Ch.1 - Intro to General ChemistrySee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Temperature is a measure of the amount of average kinetic energy of the atoms in a compound.

Temperature vs. Heat

Concept #1: Understanding Temperature and Heat.

Temperature and heat are not as similar as you might think. Temperature is independent on the amount of matter, whereas heat is dependent on the amount of matter.

Example #1: Which of the following has the greatest amount of heat?

Remember that heat is based on the amount of matter and therefore represents an extensive property

Temperature Conversions

Concept #2: Kelvins, Celsius and Fahrenheit

Although the SI unit for temperature is Kelvin you will required to know how to convert between Celsius and Fahrenheit as well. 

Example #2: Convert the following units of temperature. 

-115°C into Fahrenheit                                                  

 73.23 K into Fahrenheit

Additional Problems
The average temperature on the summit of a mountain is 15°F. What is this temperature in Kelvin? A) 242 K B) 84 K C) -282 K D) 264 K
Zirconium is a corrosion resistant metal that has a boiling point of 4682 K. What is the boiling point of this element in °F? Zirconium carbonate is used in lotions to treat poison ivy.   a) 8951 b) 4409 c) 7904 d) 7968 e) 8459
If the melting point of titanium metal is 1672°C, what is its melting point in Kelvin? A) 1945 K         B) 3042 K           C) 1399 K           D) 897 K
What is the Kelvin temperature at 24°C? A)  249 K     B)  11.4 K     C)  -297 K     D)  -249 K     E)  297 K
What are the three common temperature scales? Does the size of a degree differ among them? 
Molecular bromine (Br2) has a boiling point of 58.8°C and a freezing point of 19°F. a. Convert the boiling point to units of Fahrenheit (°F). b. On a sunny 75°F day in Florida, would you expect bromine to exist as a solid, liquid or gas? c. Are the freezing and boiling points of bromine considered physical or chemical properties?
Gallium is a solid at room temperature, but has a melting point of 302.91 K. Compared to the temperature of the human body, 98.6°F, which is true? A. Gallium melts at a lower temperature than body temperature, so it could melt in your hand if you hold it. B. Gallium melts at a higher temperature than body temperature, so it will not melt in your hand if you hold it. C. The melting point of gallium is less than the freezing point of water. D. The melting point of gallium is greater than the boiling point of water.
Convert each temperature.  a. 32 °F to °C (temperature at which water freezes) 
Convert each temperature.  b. 77 K to °F (temperature of liquid nitrogen) 
Convert each temperature . b. 22 °C to K (approximate room temperature)
The outside temperature is 250 K, what is the temperature in °F? A. -9.67 °F B. -23.15 °F C. 973.67 °F D. 909.67 °F
Convert each temperature .  d. 2.735 K to °C (average temperature of the universe as measured from background black body radiation)
If a solution has a temperature of 355 K, what is its temperature in degrees celsius? a. 165°C b. 628°C c. 179°C d. 82°C    
Arsenic is a solid at room temperature, but has a melting point of 354.15 K. Compared to the temperature of the human body, 98.6°F, which is true? a. Arsenic melts at a lower temperature than body temperature, so it could melt in your hand if you hold it,  b. Arsenic melts at a higher temperature than body than temperature, so it wii not melt in your hand if you hold it. c. The melting point of arsenic is less than the freezing point of water. d. The melting point of arsenic is greater than the boiling point of water.  
At what temperatures will the readings on the Fahrenheit and Celsius thermometers be the same? 
If the temperature is 178°F, what is the temperature in degrees celsius? A) 352°C B) 451°C C) 67°C D) 81.1°C E) 378°C
You may want to reference (Pages 14 - 20) Section 1.6 while completing this problem. Perform each of the following temperature conversions.Convert 212 oF to oC (temperature of boiling water at sea level).
At a certain point, the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales "cross," giving the same numerical value on both.At what temperature does this crossover occur?
Gallium is a solid metal at room temperature but melts into a liquid in your hand. The melting point of gallium is 85.6 oF. You may want to reference (Pages 14 - 20) Section 1.6 while completing this problem.What is this temperature on the Celsius scale?
Perform each of the following temperature conversions.32 oF to oC (temperature at which water freezes)
Perform each of the following temperature conversions.- 109oF to oC (temperature of dry ice)
The coldest temperature ever measured in the United States is -80 oF on January 23, 1971, in Prospect Creek, Alaska.Convert that temperature to oC. (Assume that -80 oF is accurate to two significant figures.)
You may want to reference (Pages 17 - 23) Section 1.5 while completing this problem.Make the conversion: 73 oF to oC.
You may want to reference (Pages 17 - 23) Section 1.5 while completing this problem.Make the conversion: 216.8 oC to oF.
The warmest temperature ever measured in the United States is 134 oF on July 10, 1913, in Death Valley, California.Convert that temperature to oC.
You may want to reference(Pages 17 - 24)Section 1.5 while completing this problem.The temperature on a warm summer day is 88 oF. What is the temperature in degrees Celsius?
You may want to reference(Pages 17 - 24)Section 1.5 while completing this problem.Suppose that a recipe calls for an oven temperature of 500 oF. Convert this temperature to degrees Celsius.
You may want to reference(Pages 17 - 24)Section 1.5 while completing this problem.Many scientific data are reported at 28 oC. What is this temperature in degrees Fahrenheit?
The normal body temperature of a goat is 39.9 oC, and that of an Australian spiny anteater is 22.2 oC.Express these temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit.
Of the 90 or so naturally occurring elements, only four are liquid near room temperature. Convert these melting points to degrees Fahrenheit.mercury (melting point = -38.87oC)
Of the 90 or so naturally occurring elements, only four are liquid near room temperature. Convert these melting points to degrees Fahrenheit.bromine (melting point = -7.2oC)
Of the 90 or so naturally occurring elements, only four are liquid near room temperature. Convert these melting points to degrees Fahrenheit.cesium (melting point = 28.40oC)
Of the 90 or so naturally occurring elements, only four are liquid near room temperature. Convert these melting points to degrees Fahrenheit.gallium (melting point = 29.78oC)
Suppose that your oven is calibrated in degrees Fahrenheit but a recipe calls for you to bake at 171 oC.You may want to reference (Pages 9 - 11) Section 1.5 while completing this problem.What oven setting should you use?
Tungsten, the element used to make filaments in lightbulbs, has a melting point of 6192 oF.Convert this temperature to degrees Celsius.
At what temperatures will the readings on the Fahrenheit and Celsius thermometers be the same?
The melting point of table salt is 1474 oF . What temperature is this on the Celsius scale?
Suppose you have designed a new thermometer called the X thermometer. On the X scale the boiling point of water is 129 oX and the freezing point of water is 12 oX.At what temperature are the readings on the Fahrenheit and X thermometers the same?
You may want to reference (Pages 14 - 20) Section 1.6 while completing this problem. Perform each of the following temperature conversions.Convert 0.00 K to oF (coldest temperature possible, also known as absolute zero).
Gallium is a solid metal at room temperature but melts into a liquid in your hand. The melting point of gallium is 85.6 oF. You may want to reference (Pages 14 - 20) Section 1.6 while completing this problem.The SI unit for temperature is the kelvin. What is the melting point (temperature) on the Kelvin scale?
Perform each of the following temperature conversions.77 K to oF (temperature of liquid nitrogen)
Perform each of the following temperature conversions.98.3 oF to K (body temperature)
The coldest temperature ever measured in the United States is -80 oF on January 23, 1971, in Prospect Creek, Alaska.Convert that temperature to K.
The warmest temperature ever measured in the United States is 134 oF on July 10, 1913, in Death Valley, California.Convert that temperature to K.
You may want to reference (Pages 17 - 23) Section 1.5 while completing this problem.Make the conversion: 317 K to oF.
You may want to reference (Pages 17 - 23) Section 1.5 while completing this problem.Make the conversion: 2600 oF to K.
You may want to reference (Pages 17 - 23) Section 1.5 while completing this problem.Make the conversion: 0 K to oF.
You may want to reference(Pages 17 - 24)Section 1.5 while completing this problem.Liquid nitrogen boils at 77 K. Convert this temperature to degrees Fahrenheit.
You may want to reference(Pages 17 - 24)Section 1.5 while completing this problem.Suppose that a recipe calls for an oven temperature of 500 oF. Convert this temperature to kelvins.
Tungsten, the element used to make filaments in lightbulbs, has a melting point of 6192 oF.Convert this temperature to Kelvins.
Sodium chloride has a melting point of 1074 K and a boiling point of 1686 K .Convert these temperatures to degrees Fahrenheit.
The melting point of table salt is 1474 oF . What temperature is this on the Kelvin scale?
The metal gallium has a relatively low melting point for a metal, 302.91 K.If the temperature in the cargo compartment carrying a shipment of gallium has a temperature of 88 oF, is the gallium in the solid or liquid state?
You may want to reference (Page 16) Section 1.6 while completing this problem.Convert 85.00 oF to K.
You may want to reference (Pages 14 - 20) Section 1.6 while completing this problem. Perform each of the following temperature conversions.Convert 23 oC to K (approximate room temperature).
You may want to reference (Pages 14 - 20) Section 1.6 while completing this problem. Perform each of the following temperature conversions.Convert 2.735 K to oC (average temperature of the universe as measured from background blackbody radiation).
Comparison of the Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit temperature scales.True or false: The "size" of a degree on the Celsius scale is the same as the "size" of a degree on the Kelvin scale.
What is the difference between a kelvin and a Celsius degree?
You may want to reference (Pages 17 - 23) Section 1.5 while completing this problem.Make the conversion: 236 oC to K.
You may want to reference(Pages 17 - 24)Section 1.5 while completing this problem.Many scientific data are reported at 28 oC. What is this temperature in kelvins?
You may want to reference(Pages 17 - 24)Section 1.5 while completing this problem.Liquid nitrogen boils at 77 K. Convert this temperature to degrees Celsius.
Sodium chloride has a melting point of 1074 K and a boiling point of 1686 K .Convert these temperatures to degrees Celsius.
Convert each temperature. d. 98.6 °F to K (body temperature) 
Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius and Kelvin scales.a. - 459°F, an extremely low temperature 
Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius and Kelvin scales.b. - 40.°F, the answer to a trivia question
Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius and Kelvin scales.c. 68°F, room temperature 
Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius and Kelvin scales.d. 7 x 107 °F, temperature required to initiate fusion reactions in the sun
Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to Fahrenheit degrees.a. the temperature of someone with a fever, 39.2°C 
Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to Fahrenheit degrees.b. a cold wintery day, - 25°C
Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to Fahrenheit degrees.c. the lowest possible temperature, -273°C
Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to Fahrenheit degrees.d. the melting-point temperature of sodium chloride, 801°C
Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees.a. the temperature that registers the same value on both the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales, 233 K
Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees.b. the boiling point of helium, 4 K
Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees.c. the temperature at which many chemical quantities are determined, 298 K
Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees.d. the melting point of tungsten, 3680 K
Make the following conversions: (a) 62° F to °C. 
Make the following conversions: (a) 72 °F to °C.
Make the following conversions: (b) 216.7 °C to °F. 
Make the following conversions: (c) 233 °C to K.
Make the following conversions:  (d) 315 K to °F. 
Make the following conversions:  (e) 2500 °F to K. 
Make the following conversions: (f) 0 K to °F.
The temperature on a warm summer day is 87 °F. What is the temperature in °C?
Many scientific data are reported at 25 °C. What is this temperature in kelvins and in degrees Fahrenheit?
Suppose that a recipe calls for an oven temperature of 175 °F. Convert this temperature to degrees Celsius and to kelvins.
Suppose that a recipe calls for an oven temperature of 400 °F. Convert this temperature to degrees Celsius and to kelvins.
The melting point of sodium bromide (a salt) is 755 °C. Calculate this temperature in °F and in kelvins. 
Liquid nitrogen boils at 77 K. Convert this temperature to degrees Fahrenheit and to degrees Celsius.
Neon, a gaseous element at room temperature, is used to make electronic signs. Neon has a melting point of -248.6 °C and a boiling point of -246.1 °C. Convert these temperatures to kelvins.
Which is larger, a Fahrenheit degree or a Celsius degree?
A thermometer gives a reading of 96.1°F + 0.2°F. What is the temperature in °C? What is the uncertainty?
Convert the boiling temperature of gold, 2966 °C, into degrees Fahrenheit and kelvin.
Convert the temperature of scalding water, 54 °C, into degrees Fahrenheit and kelvin.
Convert the temperature of the coldest area in a freezer, −10 °F, to degrees Celsius and kelvin.
Convert the temperature of dry ice, −77 °C, into degrees Fahrenheit and kelvin
At what temperature is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit equal to twice the temperature in degrees Celsius?
Convert the boiling temperature of liquid ammonia, −28.1 °F, into degrees Celsius and kelvin
The label on a pressurized can of spray disinfectant warns against heating the can above 130 °F. What are the corresponding temperatures on the Celsius and kelvin temperature scales?
The weather in Europe was unusually warm during the summer of 1995. The TV news reported temperatures as high as 45 °C. What was the temperature on the Fahrenheit scale?
A column of liquid is found to expand linearly on heating 5.25 cm for a 10.0°F rise in temperature. If the initial temperature of the liquid is 98.6°F, what will the final temperature be in °C if the liquid has expanded by 18.5 cm?
Perform the following conversion:• 68°F (a pleasant spring day) to °C and K.
The hottest temperature recorded in the United States is 1348°F in Greenland Ranch, CA. The melting point of phosphorus is 448°C. At this temperature, would phosphorus be a liquid or a solid?
Water freezes at:a. 0°Cb. 0°Fc. 273°Cd. 373 K
Liquid nitrogen is obtained from liquefied air and is used industrially to prepare frozen foods. It boils at 77.36 K. What is this temperature in °F?
Perform the following conversion:• 6.1 x 103 K (the surface temperature of the Sun) to °F and °C.
Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius and Kelvin scales.a. 2459°F, an extremely low temperature
Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius and Kelvin scales.b. 240.°F, the answer to a trivia question
Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius and Kelvin scales.c. 68°F, room temperature
Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius and Kelvin scales.d. 7 x 107 °F, temperature required to initiate fusion reactions in the sun
Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees.a. the temperature that registers the same value on both the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales, 233 K
Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees.b. the boiling point of helium, 4 K
Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees.c. the temperature at which many chemical quantities are determined, 298 K
Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees.d. the melting point of tungsten, 3680 K
The average daytime temperatures on the earth and Jupiter are 72°F and 313 K, respectively. Calculate the difference in temperature, in °C, between these two planets.
Perform the following conversion:• 106°F (the body temperature of many birds) to K and °C.
Liquid nitrogen is obtained from liquefied air and is used industrially to prepare frozen foods. It boils at 77.36 K. What is this temperature in °C?
Perform the following conversion:• −164°C (the boiling point of methane, the main component of natural gas) to K and °F.
Perform the following conversion:• 0 K (absolute zero, theoretically the coldest possible temperature) to °C and °F.
Perform the following conversion:• 3410°C (the melting point of tungsten, the highest for any metallic element) to K and °F.
Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to Fahrenheit degrees.a. the temperature of someone with a fever, 39.2°C
Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to Fahrenheit degrees.b. a cold wintery day, -25°C
Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to Fahrenheit degrees.c. the lowest possible temperature, -273°C
Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to Fahrenheit degrees.d. the melting-point temperature of sodium chloride, 801°C
The temperature on Mercury may drop to -275°F at night. What is this temperature in degrees Celsius?
Be sure to answer all parts.If a temperature scale were based on the freezing point (5.5°C) and boiling point (80.1°C) of benzene and the temperature difference between these points was divided into 90 units (railed °X), what would be the freezing and boiling points of water in °X? Freezing point of water = Boiling point of water = 
-160°C = ? °F
Type the answer derived from the following dimensional analysis setup. Be sure to round your answer off to the correct number of significant figures. Convert 28°F to °C.°C = (28°F - 32°F)5°C/9°F
-40°C = ? K
The boiling point of a liquid is found to be 301 K. What is this temperature on the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales? 
Rubbing alcohol freezes at -129°F. What is the freezing point on the Celsius scale?a. -290°Cb. -200°Cc. -103°Cd. -89.4°Ce. -54°C
The lowest temperature recorded in a particular city during the past year was -14.72°C. What was the temperature on the Kelvin scale? The highest temperature recorded in the same city during the past year was 305.90 K. What was the temperature in the degrees Celsius?
The coldest temperature ever recorded in lows was -47 °F on February 3, 1998. Convert this temperature to Kelvin. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. Convert this temperature to °Celsius. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Many bacteria, such as E. coli. thrive at body temperature, 37.0°C therefore, bacteria are grown in laboratories at that temperature. What is the corresponding Fahrenheit temperature? 
Acetone, which is used as a solvent and as a reactant in the manufacture of Plexiglas boils at 56.1°C. What is the boiling point in degrees Fahrenheit? 1) 159°F 2) 133°F 3) 101°F 4) 69.0°F5) 43.4°F
The surface temperature on Venus may approach 757 K. What is this temperature in degrees Celsius? The temperature on Mercury may drop to -267 ℉ at night. What is this temperature in degrees Celsius?
Methane, CH4, boils at -162°C What is the boiling point of methane in °F?a. - 323 °Fb. - 58 °Fc. - 108 °Fd. -464 °Fe. - 260 °F 
392 K = ? °F
Many bacteria, such as E, coli, thrive at body temperature, 37.0°C therefore, bacteria are grown in laboratories at that temperature. What is the corresponding Fahrenheit temperature? 
Normal body temperature can range from 36.1°C to 37.2°C.What is this range in degrees Fahrenheit?
At what temperature on the Kelvin scale would you feel the most comfortable? (a) 190 K (b) 290 K (c) 390 K (d) 90 K
The freezing point of the noble gas, argon, is -308°F. What is this temperature in kelvins?a. 462 Kb. 462 Kc. -249 Kd. 84 Ke. 120 K 
Liquid propane boils at 231K. What is its boiling point in °C?a. - 42°Cb. 42°Cc. 315°Cd. 504°C e. -231°C 
The freezing point of argon it - 189°C. What it its freezing point on the absolute temperature scale?a. - 136 Kb. 84 K c. 72 K d. 461 K e. 112 K