Energy, Heat and Temperature

Temperature is a measure of the amount of average kinetic energy of the atoms in a compound.

Temperature vs. Heat

Concept: Understanding Temperature and Heat.

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Temperature and heat are not as similar as you might think. Temperature is independent on the amount of matter, whereas heat is dependent on the amount of matter.

Example: Which of the following has the greatest amount of heat?

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Remember that heat is based on the amount of matter and therefore represents an extensive property

Temperature Conversions

Concept: Kelvins, Celsius and Fahrenheit

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Although the SI unit for temperature is Kelvin you will required to know how to convert between Celsius and Fahrenheit as well. 

Example: Convert the following units of temperature. 

-115°C into Fahrenheit                                                  

 73.23 K into Fahrenheit

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Energy, Heat and Temperature Additional Practice Problems

392 K = ? °F

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-160°C = ? °F

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The boiling point of a liquid is found to be 301 K. What is this temperature on the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales? 

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Be sure to answer all parts.

If a temperature scale were based on the freezing point (5.5°C) and boiling point (80.1°C) of benzene and the temperature difference between these points was divided into 90 units (railed °X), what would be the freezing and boiling points of water in °X? 

Freezing point of water = 

Boiling point of water = 

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The lowest temperature recorded in a particular city during the past year was -14.72°C. What was the temperature on the Kelvin scale? 

The highest temperature recorded in the same city during the past year was 305.90 K. What was the temperature in the degrees Celsius?

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The surface temperature on Venus may approach 757 K. What is this temperature in degrees Celsius? 

The temperature on Mercury may drop to -267 ℉ at night. What is this temperature in degrees Celsius?

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The temperature on Mercury may drop to -275°F at night. What is this temperature in degrees Celsius?

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Many bacteria, such as E, coli, thrive at body temperature, 37.0°C therefore, bacteria are grown in laboratories at that temperature. What is the corresponding Fahrenheit temperature? 

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At what temperature on the Kelvin scale would you feel the most comfortable? 

(a) 190 K 

(b) 290 K 

(c) 390 K 

(d) 90 K

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Acetone, which is used as a solvent and as a reactant in the manufacture of Plexiglas boils at 56.1°C. What is the boiling point in degrees Fahrenheit? 

1) 159°F 

2) 133°F 

3) 101°F 

4) 69.0°F

5) 43.4°F

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Rubbing alcohol freezes at -129°F. What is the freezing point on the Celsius scale?

a. -290°C

b. -200°C

c. -103°C

d. -89.4°C

e. -54°C


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Many bacteria, such as E. coli. thrive at body temperature, 37.0°C therefore, bacteria are grown in laboratories at that temperature. What is the corresponding Fahrenheit temperature? 

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The freezing point of the noble gas, argon, is -308°F. What is this temperature in kelvins?

a. 462 K

b. 462 K

c. -249 K

d. 84 K

e. 120 K 

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Methane, CH4, boils at -162°C What is the boiling point of methane in °F?

a. - 323 °F

b. - 58 °F

c. - 108 °F

d. -464 °F

e. - 260 °F 

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Liquid propane boils at 231K. What is its boiling point in °C?

a. - 42°C

b. 42°C

c. 315°C

d. 504°C 

e. -231°C 

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The freezing point of argon it - 189°C. What it its freezing point on the absolute temperature scale?

a. - 136 K

b. 84 K 

c. 72 K 

d. 461 K 

e. 112 K 

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The coldest temperature ever recorded in lows was -47 °F on February 3, 1998. 

Convert this temperature to Kelvin. Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units. 

Convert this temperature to °Celsius. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.

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Water freezes at:

a. 0°C
b. 0°F
c. 273°C
d. 373 K

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Molecular bromine (Br2) has a boiling point of 58.8°C and a freezing point of 19°F.

a. Convert the boiling point to units of Fahrenheit (°F).

b. On a sunny 75°F day in Florida, would you expect bromine to exist as a solid, liquid or gas?

c. Are the freezing and boiling points of bromine considered physical or chemical properties?

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If a solution has a temperature of 355 K, what is its temperature in degrees celsius?

a. 165°C

b. 628°C

c. 179°C

d. 82°C

 

 

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What is the Kelvin temperature at 24°C?

A)  249 K    

B)  11.4 K    

C)  -297 K    

D)  -249 K    

E)  297 K

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The average temperature on the summit of a mountain is 15°F. What is this temperature in Kelvin?

A) 242 K

B) 84 K

C) -282 K

D) 264 K

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If the melting point of titanium metal is 1672°C, what is its melting point in Kelvin?

A) 1945 K        

B) 3042 K          

C) 1399 K          

D) 897 K

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Arsenic is a solid at room temperature, but has a melting point of 354.15 K. Compared to the temperature of the human body, 98.6°F, which is true?

a. Arsenic melts at a lower temperature than body temperature, so it could melt in your hand if you hold it, 

b. Arsenic melts at a higher temperature than body than temperature, so it wii not melt in your hand if you hold it.

c. The melting point of arsenic is less than the freezing point of water.

d. The melting point of arsenic is greater than the boiling point of water.

 

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Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees.

d. the melting point of tungsten, 3680 K

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Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees.

c. the temperature at which many chemical quantities are determined, 298 K

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Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees.

b. the boiling point of helium, 4 K

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Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees.

a. the temperature that registers the same value on both the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales, 233 K

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Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to Fahrenheit degrees.

d. the melting-point temperature of sodium chloride, 801°C

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Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to Fahrenheit degrees.

c. the lowest possible temperature, -273°C

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Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to Fahrenheit degrees.

b. a cold wintery day, - 25°C

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Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to Fahrenheit degrees.
a. the temperature of someone with a fever, 39.2°C

 

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Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius and Kelvin scales.
d. 7 x 107 °F, temperature required to initiate fusion reactions in the sun

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Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius and Kelvin scales.
c. 68°F, room temperature

 

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Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius and Kelvin scales.
b. - 40.°F, the answer to a trivia question

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Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius and Kelvin scales.
a. - 459°F, an extremely low temperature

 

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Neon, a gaseous element at room temperature, is used to make electronic signs. Neon has a melting point of -248.6 °C and a boiling point of -246.1 °C. Convert these temperatures to kelvins.

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Liquid nitrogen boils at 77 K. Convert this temperature to degrees Fahrenheit and to degrees Celsius.

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The melting point of sodium bromide (a salt) is 755 °C. Calculate this temperature in °F and in kelvins.

 

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Suppose that a recipe calls for an oven temperature of 400 °F. Convert this temperature to degrees Celsius and to kelvins.

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Suppose that a recipe calls for an oven temperature of 175 °F. Convert this temperature to degrees Celsius and to kelvins.

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Many scientific data are reported at 25 °C. What is this temperature in kelvins and in degrees Fahrenheit?

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The temperature on a warm summer day is 87 °F. What is the temperature in °C?

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Make the following conversions: (f) 0 K to °F.

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Make the following conversions:  (e) 2500 °F to K.
 

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Make the following conversions:  (d) 315 K to °F.

 

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Make the following conversions: (c) 233 °C to K.

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Make the following conversions: (b) 216.7 °C to °F.
 

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Make the following conversions: (a) 72 °F to °C.

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Make the following conversions: (a) 62° F to °C.

 

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At what temperatures will the readings on the Fahrenheit and Celsius thermometers be the same? 

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Convert each temperature . 

d. 2.735 K to °C (average temperature of the universe as measured from background black body radiation)

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Convert each temperature .

b. 22 °C to K (approximate room temperature)

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Convert each temperature. 

d. 98.6 °F to K (body temperature) 

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Convert each temperature. 

b. 77 K to °F (temperature of liquid nitrogen) 

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Convert each temperature. 

a. 32 °F to °C (temperature at which water freezes) 

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What are the three common temperature scales? Does the size of a degree differ among them? 

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The outside temperature is 250 K, what is the temperature in °F?

A. -9.67 °F

B. -23.15 °F

C. 973.67 °F

D. 909.67 °F

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If the temperature is 178°F, what is the temperature in degrees celsius?

A) 352°C

B) 451°C

C) 67°C

D) 81.1°C

E) 378°C

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Gallium is a solid at room temperature, but has a melting point of 302.91 K. Compared to the temperature of the human body, 98.6°F, which is true?

A. Gallium melts at a lower temperature than body temperature, so it could melt in your hand if you hold it.

B. Gallium melts at a higher temperature than body temperature, so it will not melt in your hand if you hold it.

C. The melting point of gallium is less than the freezing point of water.

D. The melting point of gallium is greater than the boiling point of water.

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Zirconium is a corrosion resistant metal that has a boiling point of 4682 K. What is the boiling point of this element in °F? Zirconium carbonate is used in lotions to treat poison ivy.

 

a) 8951

b) 4409

c) 7904

d) 7968

e) 8459

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