Ch.2 - Atoms & ElementsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

The Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment led to the discovery of the highly dense center within a given atom. 

The Gold Foil Experiment 

Concept #1: An atom is composed of 3 subatomic particles and its center  is where a majority of the mass is found. 

Concept #2: The Gold Foil Experiment helped to disprove the older plum pudding model of atom. 

Additional Problems
Which statements are inconsistent with Rutherford's nuclear theory as it was originally stated? Why? a. Since electrons are smaller than protons, and since a hydrogen atom contains only one proton and one electron, it must follow that the volume of a hydrogen atom is mostly due to the proton.  b. A nitrogen atom has seven protons in its nucleus and seven electrons outside of its nucleus. c. A phosphorus atom has 15 protons in its nucleus and 150 electrons outside of its nucleus. d. The majority of the mass of a fluorine atom is due to its nine electrons. 
The gold foil Rutherford used in his scattering experiment had a thickness of approximately 6×10−3 mm .If a single gold atom has a diameter of 2.9 10-8 cm, how many atoms thick was Rutherfords foil?
Which of the following statements are inconsistent with Rutherfords nuclear theory as it was originally stated?Since electrons are smaller than protons, and since a hydrogen atom contains only one proton and one electron, it must follow that the volume of a hydrogen atom is mostly due to the proton.
Which of the following statements are inconsistent with Rutherfords nuclear theory as it was originally stated?A nitrogen atom has seven protons in its nucleus and seven electrons outside of its nucleus.
Which of the following statements are inconsistent with Rutherfords nuclear theory as it was originally stated?A phosphorus atom has 15 protons in its nucleus and 150 electrons outside of its nucleus.
Which of the following statements are inconsistent with Rutherfords nuclear theory as it was originally stated?The majority of the mass of a fluorine atom is due to its nine electrons.
Describe Rutherfords gold foil experiment.
Describe Rutherfords nuclear model of the atom.
If matter is mostly empty space, as suggested by Rutherford, then why does it appear so solid?
Which of the following statements are consistent with Rutherfords nuclear theory as it was originally stated?The volume of an atom is mostly empty space.
Which of the following statements are consistent with Rutherfords nuclear theory as it was originally stated?The nucleus of an atom is small compared to the size of the atom.
Which of the following statements are consistent with Rutherfords nuclear theory as it was originally stated?Neutral lithium atoms contain more neutrons than protons.
Which of the following statements are consistent with Rutherfords nuclear theory as it was originally stated?Neutral lithium atoms contain more protons than electrons.
Rutherfords alpha-scattering experiment. When alpha particles pass through a gold foil, most pass through undeflected but some are scattered, a few at very large angles. According to the plum-pudding model of the atom, the particles should experience only very minor deflections. The nuclear model of the atom explains why a few alpha particles are deflected at large angles. Although the nuclear atom has been depicted here as a yellow sphere, it is important to realize that most of the space around the nucleus contains only the low-mass electrons. What is the charge on the particles that form the beam?
Rutherfords alpha-scattering experiment. When alpha particles pass through a gold foil, most pass through undeflected but some are scattered, a few at very large angles. According to the plum-pudding model of the atom, the particles should experience only very minor deflections. The nuclear model of the atom explains why a few alpha particles are deflected at large angles. Although the nuclear atom has been depicted here as a yellow sphere, it is important to realize that most of the space around the nucleus contains only the low-mass electrons. Will they be attracted to or repelled from the positively charged gold nuclei?
Would you expect the number of alpha particles scattered at large angles in Rutherfords experiment to increase, decrease, or stay the same as the thickness of the gold foil increases?
What discovery about atomic structure was made from the results of Rutherfords gold foil experiment?
Prior to Rutherfords gold foil experiment, the "plum pudding" model of the atom represented atomic structure. In this model, the atom is composed of electrons interspersed within a positive cloud of charge. If this were the correct model of the atom, how would the results of Rutherfords experiment have been different?
The gold foil that Rutherford used in his scattering experiment had a thickness of approximately 0.006 mm .If a single gold atom has a diameter of 2.9 10-10 m, how many atoms thick was Rutherfords foil?
Rutherford's experiment with alpha particle scattering by gold foil established that:a. protons are not evenly distributed throughout an atomb.  protons are 1840 times heavier than electronsc.  electrons have a positive charged. electrons have a negative chargee. atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons
When a beam of alpha particles passes between two electrically charged plates, the beam is deflected toward the positive plate.a. Trueb. False
The contributions of J. J. Thomson and Ernest Rutherford led the way to today’s understanding of the structure of the atom. What were their contributions?
The Rutherford experiment showed that:A. most of the mass of an atom is concentrated at its center.B. an atom consists of electrons, protons, and neutrons.C. the electrons have a charge on them.D. that different atoms have different massesE. the e/m ratio for an atom was constant
When Rutherford’s coworkers bombarded gold foil with α particles, they obtained results that overturned the existing (Thomson) model of the atom. Explain.