 0°C.
The solubility of N2 in blood is a serious problem for divers breathing compressed air (78% N2 by volume) at depths greater than 50 ft. (a) What is the molarity of N2 in blood at 1.00 atm?
Calculate the solubility of O2 in water at a partial pressure of O2 of 120 torr at 25°C. The Henry’s law constant for O2 is 1.3 x 10-3 mol/L • atm for Henry’s law in the form C = kP, where C is the gas concentration (mol/L).
The solubility of N2 in blood is a serious problem for divers breathing compressed air (78% N2 by volume) at depths greater than 50 ft.(b) What is the molarity of N2 in blood at a depth of 50. ft?
A saturated solution was formed when 5.38×10−2 L of argon, at a pressure of 1.0 atm and temperature of 25 oC, was dissolved in 1.0 L of water. Calculate the Henry's law constant for argon.
You may want to reference(Pages 582 - 585) section 13.4 while completing this problem.Use Henry's law to determine the molar solubility of helium at a pressure of 1.6 atm and 25 oC. Henry’s law constant for helium gas in water at 25 oC is 3.70 10-4 M/atm.
A river is contaminated with 0.65 mg/L of dichloroethylene (C2H2Cl2). What is the concentration (in ng/L) of dichloroethylene at 21°C in the air breathed by a person swimming in the river (kH for C2H2Cl2 in water is 0.033 mol/L·atm)?
Suppose that you have made a saturated solution of this solute using 53.0 g of water at 20.0 °C. How much more solute can you add if the temperature is increased to 30.0 C?
At 20° C and a partial pressure of 760 mmHg the solubility of CO2 in water is 0.169 g/100 mL. What is the solubility of CO2 at 2.7 x 104 mmHg?
Enter your answer in the provided box.Calculate the pressure of O2 necessary to generate an aqueous solution that is 4.9 x 10-2 M in O2 at 25°C. The Henry's law constant for O2 in water at 25°C is 1.3 x 10-3 mol/L atm.
Calculate the solubility (in M units) of ammonia gas in water at 298 K and a partial pressure of 3.50 bar. The Henry's law constant for ammonia gas at 298 K is 58.0 M/atm and 1 bar = 0.9869 atm. Express your answer in molarity to three significant figures.
Calculate the solubility of nitrogen in water at an atmospheric pressure of 0.41 atm (a typical value at high altitude). 
Use Henry's law to determine the molar solubility of helium at a pressure of 1.9 atm and 25°C. Henry's law constant for helium gas in water at 25°C is 3.70 x 10-4 M/atm. Express your answer using two significant figures.
At 25°C and 765 Torr, carbon dioxide has a solubility of 0.0342 M in water. What is its solubility at 25°C and 1210 Torr?
What is the quantitative relationship between gas solubility and pressure?a. Avogadro's Lawb. Entropyc. Enthalpyd. Boyle's lawe. Henry's law