Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the ElementsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

The electron configuration of an element is the distribution of its electrons within atomic orbitals. 

The Rules of an Electron Configuration

Concept #1: Understanding Periodic Law

The arrangement of elements within the periodic table is based on increasing atomic mass. 

Concept #2: The Auf Bau Principle

According to the Auf Bau Principle, electrons fill in lower energy orbitals before moving to higher energy orbitals. 

Concept #3: The s,p, d, f sublevels and the Periodic Table

Concept #4: The Electron Configuration of Fluorine 

By using the Periodic Table, you can determine the electron configuration of fluorine. 

Concept #5: Hund's Rule

Condensed Electron Configurations

In a condensed electron configuration we shorten our amount of writing by including a noble gas. 

Example #1: Write the condensed configuration for each of the following elements:

Co  (27 electrons)

Se (34 electrons) 

Practice: Write the condensed configuration for each of the following elements: 

Ag (47 electrons) 

Inner Core and Valence Electrons

Concept #6: Inner Core vs. Valence Electrons

Example #2: How many core (inner) and valence electrons are present in each of the following elements?

P                                Al                               Mn

Additional Problems
Which element has the fewest number of valence electrons? a) Rb b) Se c) Ba d) Br e) Ge
 Give the electron configuration for the Ti 2+ ion.
Molybdenum (Mo) is an element in which the spin pairing energy is > than the promotion energy.  With that in mind write the electron configuration for the neutral atom and the +1 ion. a. Mo        b. Mo1+   
 Write the electronic configuration for the following elements and ions: i. Os                    ii. Ni2+                iii. Se3+              
When forming cations, electrons are removed first from orbitals that are bigger rather than necessarily those with higher energy. Given this, what is the electron configuration of the cobaltic cation, Co3+? (A) [Ar] 4s2 3d7 (B) [Ar] 4s2 3d4 (C) [Ar] 3d5 (D) [Ar] 4s2 3d10 (E) [Ar] 3d6
Which of the following is the correct electron configuration for the ferric cation? A. [Ar]4s2 3d3 B. [Ar]4s2 3d4 C. [Ar]4s2 3d6 D. [Ar]3d5 E. [Ar]3d6
Which of the following atoms is listed with an INCORRECT electron configuration? A. Br - [Ar]4s2 3d10 4p5 B. Pb - [Xe]6s2 5d10 4f14 6p2 C. Mo - [Kr]5s2 4d4 D. Y – [Kr]5s2 4d1 E. Fe - [Ar]4s2 3d6
Choose the ground state electron configuration for Mn 4+. a.  [Ar] b.  [Ar]4s13d4 c.  [Ar]4s23d1 d.  [Ar]4s23d9 e.  [Ar]3d3
An element E has the electronic outer shell configuration ns2 np4. What is the formula of its compound with lithium? A) LiE2 B) LiE C) Li2E D) Li4E E) LiE4
Which of the following electron configurations is correct for antimony ( 51Sb)? A. [Kr]4s23d104p3 B. [Ar]4s24d104p3 C. [Kr]5s24d105p3 D. [Ar]5s23d105p3 E. [Ar]4s23d104p3
If the ground state electron configuration of an element is [Ar]3d 104s24p3, what is the typical charge on the monatomic ion of the element ? a. +2 b. +1 c. -1 d. -2 e. -3
Which atom below contains the greatest number of valence electrons? A. Se B S C. Mo D. U E. All of the above contain the same number of valence electrons
For the ground-state ion Bi3+ , what type of orbital do the electrons with highest energy reside in? 5d 6s 4f 5p 6p
Which is a possible electronic configuration for neutral silicon? a. [Ne]3s23p1 b. [Ne]3s23p2 c. [Ne]3s23p3 d. [Ne]3s13p6 e. [Ne]3s23p4
Which of the following is a reasonable electronic configuration for neutral Tin (Sn)? a. [Kr]4s23d104p2 b. [Kr]5s25d105p2 c. [Kr]5s24d105p3 d. [Kr]5s24d125p0 e. [Kr]5s24d105p2
How many p electrons does Se (atomic number 34) possess? 1. 6 2. 10 3. 12 4. 4 5. 0 6. 34 7. 16
Write the ground-state electron configuration of a lead atom. 1. [Xe] 4f 145d106s16p3 2. [Xe] 4f 145d106s26p2 3. [Xe] 4f 145d 56s16p67s2 4. [Xe] 4f 145d106p4 5. [Xe] 4f 145d 96s26p3
The electron configuration for Ge is __________. A. 1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 64s 24d 104p 2 B. [Ar]4s 23d 12 C. 1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 63d 104s 24d 2 D. 1s 22s 23s 23p 63d 104s 24p 2 E. 1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 64s 23d 104p 2  
Which two elements have the same ground-state electron configuration? A. Cl and Ar B. Cu and Ag C. Pd and Pt D. Fe and Cu E. No two elements have the same ground-state electron configuration.
Choose the electron configuration for Cr 3+ . A. [Ar] B. [Ar]4s13d2 C. [Ar]4s23d6 D. [Ar]4s23d1 E. [Ar]3d3
How many core and valence electrons does an atom of bromine possess? A. 18 core, 17 valence B. 28 core, 7 valence C. 30 core, 5 valence D. 20 core, 15 valence E. 10 core, 25 valence
The electron configuration of Cr 3+ is 1. [Ar]4s13d5 2. [Ar]3d3 3. [Ar]4s23d1 4. [Ar]4s13d2
The only noble gas that does not have the ns 2 np6 valence electron configuration is____________________. A) radon B) neon C) helium D) krypton E) All noble gasses have the ns 2np6 valence shell electron configuration
Which element has an outer electron configuration of ns 2np4? 1. Se 2. Mo 3. Si 4. Fe
When dealing with electron configurations it's best to visualize the Periodic Table in this format. 
How many p electrons does Se (atomic number 34) possess? 1. 6 2. 10 3. 12 4. 4 5. 0 6. 34 7. 16 
Write the ground-state electron configuration of a lead atom. 1. [Xe] 4ƒ145d106s16p3 2. [Xe] 4ƒ145d106s26p2 3. [Xe] 4ƒ145d56s16p67s2 4. [Xe] 4ƒ145d106p4 5. [Xe] 4ƒ145d96s26p3
The C+ cation has how many total electrons and how many valence electrons? 1. 6; 5 2. 6; 6 3. 7; 6 4. 5; 4 5. 5; 3 6. 6; 4 7. 6; 3 8. 7; 5 9. 7, 8
What is the electron configuration for the Ni 2+ ion? a. [Ar]3d 8 4s 2 b. [Ar]3d 10 4s 2 c. [Ar]3d 7 4s 1 d. [Ar]3d 8 e. [Ar]3d 6 4s 2
What is the valence-shell electron configuration for the shaded group in the periodic table given below? a) ns2(n-2)f2  b) ns4  c) ns2(n-1)d2  d) ns2np2 e) ns2nd2
Which of the following electron configurations is correct for molybdenum, 42Mo, in its ground state? a) [Ar]4d55s1  b) [Kr]4d55s1  c) [Kr]4d45s2  d) [Ar]3d144s24p8  e) [Ar]3d144s24p64d6
What is the electron configuration of Fe3+? a) [Ar]4s23d5  b) [Ar]4s23d3  c) [Ar]3d5  d) [Ar]4s13d4  e) [Ar]3d7
Which of the following represents an excited state of an atom? a) 1s22s2  b) [Ne]3s23p64s23d1  c) [Ne]3s23p64s23d8  d) [Ne]3s23p64s23d2 e) 1s22s22p53s1
Which ground-state electron configuration is  incorrect? a) Cr: [Ar]3d6 b) Ca: [Ar] 4s2 c) Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 d) Zn: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 e) Kr: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6
How many core electrons does an atom of bromine have? a) 35 b) 36 c) 30 d) 28 e) 18
What is the valence electron configuration for the element in Period 5, Group 3A? (A) 5s25p1 (B) 3s23p5 (C) 3s23p3 (D) 5s25p3
Which electron configuration is impossible? (A) 1s22s22p63s2 (B) 1s22s22p62d2 (C) 1s22s22p63s23p6 (D) 1s22s22p53s1
Which species has this ground-state electron arrangement? 1s22s22p63s23p63d10 (A) Ni (B) Ni2+ (C) Zn (D) Zn2+
How many electrons does a stable gallium,  31Ga3+, ion have? a) 28 b) 29 c) 30 d) 31 e) 36
All of the following electronic configurations are correct  except a) 20Ca  [Ar]4s2 b) 25Mn  [Ar] 3d54s2 c) 29Cu  [Ar] 3d104s1 d) 50Sn   [Kr]4d105s25p2 e) 86Rn  [Xe]5d106s26p6
What is the electronic configuration of tellurium (Te)? 1. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p8 6s2 5d6 2. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4f14 5p2 3. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p6 5s2 6s2 6p6 4d10 7s2 4. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p4 5. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 3f14 4s2 4p6 4d4
Which of the following is the correct electron configuration for nitride ion? a) 1s22s22p3 b) 1s22s22p4 c) [He] d) 1s22s22p6 e) 1s22s2
A student wrote that an element had the electron configuration 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d10.  If the element forms an ion, what is its most likely charge? a) +1 b) +2 c) –2 d) –6 e) 0, it is a noble gas
One of the following does NOT represent the ground state electron configuration for an atom. Which one? 1. [Ne] 3s2 2. [Ne] 3s2 3p6 3. [Ne] 3s1 4. [Ne] 3s2 3p5 5. [Ne] 3s1 3p3
Write the electron configurations for the following ions or elements: example: Mg [Ne](3s)2 a) Si b) Ir3+ c) Se       
Which of the following statements is/are true? i. the electron configuration of copper, Cu, is  [Ar]4s 23d9 ii. the electron configuration of iron(II), Fe2+, is  [Ar]3d 6 iii. the electron configuration of molybdenum, Mo, is [Kr]5s14d5 a. i only b. ii only c. iii only d. i and ii  e. ii and iii
Give the full ground-state electron configuration for the element. S a. 1s22s22p63s23p2 b. 1s22s22p63s23p4 c. 1s22s22p63s23p44s2 d. 1s22s22p63s23p6 e. none of these
What is the electronic configuration of Ga 3+ ion? ( Ga has an atomic number of 31 ) a. [Ar] 4s1 3d9 b. [Ar] 3d10 c. [Ar] 4s2 3d8 d. [Ar] 4s1 4d9 e. [Ar] 4s2 4d8
Which of the following statements is/are true? i. the electron configuration of silver (Ag) is [Kr] 5s24d9 ii the electrom configuration of selenium (Se) is [Ar] 4s24d104p3 iii the electron configuration of chromium (Cr) is [Ar] 4s13d5 A. i only B. ii only C. iii only D. i and ii E. ii and iii
Choose the ground state electron configuration for Fe 2+. a. [Ar]4s03d2 b. [Ar]4s2 c. [Ar]4s23d6 d. [Ar]4s03d6 e. [Ar]4s23d4
How many inner shell (core) electrons do the following elements have, respectively? Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium and Berylium (A) 1, 1, 1, 1 (B) 0, 0, 1, 1 (C) 0, 0, 2, 1 (D) 0, 0, 2, 2 (E) 2, 2, 2, 2
What is the expected ground state electron configuration for Zr 2+ ? 1. [Xe] 6s25d4 2. [Kr] 5s24d2 3. [Kr] 5s24d4 4. [Xe] 6s 2 5. [Kr] 5s 2 6. [Kr] 4d 2 7. [Xe] 8. [Xe] 5d 2 9. [Kr] 10. [Kr] 5s14d5
The electronic configuration of Zn2+ is  A. [Ar] 4s2 3d10 B. [Ar] 4s0 3d10 C. [Ar] 4s2 3d8 D. [Ar] 4s2 4d8 E. [Ar] 4s0 4d10
Write the electron configurations for the following elements and ions. a) V2+         b) Sn         c) Pb2+  
The Ti2+ ion is isoelectronic with the Ca atom.Write the electron configurations of Ca.
Identify the specific element that corresponds to each of the following electron configurations.1s2 2s2
Identify the specific element that corresponds to each of the following electron configurations.1s2 2s2 2p4
Identify the specific element that corresponds to each of the following electron configurations.[Ar]4s13d5
Identify the specific element that corresponds to each of the following electron configurations.[Kr]5s24d105p4
In April 2010, a research team reported that it had made Element 117. This discovery was confirmed in 2012 by additional experiments.Write the ground-state electron configuration for Element 117.
The orbital diagram that follows shows the valence electrons for a 2+ ion of an element. What is the element?
Consider the molecule BF3.What is the electron configuration of an isolated F atom?
Write the electron configuration for Li.
A friend tells you that her favorite element has an electron configuration of [ noble gas ]6s24f 145d6. Which element is it?
Use the periodic table to write electron configurations for each of the following elements. Represent core electrons with the symbol of the previous noble gas in brackets.P
Use the periodic table to write electron configurations for each of the following elements. Represent core electrons with the symbol of the previous noble gas in brackets.Zr
Use the periodic table to write electron configurations for each of the following elements. Represent core electrons with the symbol of the previous noble gas in brackets.I
Determine the number of valence electrons in each of the following elements.NOTE: When electrons are added to the outermost d shell of a transition metal, sometimes the first electrons that go into the shell tend to act like normal valence electrons. This is not always the case, however. For the purpose of this problem, please count the outermost d electrons as among the valence electrons (even though they are not in an outermost d principal energy level.Ba
Determine the number of valence electrons in each of the following elements.NOTE: When electrons are added to the outermost d shell of a transition metal, sometimes the first electrons that go into the shell tend to act like normal valence electrons. This is not always the case, however. For the purpose of this problem, please count the outermost d electrons as among the valence electrons (even though they are not in an outermost d principal energy level.Cs
Determine the number of valence electrons in each of the following elements.NOTE: When electrons are added to the outermost d shell of a transition metal, sometimes the first electrons that go into the shell tend to act like normal valence electrons. This is not always the case, however. For the purpose of this problem, please count the outermost d electrons as among the valence electrons (even though they are not in an outermost d principal energy level.Ni
Determine the number of valence electrons in each of the following elements.NOTE: When electrons are added to the outermost d shell of a transition metal, sometimes the first electrons that go into the shell tend to act like normal valence electrons. This is not always the case, however. For the purpose of this problem, please count the outermost d electrons as among the valence electrons (even though they are not in an outermost d principal energy level.S
Compare the elements bromine and chlorine with respect to the following properties.Give the electron configuration of Br.
Compare the elements bromine and chlorine with respect to the following properties.Give the electron configuration of Cl.
Without writing an electron configuration, determine the number of valence electrons in nitrogen.
Consider the following elements: N, Mg, O, F, Al.Write an electron configuration for N.
Consider the following elements: N, Mg, O, F, Al.Write an electron configuration for Mg.
Consider the following elements: N, Mg, O, F, Al.Write an electron configuration for O.
Consider the following elements: N, Mg, O, F, Al.Write an electron configuration for F.
Consider the following elements: N, Mg, O, F, Al.Write an electron configuration for Al.
Four possible electron configurations for a nitrogen atom are shown below, but only one schematic represents the correct configuration for a nitrogen atom in its ground state. Which one is the correct electron configuration? Which one is the correct electron configuration?
Give the number of valence electrons for alkali metals.
Give the number of valence electrons for alkaline earth metals.
Give the number of valence electrons for halogens.
Give the number of valence electrons for the oxygen family.
As we have seen, the periodic table is a result of empirical observation (i.e., the periodic law), but quantum-mechanical theory explains why the table is so arranged. Suppose that, in another universe, quantum theory was such that there were one s orbital but only two p orbitals (instead of three) and only three d orbitals (instead of five). Use the drawing of the first four periods of the periodic table in this alternative universe to answer the following questions.Which elements would be the equivalent of the noble gases?
Only trace amounts of the synthetic element darmstadtium, atomic number 110, have been obtained. The element is so highly unstable that no observations of its properties have been possible. Based on its position in the periodic table, propose three different reasonable valence electron configurations for this element.
The heaviest known alkaline earth metal is radium, atomic number 88.Find the atomic numbers of the as yet undiscovered next two members of the series.
From its electronic configuration, predict which of the first 10 elements would be most similar in chemical behavior to the as yet undiscovered element 165.
Name an element in the fourth period (row) of the periodic table with five valence electrons.
Name an element in the fourth period (row) of the periodic table with four 4p electrons.
Name an element in the fourth period (row) of the periodic table with three 3d electrons.
Name an element in the fourth period (row) of the periodic table with a complete outer shell.
Potassium is a highly reactive metal while argon is an inert gas.Explain the difference in reactivity of the elements based on their electron configurations.
Potassium is a highly reactive metal while argon is an inert gas.Write the electron configuration of potassium.
Potassium is a highly reactive metal while argon is an inert gas.Write the electron configuration of argon.
Both vanadium and its 3+ ion are paramagnetic.Write the electron configuration of vanadium (V).
The elements with atomic numbers 31 and 49 have similar chemical properties. Based on their electronic configurations, predict the atomic number of a heavier element that also should share these chemical properties.
Using the periodic table as a guide, write the condensed electron configuration for the ground state of Br.
Imagine that in another universe atoms and elements are identical to ours, except that atoms with six valence electrons have particular stability (in contrast to our universe where atoms with eight valence electrons have particular stability). Give an example of an element in the alternative universe that corresponds to each of the following:a noble gas
Using the periodic table as a guide, write the condensed electron configuration for the ground state of Ga.
Imagine that in another universe atoms and elements are identical to ours, except that atoms with six valence electrons have particular stability (in contrast to our universe where atoms with eight valence electrons have particular stability). Give an example of an element in the alternative universe that corresponds to each of the following:a reactive nonmetal
Imagine that in another universe atoms and elements are identical to ours, except that atoms with six valence electrons have particular stability (in contrast to our universe where atoms with eight valence electrons have particular stability). Give an example of an element in the alternative universe that corresponds to each of the following:a reactive metal
Using the periodic table as a guide, write the condensed electron configuration for the ground state of Hf.
Using the periodic table as a guide, write the condensed electron configuration for the ground state of Sb.
Using the periodic table as a guide, write the condensed electron configuration for the ground state of Bi.
Using the periodic table as a guide, write the condensed electron configuration for the ground state of Sg.
Scientists have speculated that element 126 might have a moderate stability, allowing it to be synthesized and characterized. Predict what the condensed electron configuration of this element might be.
Write the electron configuration for N.
The discovery of hafnium, element number 72, provided a controversial episode in chemistry. G. Urbain, a French chemist, claimed in 1911 to have isolated an element number 72 from a sample of rare earth (elements 58-71) compounds. However, Niels Bohr believed that hafnium was more likely to be found along with zirconium than with the rare earths. D. Coster and G. von Hevesy, working in Bohrs laboratory in Copenhagen, showed in 1922 that element 72 was present in a sample of Norwegian zircon, an ore of zirconium. (The name hafnium comes from the Latin name for Copenhagen, Hafnia) .How would you use electron configuration arguments to justify Bohrs prediction?
Consider the first ionization energy of neon and the electron affinity of fluorine.Write the electron configuration of Ne.
The discovery of hafnium, element number 72, provided a controversial episode in chemistry. G. Urbain, a French chemist, claimed in 1911 to have isolated an element number 72 from a sample of rare earth (elements 58-71) compounds. However, Niels Bohr believed that hafnium was more likely to be found along with zirconium than with the rare earths. D. Coster and G. von Hevesy, working in Bohrs laboratory in Copenhagen, showed in 1922 that element 72 was present in a sample of Norwegian zircon, an ore of zirconium. (The name hafnium comes from the Latin name for Copenhagen, Hafnia) .Using their electron configurations, account for the fact that Zr and Hf form chlorides MCl4 and oxides MO2.
Consider the first ionization energy of neon and the electron affinity of fluorine.Write the electron configuration of F.
The two most common isotopes of uranium are 235U and 238U.Using the periodic table in the front inside cover, write the electron configuration for a U atom.
The two most common isotopes of uranium are 235U and 238U.Examine the electron configuration for Th in Figure 6.31 in the textbook. Are you surprised by what you find? Explain.
What are "valence electrons"?
What are "core electrons"?
Predict the electronic configuration of the first excited state (next higher energy states beyond the ground state) of Pd.
Predict the electronic configuration of the second excited state (next higher energy state beyond the first excited state) of Pd.
Find the ions in the periodic table that have an electron configuration of nd8 (n = 3, 4, 5...).
Do Cr3+ and V2+ have the same or different electron configurations?
Write the electron configurations for the following ions:Co2+
Write the electron configurations for the following ions:Sn2+
Write the electron configurations for the following ions:Zr4+
Write the electron configurations for the following ions:Ag+
Write electron configurations for each of the following ions.Sr2 +
Write electron configurations for each of the following ions.Co3 +
Write electron configurations for each of the following ions.Cu2 +
Both vanadium and its 3+ ion are paramagnetic.Write the electron configuration of V3+.
Chlorine reacts with oxygen to form Cl2O7 (l). Prefix Meaning Mono- 1 Di- 2 Tri- 3 Tetra- 4 Penta- 5 Hexa- 6 Hepta- 7 Octa- 8 Nona- 9 Deca- 10 What is the electron configuration of chlorine in this oxidation state?
Consider the first ionization energy of neon and the electron affinity of fluorine.Write the electron configuration of Ne+.
Write the electron configurations for the following ions:S2-
Write electron configurations for each of the following ions.O2 -
Give the ground state electron configuration for Br -. (A) [Ar]4s23d104p5 (B) [Ar] 4s24p6 (C) [Ar]4s24p6 (D) [Ar]4s24d104p4 (E) [Ar]4s23d104p6
Write the full electronic configuration for lead (Pb).
How many inner, outer, and valence electrons are present in an atom of each of the following elements?a. Ob. Snc. Cad. Fee. Se
Give the full electron configuration for sodium (Na).
Give the number of valence electrons for cobalt (Co).a.  18b.  27c.  2d.  9e.  7
How many valence electrons does an atom Sn have? A. 2 B. 4 C.14 D. 46 E. 50
An atom has 7 valence electrons – 2 are in an s-subshell and 5 in a p-subshell. Which group is the atom in?(A) alkali metals(B) alkaline earth metals(C) pnictogens(D) chalcogens(E) halogens
What is the element with electron configuration of 1s22s22p6.
Give the full electron configuration for barium.
Give the electron configurations for the following ions:P5+P3-Sn4+Se2-I-Ni2+
What is the ground state electron configuration of the sulfide ion S 2-?
Which of the following atoms or ions does not have a filled outer subshell?a. Cab. Sc. Zn2+d. S2-e. Ca2+
a) Write the electron configuration for Ni 2+. b) Write the electron configuration for Br −.
a. Write the condensed electron configurations of K +, I-, Ba2+, S2-, and Al3+.b. Which are Isoelectronic with Ar?
What element forms an ion with an electronic configuration of [Kr] and a - 2 charge? Give the symbol for the element.
A gas phase atom with the electron configuration 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6 loses three electrons. What is the electron configuration of the resulting gas phase ion? a) 1s22s22p63s23p63d5 b) 1s22s22p63s23p64s13d4 c) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d3 d) 1s22s22p63s23p54s13d5
The complete ground state electron configuration for iodine (I) is: a.  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7 b.  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2  4d2  5p2 c.  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p1 d.  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p3 e.  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p5
The electron configuration for the Os 3+ ion is:A) [Xe] 4f13 5d6B) [Xe] 5s2 4f11 5d6C) [Xe] 5s2 4f14 5d6D) [Xe] 4f14 5d5E) [Xe] 5s2 4f14 5d3
Write electron configuration for the following ion.Ru3+Express your answer in condensed form in order of increasing orbital energy as a string without blank space between orbitals. 
What is the ground state electron configuration of gallium, Ga? a. 1s22s23s23p64s23d104p1 b. 1s22s22p63s23p64s24d104p1 c. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p1 d. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104d1 e. [Ar]4s23d11
State where in the periodic table these elements appear:a. elements with the valence-shell electron configuration  ns2np5b. elements that have three unpaired p electronsc. an element whose valence electrons are 4s24p1. Express your answer as the group and period number separated by a comma.d. the d-block elements: groups 3-8, groups 3-12, groups 1-2, Lanthanides, or Actinides
Use the periodic table to write electron configurations for each of the following elements. Represent core electrons with the symbol of the previous noble gas in brackets.Ge
Write electron configuration for the following ion.Pd2+Express your answer in condensed form in order of increasing orbital energy as a string without blank space between orbitals. 
Name an element in the fourth row of the periodic table with four 4p  electrons. a. Crb. Sic. Krd. See. Zn
Give the ground-state electron configuration for silicon (Si). Express the complete electron configuration using superscripts where appropriate. For example,the configuration for Li would be entered as 1s22s1.   Give the actual ground-stateelectron configuration for copper (Cu). Express the electron configuration using superscripts where appropriate. For example, the configuration for Li would be entered as 1s22s1.    
Which element has the following configuration: [Xe]6s 24f5?
Which of the following ions have the same ground state electron configuration:  Sn 4+ , Pb 4+ , Sr 2+ , Br - a. Sn and Pb b. Pb and Src. Sr and Brd. Pb and Br e. Sn , Sr, and Br
Pd has an anomalous electron configuration. Write the observed electron configuration of Pd.Express your answer in complete form in order of increasing orbital energy. 
Which of the following atoms has three electrons in p orbitals in its valence shell?a. Bab. Gac. Vd. Bie. none of these
An element has the electron configuration [Kr] 5s 24d105p2. The element is a(n)A. noble gasB. representative elementC. transition element D. metalE. actinide element
Consider an atom of sulfur. Indicate whether the statement about an atom of sulfur is true/False. Its last electron is found in an ‘s’ orbital A) True B) False
A comparison of the electron configurations of nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) indicates that 1. Cu has two more d electrons and the same number of s electrons as Ni. 2. Cu has one more d electron and the same number of s electrons as Ni. 3. Cu has two more d electrons and one less s electron than Ni.  4. Cu has one more d electron and one less s electron than Ni. 5. Cu has one more d electron and one more s electron than Ni.
Consider an atom of sulfur. Indicate whether the statement about an atom of sulfur is true. It has 6 valence electrons.
What is the ground-state electron configuration of the sulfide ion S 2-? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy. 
Which element has the following configuration: [Xe]6s24f4 ? Enter the chemical symbol for the element.
Enter the condensed electron configuration for the following three ions:a. Co2+b. N3−c. Ca2+
The atomic number of oxygen is 8, because oxygen has a. a second shell with eight electrons. b. electrons in eight shells. c. eight protons in the nucleus. c. an atomic mass of 8.
Write the electron configuration for each ion.a. Co2+b. N3-c. Ca2+
An atom of chlorine has several valence electrons in itsa. first shell. b. second shell. c. nucleus. d. third shell.
What is the ground-state electron configuration of the chloride ion Cl −? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
What is the electron configuration of Li +, Na+, Sr 2+, Cu2+?
In what respect does an atom of magnesium, Mg, differ from a magnesium ion, Mg2+?(A) The ion has an inert gas electron configuration; the atom does not.(B) The positive charge on the nucleus of the ion is two units greater than the nuclear charge on the atom.(C) The ion has two more protons than the atom.(D) The ion has two or more planetary electrons than the atom.
Identify the atom with the following ground-state electron configuration for its valence shell.[Ar]4s23d10
What is the electronic configuration of a stable sulfide ion? a) 1s22s22p6 b) 1s22s22p63s2 c) 1s22s22p63s23p4 d) 1s22s22p63s23p3 e) 1s22s22p63s23p6
Magnesium and sulfur react to form MgS, an ionic compound. The magnesium ion, Mg2+, has ______ electrons in its highest occupied energy level. a. 8b. 2c. 10d. 4e. 5
The electronic configuration of the Al 3+ ion is  a) 1s22s22p6 b) 1s22s22p63s23p1 c) 1s22s22p63s23p4 d) 1s22s22p3 e) 1s22s22p1
What is the electron configuration of Ni 2+? a) [Ar] 3d6 4s2 b) [Ar] 3d7 4s1 c) [Ar] 3d8 d) [Ar] 3d8 4s2 e) [Ar] 3d8 4s1
Which electron configuration is incorrect? a. Zn: [Ar]3d 10 4s 2 b. Ca: [Ar]4s 2 c. Cr: [Ar]3d 4 4s 2 d. Ag: [Kr]4d 10 5s 1 e. All the above are correct.
For each element, indicate the number of valence electrons, core electrons, and unpaired electrons in the ground state: (b) phosphorus
For each element, indicate the number of valence electrons, core electrons, and unpaired electrons in the ground state: (c) neon
From a consideration of electronic configurations, which of the elements indicated below would be classified as a  transition element? a) 1s2, 2s2, 2p2 b) 1s1, 2s2, 2p6, 3s1, 3p5 c) 1s2, 2s2, 2p6,  3s2, 3p6, 4s2 d) 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6,3d5, 4s2 e) 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6,3d10, 4s2, 4p6
All of the following ions have the electronic configuration of a noble gas   except  a) Al3+ b) H - c) Ga3+ d) Cl - e) Ca2+
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, using the appropriate noble-gas core abbreviations: (a) Cs
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, using the appropriate noble-gas core abbreviations: (b) Ni
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, using the appropriate noble-gas core abbreviations: (c) Se
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, using the appropriate noble-gas core abbreviations: (d) Cd
Which of the following represents a known stable ion?a) Tl13+b) Ca3+c) N3-d) S3-e) Cl2-
Which of the following have their valence electrons in the same shell?a) Mg, Al, Clb) B, Si, Asc) N, As, Bid) He, Ne, F
Enter the full electron configuration for Cl–.
The ground-state electronic configuration of the manganese atom, Mn, is(A) 1s22s22p63s23p64s24d5(B) 1s22s22p63s23p63d7(C) 1s22s22p63s23p64s24p5(D) 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s2
Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl–, has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1, but Na+ has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6 Write out the electron configurations for (a) F–,
Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl–, has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1, but Na+ has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6 Write out the electron configurations for (b) I–,
Transition metal elements have atoms or ions with partially filleda) f subshellsb) p subshellsc) d subshellsd) s subshellse) g subshells
Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl–, has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1, but Na+ has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6 Write out the electron configurations for (c) O2–,
Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl–, has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1, but Na+ has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6 Write out the electron configurations for (d) K+,
Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl–, has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1, but Na+ has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6 Write out the electron configurations for (e) Mg2+,
In what group of the periodic table is the element with the following electron configuration? [Ar] 3d104s24p3 a) 4A b) 2A c) 3A d) 1A e) 5A
Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl–, has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1, but Na+ has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6 Write out the electron configurations for (f) Al3+,
How many valence electrons does an antimony (Sb) atom have?  a) 1 b) 3 c) 5 d) 7 e) 51
What is the ground-state electron configuration of a neutral atom of manganese? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
Which of the following outer electron configurations could belong to a noble gas? Check all that apply.a. ns2np5b.ns2c. ns2np6d. ns2np2
The atomic numbers (Z), electron configurations, and numbers of unpaired electrons for five ions are listed in the following table. Assume that all unpaired electrons have parallel spins. Indicate the element symbol, charge, and energy state (ground or excited) for each of the five cases.
The electron configuration of a vanadium atom (V) is a) [Ar] 4s24p3 b) [Ar] 4s23p3 c) [Ar] 4d34s2 d) [Ar] 3d5 e) [Ar] 3d34s2
Why is Ru3+ electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s0 instead of having a full s orbital?
What is the charge on the most stable ion of each of the following elements?K, N, Mg, S, Ba, Al, I, O
Which of the atoms listed below has a total of only four valence electrons?(a) Beryllium(b) Carbon(c) Nitrogen(d) Oxygen(e) Fluorine
What is the electron configuration of a nitride ion in its ground state? 
Fill in the blanks with the correct ground state electron configuration  (noble gas configuration) for the given atom or the atom for the given ground state electron configuration.
What is the ground-state electron configuration of a neutral atom of nickel?
For a multi-electron atom, arrange the electron subshells of the following listing in order of increasing energy:6s, 4f, 2p, 5d.
Write the electron configuration of Co3+ (Cobalt 3+ ion). Explain.
The following electron configurations represent excited states. Identify the element and enter its ground-state condensed electron configuration. Express your answer as a chemical symbol.A. 1s22s22p43s1B. [Ar] 4s13d 104p25p1C. [Kr]5s24d 25p1
Determine the number of valence electrons for each of the following three elements. Express your answer as an integer. a. AIb. Snc. Br
Identify the outer electron configurations for the (a) alkali metals, (b) alkaline earth metals, (c) halogens, (d) noble gases.
How many valence electrons does an oxygen (O) atom have? (You can determine the number of valence electrons by referring to the group number on the periodic table or by writing its electron configuration. For main group elements, the electrons past the noble gas core are the valence electrons.)a) 0b) 2c) 4d) 6e) 8
a. Enter the full electron configuration for Cl –.b. What is the atomic symbol for the noble gas that also has this electron configuration?
Write the full electron configuration of chlorine. Write the noble gas electron configuration for chlorine. How many valence electrons does chlorine have?
What is the electron configuration for the Ca 2+ ion (calcium ion)?
The electron configuration of an Fe2+ ion is ________.a) [Ar]4s24d 4b) [Ar]4s23d 6c) [Ar]3d 3d) [Ar]3d 5e) [Ar]3d 6
What is the ground-state electron configuration of the fluoride ion F -? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
What is the ground-state electron configuration of the oxide ion O 2-? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
Write the electron configuration for arsenic (As).
Use the periodic table to determine each of the following:a. The number of 3s electrons in Mg.b. The number of 3d electrons in Cr.c. The number of 4d electrons in Mo.d. The number of 6p electrons in Pb.
Which element is most likely to react with oxygen?a. aluminumb. argonc. magnesiumd. nitrogene. silicon
Give the full electron configuration for calcium (Ca).
What element has the electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2?A.ironb.carbonc.silicond.oxygene. sulfer
Use the periodic table to identify the element with the following electron configuration. Spell out the full name of the element.a. [Ne]3s1b. [Kr]5s24d10c. [Xe]6s2d. [Kr]5s24d105p3
What is the ground state electron configuration of Sn2+?
How many inner/core and how many outer/valence electrons are in Te? a. 46 inner/core and 6 outer/valence b. 36 inner/core and 12 outer/valence c. 36 inner/core and 6 outer/valence d. 46 inner/core and 12 outer/valence
Which of the following electron configurations of neutral atoms represent excited states? a. 2s2 b. 1s22s22p63s23p63d2 c. [Ar]4s23d3 d. [Xe]6s24f1 e. [Kr]5s14d5
Is the electron configuration for Ag+ [Kr]4d10?
How many inner/core and how many outer/valence electrons are in Te? a. 46 inner/core and 6 outer/valence b. 36 inner/core and 12 outer/valence c. 36 inner/core and 6 outer/valence d. 46 inner/core and 12 outer/valence  
Enter the full electron configuration for S2-. What is the atomic symbol for the noble gas that also has this electron configuration?
What is the ground-state electron configuration of the sulfide ion S2−? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
Write the electronic configuration of vanadium(V).
How many electrons does a Co atom have in it's 3d subshell? How many of those electrons are unpaired?
Which element has the following electron configuration: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p2?
What element forms an ion with an electronic configuration of [Ar] and a -2 charge?
What element forms an ion with an electronic configuration of [Kr] and a -2 charge?
Write the electron configuration for the following ions, and determine which have noble-gas configurations: a. Cd2+ b. P3-  c. Zr4+  d. Ru3+ e. As3- f. Ag+
Which of these ions have six d electrons in the outermost d subshell? a. Os2+ b. Y2+ c. Tc2+ d. Mn2+ e. Fe2+ f. Zn2+ g. Ru2+
Sort the following electron configurations of neutral atoms based on whether they represent an excited state configuration or a ground state configuration.
Identify the electron configuration of the metal ion in Fe(NO3)3. a. [Ar]3d6 b. [Ar]4s23d6 c. [Ar]4s23d3 d. [Ar]4s23d6 e. [Ar]3d5  
Explain why Al is a member of group 13 rather than group 3?
Give the chemical symbol of an element in the third period (row) of the periodic table with three valence electrons.
What noble gas has the same electron configuration as the ion in the following compound?a. cesium sulfide
Give the chemical symbol of an element in the third period (row) of the periodic table with four 3p electrons.
What noble gas has the same electron configuration as the ion in the following compound?b. strontium fluoride
Identify the element whose ground-state electron configuration is [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p4.
Give the chemical symbol of an element in the third period (row) of the periodic table with six 3p electrons.
Identify the group of elements that corresponds to the following generalized electron configuration: [noble gas] ns2np5
What noble gas has the same electron configuration as the ion in the following compound?c. calcium nitride
Give the chemical symbol of an element in the third period (row) of the periodic table with two 3s electrons and no 3p electrons.
Identify the group of elements that corresponds to the following generalized electron configuration: [noble gas]ns2(n -1)d2
What noble gas has the same electron configuration as the ion in the following compound?d. aluminum bromide
Identify the group of elements that corresponds to the following generalized electron configuration: [noble gas]ns2(n -1)d10np1
Identify the elements that correspond to the following generalized electron configuration: [noble gas]ns2(n -2)f6
Enter the electron configuration for Ne.
A certain atom has an [noble gas] 5s2 4d10 5p4 electron configuration. Which element is it?
What is the electron configuration of an isolated S atom?
What is the electron configuration of an isolated Cl atom?
Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each:(a) Rb
Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each:(b) Ge
Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each:(c) Ar
Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each:(a) Br
Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each:(b) Mg
Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each:(c) Se
Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each:(a) Cl
Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each:(b) Si
Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each:(c) Sr
Identify the element: The ground-state electron configuration is [Ne] 3 s2 3p4.
Write the electron configuration for phosphorus. Identify the valence electrons and core electrons.
Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each:(a) S
Enter the electron configuration for phosphorus.
Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each:(b) Kr
Write the full ground-state electron configuration for each:(c) Cs
Use the periodic table to write the electron configuration for iodine (I).
Consider the element silicon, Si.Write the electron configuration.
Which of the following outer electron configurations would you expect to belong to a reactive metal?a. ns2b. ns2 np6c. ns2 np5d. ns2 np2
Which of the following electron configurations would you expect to belong to a reactive nonmetal?a. ns2b. ns2 np6c. ns2 np5d. ns2 np2
Name the element described in the following: Condensed ground-state electron configuration of [Ne] 3s23p2.
Name the element described in the following: Condensed ground-state electron configuration of [Kr] 5s24d6.
Specify the full electron configurations for each of the following elements.C
Specify the full electron configurations for each of the following elements.P
Specify the full electron configurations for each of the following elements.Ar
Specify the full electron configurations for each of the following elements.Na
Use the periodic table to determine the element corresponding to each of the following electron configurations.[Ar]4s23d104p6
Use the periodic table to determine the element corresponding to each of the following electron configurations.[Ar]4s23d2
Use the periodic table to determine the element corresponding to each of the following electron configurations.[Kr]5s24d105p2
Use the periodic table to determine the element corresponding to each of the following electron configurations.[Kr]5s2
How many valence electrons does calcium, Ca, have and what are its specific valence electrons?
How many valence electrons does oxygen, O, have and what are its specific valence electrons?
Determine the number of valence electrons for each of the following four elements.a. Alb. Snc. Brd. Se
How many valence electrons does element 117 have and what are its specific valence electrons?
Which of the following outer electron configurations could belong to a noble gas?a. ns2b. ns2 np6c. ns2 np5d. ns2 np2
How many valence electrons does indium, In, have and what are its specific valence electrons?
Which of the following outer electron configurations could belong to a metalloid?a. ns2b. ns2 np6c. ns2 np5d. ns2 np2
How many valence electrons does argon, Ar, have and what are its specific valence electrons?
How many valence electrons does bismuth, Bi, have and what are its specific valence electrons?
Write general outer electron configurations (nsxnpy) for group 6A in the periodic table.
Predict the atomic number of the next alkali metal after francium and give its ground-state electron configuration.
Consider the following elements: P, Ca, Si, S, Ga.Enter the electron configuration for P.
Write general outer electron configurations (nsxnpy) for group 7A in the periodic table.
The elements Si, Ga, As, Ge, Al, Cd, S, and Se are all used in the manufacture of various semiconductor devices. Write the expected electron configuration for these atoms.
The elements Cu, O, La, Y, Ba, Tl, and Bi are all found in high-temperature ceramic superconductors. Write the expected electron configuration for these atoms.
Consider the following elements: P, Ca, Si, S, Ga.Enter the electron configuration for Ca.
Consider the following elements: P, Ca, Si, S, Ga.Enter the electron configuration for Si.
Write the expected electron configurations for each of the following atoms: Sc, Fe, P, Cs, Eu, Pt, Xe, Br.
How many inner, outer, and valence electrons are present in an atom of each of the following elements?(a) O
Consider the following elements: P, Ca, Si, S, Ga.Enter the electron configuration for Ga.
Write the expected electron configurations for each of the following atoms: Cl, Sb, Sr, W, Pb, Cf.
The four most abundant elements by mass in the human body are oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. These four elements make up about 96% of the human body. The next four most abundant elements are calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium. Write the expected ground-state electron configurations for these eight most abundant elements in the human body.
How many inner, outer, and valence electrons are present in an atom of each of the following elements?(b) Sn
How many inner, outer, and valence electrons are present in an atom of each of the following elements?(c) Ca
Write the expected ground-state electron configuration for the (as yet undiscovered) alkaline earth metal after radium.
How many inner, outer, and valence electrons are present in an atom of each of the following elements?(d) Fe
Write the expected ground-state electron configuration for the noble gas with electrons occupying 4f orbitals.
How many inner, outer, and valence electrons are present in an atom of each of the following elements?(e) Se
How many inner, outer, and valence electrons are present in an atom of each of the following elements?(b) Cs
How many inner, outer, and valence electrons are present in an atom of each of the following elements?(c) Cr
Using only the periodic table inside the front cover of the text, write the expected ground-state electron configuration for the third element in Group 5A.
Using only the periodic table inside the front cover of the text, write the expected ground-state electron configuration for element number 116.
How many inner, outer, and valence electrons are present in an atom of each of the following elements?(d) Sr
How many inner, outer, and valence electrons are present in an atom of each of the following elements?(e) F