Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular StructureSee all chapters
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Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
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Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
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Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
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Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
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Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Formal Charge

See all sections
Sections
Chemical Bonds
Lattice Energy
Lattice Energy Application
Born Haber Cycle
Dipole Moment
Lewis Dot Structure
Octet Rule
Formal Charge
Resonance Structures
Additional Practice
Bond Energy

Formal Charge is the charge given to an element within a molecule. It assumes that electrons are shared equally between elements, regardless of electronegativity. 

Formal Charge

Concept #1: Why is formal charge important?

Many Lewis Dot Structures break the octet rule. Formal Charge is used to predict the most correct structure. 

Concept #2: The Formal Charge Formula

Whenever using the formal charge formula the three acceptable answers are -1, 0 and +1. 

Example #1: Calculate the formal charge for each of the following element designated for each of the following. 

The carbon atom in  CO      

               

The sulfur atom in SOCl2                                  

Practice: Calculate the formal charge for each of the following element designated in the following compound. a. Both Oxygen atoms.

Additional Problems
In which of the Lewis structures below does the nitrogen atom have a formal charge of −2?
Draw the Lewis structure for ClF3 where the central atom has a zero formal charge.
What is the formal charge on the iodine atom in ICl2 + (where iodine is the central atom)? a) + 2 b) + 1 c) 0 d) – 1 e) – 2
What are the formal charges on the two outer oxygen atoms in ozone (O 3)? a) 0 and 0 b) 0 and −1 c) +1 and −1 d) 0 and +1 e) −1 and −1
What is the formal charge of phosphorus in the proper Lewis structure of phosphate ion? A. 0 B. +1 C. -1 D. +5 E. -3
For dinitrogen monoxide, the arrangement of the atoms is N-N-O. In the Lewis structure with a single bond between NN and a triple bond between NO, the formal charges on N, N, and O, respectively, are -1, +1, 0 0, 0, 0 0, +1, -1 0, -1, +1 -2, +1, +1
The formaldehyde molecule, which has the formula CH 2O, has two possible structures for which we can write a correct Lewis dot structures. Using formal charge, determine the correct structure.  Be sure to show how you compute the formal charge on each atom.
Based on the formal charges, which structure is favored? a.  A b.  B c.  C d.  A and C are both equally stable, and also more stable than B e.  The three structures are equally favored.
Determine the formal charge (F.C.) and oxidation number (O.N.) of sulfur in a molecule of SOF4. Hint: draw the Lewis structure. a) F.C. = 0 , O.N. = 0 b) F.C. = 0 , O.N. = 4 c) F.C. = 1 , O.N. = −1 d) F.C. = −1 , O.N. = 6 e) F.C. = 0 , O.N. = 6
These two electron-dot formulas for carbon dioxide (given below) both satisfy the octet rule, but one is preferred over the other. Which of the statements identifies the preferred structure and also the reason it is preferred? a) Structure 1 is preferred because the triple bond is stronger than the double bond. b) Structure 1 is preferred because the formal charge on carbon is negative.  c) Structure 2 is preferred because the formal charge on each atom is zero. d) Structure 2 is preferred because the bonds are equal. 
A Lewis structure for sulfurous acid (H 2SO3) is shown below. The formal charge on the sulfur atom in this Lewis structure is
What is the formal charge on the nitrogen in the nitrate ion NO 3 – ? a. -1 b. 0 c. +1 d. +2
Draw the best Lewis structure for Br3 – . What is the formal charge on the central Br atom? A) -1 B) 0 C) +1 D) +2 E) -2
Draw the best Lewis structure for the free radical, NO2. What is the formal charge on the N? A) 0 B) +1 C) -1 D) +2 E) -2
Draw the best Lewis structure for ClO 4 – and determine the formal charge on chlorine. A) -1 B) +1 C) 0 D) +2 E) +3
In the following Lewis structure for ClO3F, chlorine has a formal charge of ____ and an oxidation number of ____. (a) 7, 7 (b) 7, -1 (c) 1, 1 (d) 1, -1 (e) 1, 7
You may want to reference (Pages 315 - 319)Section 8.5 while completing this problem.Phosphorus oxychloride has the chemical formula POCl3, with P as the central atom. In order to minimize formal charge, how many bonds does phosphorus make to the other atoms in the molecule? (Count each single bond as one, each double bond as two, and each triple bond as three).
A major challenge in implementing the “hydrogen economy” is finding a safe, lightweight, and compact way of storing hydrogen for use as a fuel. The hydrides of light metals are attractive for hydrogen storage because they can store a high weight percentage of hydrogen in a small volume. For example NaAlH4, can release 5.6% of its mass as H2 upon decomposing to NaH(s), Al(s), and H2(g). NaAlH4 possesses both covalent bonds, which hold polyatomic anions together, and ionic bonds.Draw a Lewis structure for this ion.
You may want to reference (Pages 316 - 319) Section 8.5 while completing this problem.Using formal charges, which of these three resonance forms is likely to be the most important?
In the vapor phase, BeCl2 exists as a discrete molecule.On the basis of the formal charges, which Lewis structure is expected to be dominant for BeCl2?
Which of the Lewis structures for XeO3 yields the most favorable formal charges for the molecule?
The substance chlorine monoxide, ClO (g), is important in atmospheric processes that lead to depletion of the ozone layer. The ClO molecule has has an experimental dipole moment of 1.24 D and the Cl - O bond length is 1.60 Å.Using formal charges as a guide, propose the dominant Lewis structure for the molecule.
Draw the Lewis structure for NO+.
There are many Lewis structures you could draw for sulfuric acid, H2SO4 (each H is bonded to an O).What Lewis structure(s) would you draw to minimize formal charge?
Formic acid has the chemical formula HCOOH. It is a colorless liquid that has a density of 1.220 g/mL.Draw the Lewis structure of the formate ion.
Use formal charge to identify the better Lewis structure. .
Use formal charges to identify the better Lewis structure.
Which of the Lewis structures for NO is dominant based on analysis of the formal charges?
In the Lewis structure shown here, A, D, E, Q, X, and Z represent elements in the first two rows of the periodic table (H - Ne). You may want to reference (Pages 307 - 309) Section 8.3 while completing this problem.Identify A so that its formal charge is zero.
In the Lewis structure shown here, A, D, E, Q, X, and Z represent elements in the first two rows of the periodic table (H - Ne). You may want to reference (Pages 307 - 309) Section 8.3 while completing this problem.Identify D so that its formal charge is zero.
In the Lewis structure shown here, A, D, E, Q, X, and Z represent elements in the first two rows of the periodic table (H - Ne). You may want to reference (Pages 307 - 309) Section 8.3 while completing this problem.Identify E so that its formal charge is zero.
In the Lewis structure shown here, A, D, E, Q, X, and Z represent elements in the first two rows of the periodic table (H - Ne). You may want to reference (Pages 307 - 309) Section 8.3 while completing this problem.Identify Q so that its formal charge is zero.
In the Lewis structure shown here, A, D, E, Q, X, and Z represent elements in the first two rows of the periodic table (H - Ne). You may want to reference (Pages 307 - 309) Section 8.3 while completing this problem.Identify X so that its formal charge is zero.
In the Lewis structure shown here, A, D, E, Q, X, and Z represent elements in the first two rows of the periodic table (H - Ne). You may want to reference (Pages 307 - 309) Section 8.3 while completing this problem.Identify Z so that its formal charge is zero.
Consider the Lewis structure for the polyatomic oxyanion shown here, where X is an element from the third period (Na-Ar). By changing the overall charge, n, from 1- to 2- to 3- we get three different polyatomic ions. For each of these ions draw a Lewis structure that makes the formal charge on the central atom equal to zero.
The structure of borazine, B3N3H6, is a six-membered ring of alternating B and N atoms. There is one H atom bonded to each B and to each N atom. The molecule is planar.Write a Lewis structure for borazine in which the formal charges on every atom is zero.
For the molecule shown: Calculate the formal charge of N.
For the molecule shown: Calculate the formal charge of O.
You may want to reference(Page 405) Section 9.8 while completing this problem.Determine the formal charge of nitrogen in the structure shown here:
Consider the Lewis structure shown below. Does the Lewis structure depict a neutral molecule or an ion?
Consider the Lewis structure shown below. What is the charge on the ion?
Use formal charge to explain why the fulminate ion is less stable (and therefore more reactive) than the cyanate ion.
Which element forms a 3+ ion that has the electron configuration [Kr]4d6 ?
A major challenge in implementing the “hydrogen economy” is finding a safe, lightweight, and compact way of storing hydrogen for use as a fuel. The hydrides of light metals are attractive for hydrogen storage because they can store a high weight percentage of hydrogen in a small volume. For example NaAlH4, can release 5.6% of its mass as H2 upon decomposing to NaH(s), Al(s), and H2(g). NaAlH4 possesses both covalent bonds, which hold polyatomic anions together, and ionic bonds.What is the formal charge on hydrogen in the polyatomic ion?
You may want to reference (Pages 408 - 411) Section 9.9 while completing this problem.Draw the Lewis structure for H3PO4. If necessary, expand the octet on appropriate atoms to lower formal charge.
The substance chlorine monoxide, ClO (g), is important in atmospheric processes that lead to depletion of the ozone layer. The ClO molecule has has an experimental dipole moment of 1.24 D and the Cl - O bond length is 1.60 Å.The anion ClO- exists. What is the formal charge on the Cl for the best Lewis structure for ClO-?
What is the formal charge of Li?
You may want to reference (Pages 403 - 407)Section 9.8 while completing this problem.What are the formal charges of the atoms shown in red?
You may want to reference (Pages 320 - 322) Section 8.6 while completing this problem.Write a single Lewis structure that obeys the octet rule for SO3 2 - and assign the formal charges on all the atoms.
You may want to reference (Pages 320 - 322) Section 8.6 while completing this problem.Write a single Lewis structure that obeys the octet rule for SO2 and assign the formal charges on all the atoms.
You may want to reference (Pages 320 - 322) Section 8.6 while completing this problem.Write a single Lewis structure that obeys the octet rule for SO3 and assign the formal charges on all the atoms. (There should be one double bond in the structure.)
Calculate the formal charge on the indicated atom in each of the following molecules or ions. Some molecules may have more than one possible resonance structure, each resulting in a different possible formal charge on the indicated atom. In such cases, supply both unique formal charge values separated by commas.the central oxygen atom in O3
Calculate the formal charge on the indicated atom in each of the following molecules or ions. Some molecules may have more than one possible resonance structure, each resulting in a different possible formal charge on the indicated atom. In such cases, supply both unique formal charge values separated by commas.nitrogen in NO2
Calculate the formal charge on the indicated atom in each of the following molecules or ions. Some molecules may have more than one possible resonance structure, each resulting in a different possible formal charge on the indicated atom. In such cases, supply both unique formal charge values separated by commas.iodine in ICl3
Calculate the formal charge on the indicated atom in each of the following molecules or ions. Some molecules may have more than one possible resonance structure, each resulting in a different possible formal charge on the indicated atom. In such cases, supply both unique formal charge values separated by commas.chlorine in HClO4 (hydrogen is bonded to O)
What is formal charge?
How is formal charge calculated?
Consider the Lewis structure for the polyatomic oxyanion shown here, where X is an element from the third period (Na-Ar). By changing the overall charge, n, from 1- to 2- to 3- we get three different polyatomic ions. For each of these ions determine the formal charge of the central atom, X. Arrange your answers in order increasing n.
Write a Lewis structure that obeys the octet rule for each of the following molecules or ions. Assign formal charges to each atom.SeO2
The structure of borazine, B3N3H6, is a six-membered ring of alternating B and N atoms. There is one H atom bonded to each B and to each N atom. The molecule is planar.Given the electronegativities of B and N, do the formal charges seem favorable or unfavorable?
In N2O, nitrogen is the central atom and the oxygen atom is terminal. In OF2, however, oxygen is the central atom.Use formal charges to explain why.
Phosphoryl iodide is used in the preparation of organophosphorus derivatives and phosphate esters. Select the best Lewis structure for POI3.
Draw the lewis structure for chlorate (ClO3-). For this structure, give each atom an octet and do not include a formal charge
What is the lewis structure for SO42- and the formal charge?
Draw a Lewis structure for ammonia, NH3. Show all unshared pairs and the formal charges, if any. Assume that bonding follows the octet rule.
What is the formal charge on the carbon atom in CO?
Which of the following best represents the Lewis structure for ozone O 3?a. 1b. 2c. 5d. 4e. 3
Why is it not recommended to draw double bonds between the Be atom and the Cl atoms in BeCl2?a. It would give positive formal charges to the chlorine atoms and a negative formal charge to the beryllium atomb. There would be too many valence shell electronsc. It would result in more than eight electrons around berylliumd. It would result in more than eight electrons around each chlorine atome. It would result in the formal charges not adding up to zero
The formaldehyde molecule, which has the formula CH 2O, has two possible structures for which we can write a correct Lewis dot structures.  Using formal charge, determine the correct structure.  Be sure to show how you compute the formal charge on each atom.
Draw the Lewis structure for ClO4-. Show the formal charges of all atoms in the structure.
Draw the Lewis structure for N 2O that minimizes formal charge and places all negative formal charge on the most electronegative atom.
Draw Lewis structure for CN+, CN, and CN- and include formal charges, lone pairs and nonbonding electrons.
According to the formal charges, choose the best Lewis structure for PO 43-
Write a Lewis structure for each of the following ions. Assign formal charges to all atoms. If necessary, expand the octet on the central atom to lower formal charge. SO42- HSO4- SO32- BrO2-
Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is used in the production of phosphate fertilizers and is often found in soft drinks (check the labels). In the molecule, phosphorus is at the center, and the hydrogen atoms are attached to the oxygen atoms. Phosphorous acid (H3PO3) differs slightly in that one of the hydrogen atoms is attached to the central phosphorus atom. Select the Lewis electron dot structure of both. Compare the formal charges on the phosphorus atoms. (Write your answers using the format +1 and -2.) H3PO4 _____ H3PO3 _____
Draw the Lewis structure of CO. Include lone pairs and formal charges.
Draw the Lewis Structure for NaOH. Fill octets with lone pair electrons. Assign a formal charge if available.
Which of the following is a correct Lewis structure for nitrous acid, HNO2 ?
Draw a single Lewis structure for the phosphate ion (PO 43-), in which the octet rule is obeyed. Include all formal charges and lone-pair electrons.
Why does the most proper Lewis structure of BeCl 2 contain two single Be-Cl bonds instead of two double Be=Cl bonds?a. The formal charges of the atoms would be maximized, rather than minimized as required by the formal charge rule, if BeCl 2 contained two double bondsb. Neither Be nor Cl could satisfy the octet rule if BeCl 2 contained two double bondsc. Be would be surrounded by more than eight electrons if BeCl 2 had two double bondsd. The Cl atoms would be surrounded by more than eight electrons each if BeCl 2 contained two double bonds e. The formal charges could not sum to zero if BeCl 2 contained two double bonds
Give the proper Lewis structure of the following molecule/ion. Show the formal charge of any atom with a non-zero formal charge. Sulfite  
Give the proper Lewis structure of the following molecule/ion. Show the formal charge of any atom with a non-zero formal charge.Iodine pentachloride
Give the proper Lewis structure of the following molecule/ion. Show the formal charge of any atom with a non-zero formal charge. Carbon monoxide
For a molecule of fluorous acid, the atoms are arranged as HOFO. What is the formal charge on each of the atoms?
Nitromethane is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH 3NO2. Draw a complete Lewis structure that shows all bonds, unshared electron pairs, and minimized formal charges, where appropriate.
For the following covalent compounds, draw the lewis dot configuration and identify the formal charge of the atoms as indicated.(a) CO2 Lewis Structure:                                    Formal charge of C:                                       Formal charge of O:   (b) H2CO Lewis Structure:      Formal charge of C:                                       Formal charge of O:
Given the Lewis Structure shown below, what is the formal charge on the sulfur atom labeled #1? A. 0 B. -1 C. +1 D. -2 E. +2
Draw one Lewis structure COS.  There are no O – S bonds. Include any formal charges. All unshared electrons must be shown.
Draw one Lewis structure for nitrous oxide, N2O. There is a terminal oxygen. Include any formal charges. All unshared electrons must be shown.
Which is the best Lewis structure of the thiocyanate ion, SCN − ?A) AB) BC) CD) both A and CE) A, B, and C are all equally plausible
Draw one Lewis structure for CH3N. There is at least 1 N – H bond. Include any formal charges. All unshared electrons must be shown.
Draw one Lewis structure for formaldehyde, CH2O. There are no O – H bonds. Include any formal charges. All unshared electrons must be shown.
In the spaces below draw a Lewis dot diagram showing the presence of all electrons in the molecule or ion. All of these obey the rule that there are eight electrons around each atom. There may be more than one possible structure but you should draw only one configuration but draw it clearly placing your final answer in the box.Also indicate the formal charge on each atom. You may use a line ( —) to represent a two electron chemical bond, you may use( • or o or x) to represent an electron but your drawings must be clear and definite. 
Draw the best Lewis structure for Cl3-. What is the formal charge on the central Cl atom?
Assuming the octet rule is obeyed, how many covalent bonds will a nitrogen atom form to give a formal charge of zero?1) 12) 23) 34) 45) 5
Draw a Lewis structure for SO2 in which all atoms have a formal charge of zero.
Based on formal charge considerations, which of the following would likely be the correct arrangement of atoms in nitrosyl chloride: ClNO or ClON?
Based on formal charge considerations, which of the following would likely be the correct arrangement of atoms in hypochlorous acid: HOCl or OClH?
Based on formal charge considerations, which of the following would likely be the correct arrangement of atoms in sulfur dioxide: OSO or SOO?
Which of the following structures would we expect for nitrous acid? Determine the formal charges:
For a molecule of fluorous acid, the atoms are arranged as HOFO.  What is the formal charge on each of the atoms? Enter the formal charges in the same order as the atoms are listed.
Draw a Lewis structure for SO2 in which all atoms obey the octet rule. Show formal charges. Draw a Lewis structure for SO2 in which all atoms have a formal charge of zero. Explicitly showing the zero charges is optional. Do not consider ringed structures.
A common trait of simple organic compounds is to have Lewis structures where all atoms have a formal charge of zero. Consider the following incomplete Lewis structure for an organic compound called methyl cyanoacrylate, the main ingredient in Super Glue.Draw a complete Lewis structure for methyl cyanoacrylate in which all atoms have a formal charge of zero.
The study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties is called organic chemistry. Besides carbon atoms, organic compounds also can contain hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms (as well as other types of atoms). A common trait of simple organic compounds is to have Lewis structures where all atoms have a formal charge of zero. Consider the following incomplete Lewis structure for an organic compound called histidine (an amino acid), which is one of the building blocks of proteins found in our bodies:Draw a complete Lewis structure for histidine in which all atoms have a formal charge of zero.
When molten sulfur reacts with chlorine gas, a vile-smelling orange liquid forms that has a formula of S2Cl2. The Lewis structure of this compound has a formal charge of zero on all elements in the compound. Draw the Lewis structure for the vile-smelling orange liquid.
Draw a Lewis structure and add formal charges to each resonance form of HCNO. 
Based on formal charges, draw the most preferred Lewis structure for ClO 3-?
Draw the Lewis structure of NO2−. Assign formal charges to each atom in the O 3 molecule. Based on formal charges, draw the most preferred Lewis structure for the chlorate ion, ClO3−?
The Lewis structure for the chlorate ion is shown below. A. Calculate the formal charge on the chlorine (Cl) atom.B. Calculate the formal charge on each of the oxygen (O) atoms labeled a, b, and c in the following Lewis structure.
Draw the Lewis structure with lowest formal charges, and determine the charge of each atom in (a) IF5
Draw the Lewis structure with lowest formal charges, and determine the charge of each atom in (b) AlH4−
Draw the Lewis structure with lowest formal charges, and determine the charge of each atom in (a) OCS
Strike-anywhere matches contain a layer of KClO3 and a layer of P4S3. The heat produced by the friction of striking the match causes these two compounds to react vigorously, which sets fire to the wooden stem of the match. KClO3 contains the ClO3− ion. P4S3 is an unusual molecule with the skeletal structure.(d) Determine the oxidation states and formal charge of the atoms in P4S3 and the ClO3– ion.
Draw the Lewis structure with lowest formal charges, and determine the charge of each atom in (b) NO
Draw the Lewis structure with lowest formal charges, and determine the charge of each atom in (b) ClO−
Draw the Lewis structure with lowest formal charges, and determine the charge of each atom in (a) ClF2+
Draw the Lewis structure with lowest formal charges, and determine the charge of each atom in (b) ClNO
Despite many attempts, the perbromate ion ( BrO 4−) was not prepared in the laboratory until about 1970. (In fact, articles were published explaining theoretically why it could never be prepared!) Draw a Lewis structure for BrO4− in which all atoms have lowest formal charges.
Diazomethane is a highly poisonous, explosive compound. The reason it is explosive is that it readily evolves N2. Diazomethane has the following composition by mass: 28.57% C; 4.80% H; and 66.64% N. The molar mass of diazomethane is 42.04/mol. Draw its Lewis structure, and assign formal charges to each atom.
Use the formal charge arguments to rationalize why BF3 would not follow the octet rule.
Use formal charge arguments to explain why CO has a less polar bond than expected on the basis of electronegativity.
Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule for the follow‑ ing species. Assign the formal charge for each central atom.a. POCl3
Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule for the follow‑ ing species. Assign the formal charge for each central atom.b. SO42-
Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule for the follow‑ ing species. Assign the formal charge for each central atom.c. ClO4-
Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule for the follow‑ ing species. Assign the formal charge for each central atom.d. PO43-
Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule for the follow‑ ing species. Assign the formal charge for each central atom.e. SO2Cl2
Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule for the follow‑ ing species. Assign the formal charge for each central atom.f. XeO4
Determine the formal charge of each element in the following:(a) HCl
Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule for the follow‑ ing species. Assign the formal charge for each central atom.g. ClO3-
Determine the formal charge of each element in the following:(b) CF4
Write Lewis structures that obey the octet rule for the follow‑ ing species. Assign the formal charge for each central atom.h. NO43-
Determine the formal charge of each element in the following:(c) PCl3
Determine the formal charge of each element in the following:(d) PF5
Determine the formal charge of each element in the following:(a) H3O+
Determine the formal charge of each element in the following:(b) SO42−
Determine the formal charge of each element in the following:(c) NH3
Determine the formal charge of each element in the following:(d) O22−
Determine the formal charge of each element in the following:(e) H2O2
You may want to reference (Pages 403 - 407) Section 9.8 while completing this problem.Assign formal charges to each of the atoms in the Lewis structure of the nitrate ion.
Calculate the formal charge of chlorine in the molecules Cl2, BeCl2, and ClF5.
Write Lewis structures for the species in Exercise 99 that involve minimum formal charges.b. SO4 2-
Calculate the formal charge of each element in the following compounds and ions:(a) F2CO
Write Lewis structures for the species in Exercise 99 that involve minimum formal charges.a. POCl3
Write Lewis structures for the species in Exercise 99 that involve minimum formal charges.c. ClO4 -
Write Lewis structures for the species in Exercise 99 that involve minimum formal charges.d. PO4 3-
Calculate the formal charge of each element in the following compounds and ions:(b) NO–
Write Lewis structures for the species in Exercise 99 that involve minimum formal charges.e. SO2Cl2
Write Lewis structures for the species in Exercise 99 that involve minimum formal charges.f. XeO4
Write Lewis structures for the species in Exercise 99 that involve minimum formal charges.g. ClO3-
Calculate the formal charge of each element in the following compounds and ions:(c) BF4−
Write Lewis structures for the species in Exercise 99 that involve minimum formal charges.h. NO4 3-
Calculate the formal charge of each element in the following compounds and ions:(d) SnCl3−
Calculate the formal charge of each element in the following compounds and ions:(e) H2CCH2
Oxidation of the cyanide ion produces the stable cyanate ion, OCN2. The fulminate ion, CNO2, on the other hand, is very unstable. Fulminate salts explode when struck; Hg(CNO)2 is used in blasting caps. Write the Lewis structures and assign formal charges for the cyanate and fulminate ions. Why is the fulminate ion so unstable? (C is the central atom in OCN2 and N is the central atom in CNO2.)
Calculate the formal charge of each element in the following compounds and ions:(f) ClF3
Calculate the formal charge of each element in the following compounds and ions:(g) SeF6
Calculate the formal charge of each element in the following compounds and ions:(h) PO43−
Both aluminum and iodine form chlorides, Al 2Cl6 and I2Cl6, with “bridging” Cl atoms. The Lewis structures are(a) What is the formal charge on each atom in molecule?
Draw the structure of hydroxylamine, H3NO, and assign formal charges; look up the structure. Is the actual structure consistent with the formal charges?
Iodine forms a series of fluorides (listed here). Write Lewis structures for each of the four compounds and determine the formal charge of the iodine atom in each molecule:(a) IF
Iodine forms a series of fluorides (listed here). Write Lewis structures for each of the four compounds and determine the formal charge of the iodine atom in each molecule:(b) IF3
Iodine forms a series of fluorides (listed here). Write Lewis structures for each of the four compounds and determine the formal charge of the iodine atom in each molecule:(c) IF5
Iodine forms a series of fluorides (listed here). Write Lewis structures for each of the four compounds and determine the formal charge of the iodine atom in each molecule:(d) IF7
Write the Lewis structure and chemical formula of the compound with a molar mass of about 70 g/mol that contains 19.7% nitrogen and 80.3% fluorine by mass, and determine the formal charge of the atoms in this compound.
The Murchison meteorite that landed in Australia in 1969 contained 92 different amino acids, including 21 found in Earth organisms. A skeleton structure (single bonds only) of one of these extraterrestrial amino acids is shown below.Draw a Lewis structure, and identify any atoms having a nonzero formal charge.
You may want to reference (Pages 408 - 411) Section 9.9 while completing this problem.Write a Lewis structure for each of the following ions. Assign formal charges to all atoms. If necessary, expand the octet on the central atom to lower formal charge.SO42- 
You may want to reference (Pages 408 - 411) Section 9.9 while completing this problem.Write a Lewis structure for each of the following ions. Assign formal charges to all atoms. If necessary, expand the octet on the central atom to lower formal charge.SO3
Write a Lewis structure that obeys the octet rule for each of the following molecules or ions. Assign formal charges to each atom.CO32- 
What is the formal charge on  boron in the compound below?
Calculate the formal charge on the N in the molecule below (as drawn)