Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the ElementsSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Jules Bruno

An element’s electron configuration represents the location of its electrons within various shells and orbitals. From this distribution of electrons we can relate the chemical and physical properties of different elements. 

Setting up an electron configuration

Before you begin the electron configuration of an element it is important to remember the basic principles of quantum mechanics

Basics of Quantum Theory 

The main atomic sub-levels or subshells are s, p, d and f. Each atomic sub-level has a set number of atomic or electron orbitals with each being able to hold up to 2 electrons. 

Sublevels-Subshells-Orbitals-Arrows-ElectronsQuantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

Electron Configurations

Using this redesigned Periodic Table is an easy way to determine the electron configurations of all elements.  

Periodic-Table-Electron-ConfigurationPeriodic Table (Electron Configuration)

For example, what is the ground state electron configuration of Aluminum? 

STEP 1: Locate the element on the periodic table. 

Periodic-Table-Electron-ConfigurationPeriodic Table (Aluminum)

STEP 2: Starting at the 1s orbital write the orbitals and the number of electrons involved with aluminum. This follows the aufbau principle, which in german means, “to build up”. 

Periodic-Table-AluminumPeriodic Table (Aluminum)

Looking at the periodic table we find that aluminum is in Group 3A and with an atomic number of 13 has 13 electrons total. Now we simply count to aluminum while filling in our various orbitals. 

Al (13 Electrons)         1s22s22p63s23p1

If you wished to include the orbital diagram for the electron configuration for aluminum you would write the following: 

Electron-Orbital-Diagram-AluminumElectron Orbital Diagram (Aluminum)

Full vs. Condensed Electron Configurations

The full or longhand electron configuration involves going from the 1s orbital and to the last orbital of a specific element. 

Al (13 Electrons)            1s22s22p63s23p1

The condensed electron configuration begins at the noble gas just before we reach our specific element. For example, the noble gas before we reach aluminum is neon. 

Al (13 Electrons)            [Ne] 3s23p1

Substituting in the [Ne] is equivalent to writing 1s22s22p6 because both describe how 10 electrons are organized into orbitals. 

Exceptions to the Electron Configuration 

Some elements will break the order of electrons and orbitals. When an element is in its neutral form its electron configuration cannot possess a d4 or d9 orbital because of energetic reasons. 

For example, Copper (Cu) has an atomic number of 29 and so possesses 29 electrons. 

Periodic-Table-CopperPeriodic Table (Copper)

Following the steps we have done we would obtain the following electron configuration for Copper:

Electron-Configuration-CopperElectron Configuration of Copper

Remember that a neutral element is not allowed to possess a d4 or d9 orbital and so an electron from the s-orbital is promoted to the d-orbital. 

Electron-Configuration-Exception-Copper-CuElectron Configuration Exception of Copper

Connecting the electron dots

As stated previously, the electron configurations of the elements are essential in understanding the correlations between chemical and physical properties. With electron configurations we relate together Slater's rules and the Madelung rules when constructing our orbital diagrams. 

From what we've learned we can make connections with the quantum numbers, the bohr diagram when discussing the excited state vs. ground state of electrons, the periodic trends such as ionization energy, and using valence electrons when drawing Lewis Dot Structures


Jules Bruno

Jules felt a void in his life after his English degree from Duke, so he started tutoring in 2007 and got a B.S. in Chemistry from FIU. He’s exceptionally skilled at making concepts dead simple and helping students in covalent bonds of knowledge.


Additional Problems
Which element has the fewest number of valence electrons? a) Rb b) Se c) Ba d) Br e) Ge
 Give the electron configuration for the Ti 2+ ion.
Molybdenum (Mo) is an element in which the spin pairing energy is > than the promotion energy.  With that in mind write the electron configuration for the neutral atom and the +1 ion. a. Mo        b. Mo1+   
 Write the electronic configuration for the following elements and ions: i. Os                    ii. Ni2+                iii. Se3+              
When forming cations, electrons are removed first from orbitals that are bigger rather than necessarily those with higher energy. Given this, what is the electron configuration of the cobaltic cation, Co3+? (A) [Ar] 4s2 3d7 (B) [Ar] 4s2 3d4 (C) [Ar] 3d5 (D) [Ar] 4s2 3d10 (E) [Ar] 3d6
Which of the following is the correct electron configuration for the ferric cation? A. [Ar]4s2 3d3 B. [Ar]4s2 3d4 C. [Ar]4s2 3d6 D. [Ar]3d5 E. [Ar]3d6
Which of the following atoms is listed with an INCORRECT electron configuration? A. Br - [Ar]4s2 3d10 4p5 B. Pb - [Xe]6s2 5d10 4f14 6p2 C. Mo - [Kr]5s2 4d4 D. Y – [Kr]5s2 4d1 E. Fe - [Ar]4s2 3d6
Choose the ground state electron configuration for Mn 4+. a.  [Ar] b.  [Ar]4s13d4 c.  [Ar]4s23d1 d.  [Ar]4s23d9 e.  [Ar]3d3
An element E has the electronic outer shell configuration ns2 np4. What is the formula of its compound with lithium? A) LiE2 B) LiE C) Li2E D) Li4E E) LiE4
Which of the following electron configurations is correct for antimony ( 51Sb)? A. [Kr]4s23d104p3 B. [Ar]4s24d104p3 C. [Kr]5s24d105p3 D. [Ar]5s23d105p3 E. [Ar]4s23d104p3
If the ground state electron configuration of an element is [Ar]3d 104s24p3, what is the typical charge on the monatomic ion of the element ? a. +2 b. +1 c. -1 d. -2 e. -3
Which atom below contains the greatest number of valence electrons? A. Se B S C. Mo D. U E. All of the above contain the same number of valence electrons
For the ground-state ion Bi3+ , what type of orbital do the electrons with highest energy reside in? 5d 6s 4f 5p 6p
Which is a possible electronic configuration for neutral silicon? a. [Ne]3s23p1 b. [Ne]3s23p2 c. [Ne]3s23p3 d. [Ne]3s13p6 e. [Ne]3s23p4
Which of the following is a reasonable electronic configuration for neutral Tin (Sn)? a. [Kr]4s23d104p2 b. [Kr]5s25d105p2 c. [Kr]5s24d105p3 d. [Kr]5s24d125p0 e. [Kr]5s24d105p2
How many p electrons does Se (atomic number 34) possess? 1. 6 2. 10 3. 12 4. 4 5. 0 6. 34 7. 16
Write the ground-state electron configuration of a lead atom. 1. [Xe] 4f 145d106s16p3 2. [Xe] 4f 145d106s26p2 3. [Xe] 4f 145d 56s16p67s2 4. [Xe] 4f 145d106p4 5. [Xe] 4f 145d 96s26p3
The electron configuration for Ge is __________. A. 1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 64s 24d 104p 2 B. [Ar]4s 23d 12 C. 1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 63d 104s 24d 2 D. 1s 22s 23s 23p 63d 104s 24p 2 E. 1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 64s 23d 104p 2  
Which two elements have the same ground-state electron configuration? A. Cl and Ar B. Cu and Ag C. Pd and Pt D. Fe and Cu E. No two elements have the same ground-state electron configuration.
Choose the electron configuration for Cr 3+ . A. [Ar] B. [Ar]4s13d2 C. [Ar]4s23d6 D. [Ar]4s23d1 E. [Ar]3d3
How many core and valence electrons does an atom of bromine possess? A. 18 core, 17 valence B. 28 core, 7 valence C. 30 core, 5 valence D. 20 core, 15 valence E. 10 core, 25 valence
The electron configuration of Cr 3+ is 1. [Ar]4s13d5 2. [Ar]3d3 3. [Ar]4s23d1 4. [Ar]4s13d2
The only noble gas that does not have the ns 2 np6 valence electron configuration is____________________. A) radon B) neon C) helium D) krypton E) All noble gasses have the ns 2np6 valence shell electron configuration
Which element has an outer electron configuration of ns 2np4? 1. Se 2. Mo 3. Si 4. Fe
When dealing with electron configurations it's best to visualize the Periodic Table in this format. 
How many p electrons does Se (atomic number 34) possess? 1. 6 2. 10 3. 12 4. 4 5. 0 6. 34 7. 16 
Write the ground-state electron configuration of a lead atom. 1. [Xe] 4ƒ145d106s16p3 2. [Xe] 4ƒ145d106s26p2 3. [Xe] 4ƒ145d56s16p67s2 4. [Xe] 4ƒ145d106p4 5. [Xe] 4ƒ145d96s26p3
The C+ cation has how many total electrons and how many valence electrons? 1. 6; 5 2. 6; 6 3. 7; 6 4. 5; 4 5. 5; 3 6. 6; 4 7. 6; 3 8. 7; 5 9. 7, 8
What is the electron configuration for the Ni 2+ ion? a. [Ar]3d 8 4s 2 b. [Ar]3d 10 4s 2 c. [Ar]3d 7 4s 1 d. [Ar]3d 8 e. [Ar]3d 6 4s 2
What is the valence-shell electron configuration for the shaded group in the periodic table given below? a) ns2(n-2)f2  b) ns4  c) ns2(n-1)d2  d) ns2np2 e) ns2nd2
Which of the following electron configurations is correct for molybdenum, 42Mo, in its ground state? a) [Ar]4d55s1  b) [Kr]4d55s1  c) [Kr]4d45s2  d) [Ar]3d144s24p8  e) [Ar]3d144s24p64d6
What is the electron configuration of Fe3+? a) [Ar]4s23d5  b) [Ar]4s23d3  c) [Ar]3d5  d) [Ar]4s13d4  e) [Ar]3d7
Which of the following represents an excited state of an atom? a) 1s22s2  b) [Ne]3s23p64s23d1  c) [Ne]3s23p64s23d8  d) [Ne]3s23p64s23d2 e) 1s22s22p53s1
Which ground-state electron configuration is  incorrect? a) Cr: [Ar]3d6 b) Ca: [Ar] 4s2 c) Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 d) Zn: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 e) Kr: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6
How many core electrons does an atom of bromine have? a) 35 b) 36 c) 30 d) 28 e) 18
What is the valence electron configuration for the element in Period 5, Group 3A? (A) 5s25p1 (B) 3s23p5 (C) 3s23p3 (D) 5s25p3
Which electron configuration is impossible? (A) 1s22s22p63s2 (B) 1s22s22p62d2 (C) 1s22s22p63s23p6 (D) 1s22s22p53s1
The ground-state electronic configuration of the manganese atom, Mn, is (A) 1s22s22p63s23p64s24d5 (B) 1s22s22p63s23p63d7 (C) 1s22s22p63s23p64s24p5 (D) 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s2
Which species has this ground-state electron arrangement? 1s22s22p63s23p63d10 (A) Ni (B) Ni2+ (C) Zn (D) Zn2+
How many electrons does a stable gallium,  31Ga3+, ion have? a) 28 b) 29 c) 30 d) 31 e) 36
All of the following electronic configurations are correct  except a) 20Ca  [Ar]4s2 b) 25Mn  [Ar] 3d54s2 c) 29Cu  [Ar] 3d104s1 d) 50Sn   [Kr]4d105s25p2 e) 86Rn  [Xe]5d106s26p6
What is the electronic configuration of tellurium (Te)? 1. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p8 6s2 5d6 2. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4f14 5p2 3. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p6 5s2 6s2 6p6 4d10 7s2 4. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p4 5. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 3f14 4s2 4p6 4d4
Which of the following is the correct electron configuration for nitride ion? a) 1s22s22p3 b) 1s22s22p4 c) [He] d) 1s22s22p6 e) 1s22s2
A student wrote that an element had the electron configuration 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d10.  If the element forms an ion, what is its most likely charge? a) +1 b) +2 c) –2 d) –6 e) 0, it is a noble gas
One of the following does NOT represent the ground state electron configuration for an atom. Which one? 1. [Ne] 3s2 2. [Ne] 3s2 3p6 3. [Ne] 3s1 4. [Ne] 3s2 3p5 5. [Ne] 3s1 3p3
Write the electron configurations for the following ions or elements: example: Mg [Ne](3s)2 a) Si b) Ir3+ c) Se       
Which of the following statements is/are true? i. the electron configuration of copper, Cu, is  [Ar]4s 23d9 ii. the electron configuration of iron(II), Fe2+, is  [Ar]3d 6 iii. the electron configuration of molybdenum, Mo, is [Kr]5s14d5 a. i only b. ii only c. iii only d. i and ii  e. ii and iii
Give the full ground-state electron configuration for the element. S a. 1s22s22p63s23p2 b. 1s22s22p63s23p4 c. 1s22s22p63s23p44s2 d. 1s22s22p63s23p6 e. none of these
What is the electronic configuration of Ga 3+ ion? ( Ga has an atomic number of 31 ) a. [Ar] 4s1 3d9 b. [Ar] 3d10 c. [Ar] 4s2 3d8 d. [Ar] 4s1 4d9 e. [Ar] 4s2 4d8
Which of the following statements is/are true? i. the electron configuration of silver (Ag) is [Kr] 5s24d9 ii the electrom configuration of selenium (Se) is [Ar] 4s24d104p3 iii the electron configuration of chromium (Cr) is [Ar] 4s13d5 A. i only B. ii only C. iii only D. i and ii E. ii and iii
Choose the ground state electron configuration for Fe 2+. a. [Ar]4s03d2 b. [Ar]4s2 c. [Ar]4s23d6 d. [Ar]4s03d6 e. [Ar]4s23d4
How many inner shell (core) electrons do the following elements have, respectively? Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium and Berylium (A) 1, 1, 1, 1 (B) 0, 0, 1, 1 (C) 0, 0, 2, 1 (D) 0, 0, 2, 2 (E) 2, 2, 2, 2
What is the expected ground state electron configuration for Zr 2+ ? 1. [Xe] 6s25d4 2. [Kr] 5s24d2 3. [Kr] 5s24d4 4. [Xe] 6s 2 5. [Kr] 5s 2 6. [Kr] 4d 2 7. [Xe] 8. [Xe] 5d 2 9. [Kr] 10. [Kr] 5s14d5
The electronic configuration of Zn2+ is  A. [Ar] 4s2 3d10 B. [Ar] 4s0 3d10 C. [Ar] 4s2 3d8 D. [Ar] 4s2 4d8 E. [Ar] 4s0 4d10
Write the electron configurations for the following elements and ions. a) V2+         b) Sn         c) Pb2+  
Identify the generic outer electron configuration for the noble gases.a. ns2sp3b. ns2np4c. ns2np1d. ns2np6e. ns2np8f. ns2np2
Give the ground state electron configuration for Br -. (A) [Ar]4s23d104p5 (B) [Ar] 4s24p6 (C) [Ar]4s24p6 (D) [Ar]4s24d104p4 (E) [Ar]4s23d104p6
How is the electron configuration of Cr3+
Write the full electronic configuration for lead (Pb).
How many inner, outer, and valence electrons are present in an atom of each of the following elements?a. Ob. Snc. Cad. Fee. Se
Give the full electron configuration for sodium (Na).
Give the number of valence electrons for cobalt (Co).a.  18b.  27c.  2d.  9e.  7
How many valence electrons does an atom Sn have? A. 2 B. 4 C.14 D. 46 E. 50
An atom has 7 valence electrons – 2 are in an s-subshell and 5 in a p-subshell. Which group is the atom in?(A) alkali metals(B) alkaline earth metals(C) pnictogens(D) chalcogens(E) halogens
What is the element with electron configuration of 1s22s22p6.
Give the full electron configuration for barium.
a) Give the ground-state electron configuration for silicon (Si). b) Give the actual ground-state electron configuration for copper (Cu).
Give the electron configurations for the following ions:P5+P3-Sn4+Se2-I-Ni2+
What is the ground state electron configuration of the sulfide ion S 2-?
Which of the following atoms or ions does not have a filled outer subshell?a. Cab. Sc. Zn2+d. S2-e. Ca2+
a) Write the electron configuration for Ni 2+. b) Write the electron configuration for Br −.
Give the ground-state electron configuration for silicon (Si) using noble-gas shorthand. Express your answer in condensed form as a series of orbitals. 
What element forms an ion with an electronic configuration of [Kr] and a - 2 charge? Give the symbol for the element.
A gas phase atom with the electron configuration 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6 loses three electrons. What is the electron configuration of the resulting gas phase ion? a) 1s22s22p63s23p63d5 b) 1s22s22p63s23p64s13d4 c) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d3 d) 1s22s22p63s23p54s13d5
The complete ground state electron configuration for iodine (I) is: a.  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7 b.  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2  4d2  5p2 c.  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p1 d.  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p3 e.  1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p5
The electron configuration for the Os 3+ ion is:A) [Xe] 4f13 5d6B) [Xe] 5s2 4f11 5d6C) [Xe] 5s2 4f14 5d6D) [Xe] 4f14 5d5E) [Xe] 5s2 4f14 5d3
Write electron configuration for the following ion.Ru3+Express your answer in condensed form in order of increasing orbital energy as a string without blank space between orbitals. 
Write electron configuration for the following ion.As3−Express your answer in condensed form in order of increasing orbital energy as a string without blank space between orbitals. 
What is the ground-state electron configuration of the fluoride ion F−?Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
What is the ground state electron configuration of gallium, Ga? a. 1s22s23s23p64s23d104p1 b. 1s22s22p63s23p64s24d104p1 c. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p1 d. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104d1 e. [Ar]4s23d11
Write electron configuration for the following ion.Y3+Express your answer in condensed form in order of increasing orbital energy as a string without blank space between orbitals. 
State where in the periodic table these elements appear:a. elements with the valence-shell electron configuration  ns2np5b. elements that have three unpaired p electronsc. an element whose valence electrons are 4s24p1. Express your answer as the group and period number separated by a comma.d. the d-block elements: groups 3-8, groups 3-12, groups 1-2, Lanthanides, or Actinides
Write electron configuration for the following ion.Pd2+Express your answer in condensed form in order of increasing orbital energy as a string without blank space between orbitals. 
Name an element in the fourth row of the periodic table with four 4p  electrons. a. Crb. Sic. Krd. See. Zn
Predict the ground-state electron configuration of the following ions. Write your answers in abbreviated form, that is, beginning with a noble gas in brackets. (a) Ru2+ : (b) : W3+ :
Give the ground-state electron configuration for silicon (Si). Express the complete electron configuration using superscripts where appropriate. For example,the configuration for Li would be entered as 1s22s1.   Give the actual ground-stateelectron configuration for copper (Cu). Express the electron configuration using superscripts where appropriate. For example, the configuration for Li would be entered as 1s22s1.    
Which element has the following configuration: [Xe]6s 24f5?
Which of the following ions have the same ground state electron configuration:  Sn 4+ , Pb 4+ , Sr 2+ , Br - a. Sn and Pb b. Pb and Src. Sr and Brd. Pb and Br e. Sn , Sr, and Br
Pd has an anomalous electron configuration. Write the observed electron configuration of Pd.Express your answer in complete form in order of increasing orbital energy. 
Give the ground-state electron configuration for Copper (Cu) using noble-gas shorthand.
Which of the following atoms has three electrons in p orbitals in its valence shell?a. Bab. Gac. Vd. Bie. none of these
An element has the electron configuration [Kr] 5s 24d105p2. The element is a(n)A. noble gasB. representative elementC. transition element D. metalE. actinide element
Consider an atom of sulfur. Indicate whether the statement about an atom of sulfur is true/False. Its last electron is found in an ‘s’ orbital A) True B) False
Classify each statement as true or false. Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins.
A comparison of the electron configurations of nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) indicates that 1. Cu has two more d electrons and the same number of s electrons as Ni. 2. Cu has one more d electron and the same number of s electrons as Ni. 3. Cu has two more d electrons and one less s electron than Ni.  4. Cu has one more d electron and one less s electron than Ni. 5. Cu has one more d electron and one more s electron than Ni.
What is the ground-state electron configuration of a neutral atom of titanium? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
Consider an atom of sulfur. Indicate whether the statement about an atom of sulfur is true. It has 6 valence electrons.
What is the ground-state electron configuration of the sulfide ion S 2-? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy. 
Which element has the following configuration: [Xe]6s24f4 ? Enter the chemical symbol for the element.
Enter the condensed electron configuration for the following three ions:a. Co2+b. N3−c. Ca2+
The atomic number of oxygen is 8, because oxygen has a. a second shell with eight electrons. b. electrons in eight shells. c. eight protons in the nucleus. c. an atomic mass of 8.
Write the electron configuration for each ion.a. Co2+b. N3-c. Ca2+
An atom of chlorine has several valence electrons in itsa. first shell. b. second shell. c. nucleus. d. third shell.
What is the ground-state electron configuration of the chloride ion Cl −? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
What is the electron configuration of Li +, Na+, Sr 2+, Cu2+?
In what respect does an atom of magnesium, Mg, differ from a magnesium ion, Mg2+?(A) The ion has an inert gas electron configuration; the atom does not.(B) The positive charge on the nucleus of the ion is two units greater than the nuclear charge on the atom.(C) The ion has two more protons than the atom.(D) The ion has two or more planetary electrons than the atom.
Identify the atom with the following ground-state electron configuration for its valence shell. [Ar]4s23d10
What is the electronic configuration of a stable sulfide ion? a) 1s22s22p6 b) 1s22s22p63s2 c) 1s22s22p63s23p4 d) 1s22s22p63s23p3 e) 1s22s22p63s23p6
Magnesium and sulfur react to form MgS, an ionic compound. The magnesium ion, Mg2+, has ______ electrons in its highest occupied energy level. a. 8b. 2c. 10d. 4e. 5
The electronic configuration of the Al 3+ ion is  a) 1s22s22p6 b) 1s22s22p63s23p1 c) 1s22s22p63s23p4 d) 1s22s22p3 e) 1s22s22p1
What is the electron configuration of Ni 2+? a) [Ar] 3d6 4s2 b) [Ar] 3d7 4s1 c) [Ar] 3d8 d) [Ar] 3d8 4s2 e) [Ar] 3d8 4s1
For each element, indicate the number of valence electrons, core electrons, and unpaired electrons in the ground state: (a) carbon
Which electron configuration is incorrect? a. Zn: [Ar]3d 10 4s 2 b. Ca: [Ar]4s 2 c. Cr: [Ar]3d 4 4s 2 d. Ag: [Kr]4d 10 5s 1 e. All the above are correct.
For each element, indicate the number of valence electrons, core electrons, and unpaired electrons in the ground state: (b) phosphorus
For each element, indicate the number of valence electrons, core electrons, and unpaired electrons in the ground state: (c) neon
From a consideration of electronic configurations, which of the elements indicated below would be classified as a  transition element? a) 1s2, 2s2, 2p2 b) 1s1, 2s2, 2p6, 3s1, 3p5 c) 1s2, 2s2, 2p6,  3s2, 3p6, 4s2 d) 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6,3d5, 4s2 e) 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6,3d10, 4s2, 4p6
All of the following ions have the electronic configuration of a noble gas   except  a) Al3+ b) H - c) Ga3+ d) Cl - e) Ca2+
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, using the appropriate noble-gas core abbreviations: (a) Cs
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, using the appropriate noble-gas core abbreviations: (b) Ni
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, using the appropriate noble-gas core abbreviations: (c) Se
Complete the ground-state electron configuration for Zinc ion  and Thallium(lll) ion (using the noble gas abbreviation) and identify the charge.
Write the condensed electron configurations for the following atoms, using the appropriate noble-gas core abbreviations: (d) Cd
Which of the following represents a known stable ion?a) Tl13+b) Ca3+c) N3-d) S3-e) Cl2-
Which of the following have their valence electrons in the same shell?a) Mg, Al, Clb) B, Si, Asc) N, As, Bid) He, Ne, F
Enter the full electron configuration for Cl–.
Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl–, has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1, but Na+ has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6 Write out the electron configurations for (a) F–,
Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl–, has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1, but Na+ has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6 Write out the electron configurations for (b) I–,
Transition metal elements have atoms or ions with partially filleda) f subshellsb) p subshellsc) d subshellsd) s subshellse) g subshells
Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl–, has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1, but Na+ has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6 Write out the electron configurations for (c) O2–,
Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl–, has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1, but Na+ has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6 Write out the electron configurations for (d) K+,
Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl–, has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1, but Na+ has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6 Write out the electron configurations for (e) Mg2+,
In what group of the periodic table is the element with the following electron configuration? [Ar] 3d104s24p3 a) 4A b) 2A c) 3A d) 1A e) 5A
Ions also have electron configurations (Section 7.4). Cations have fewer valence electrons, and anions have more valence electrons, respectively, than their parent atoms. For example, chloride, Cl–, has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6, for a total of 18 electrons, compared to 17 for neutral chlorine, the element. Na has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s1, but Na+ has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6 Write out the electron configurations for (f) Al3+,
How many valence electrons does an antimony (Sb) atom have?  a) 1 b) 3 c) 5 d) 7 e) 51
What is the ground-state electron configuration of a neutral atom of manganese? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
Which of the following outer electron configurations could belong to a noble gas? Check all that apply.a. ns2np5b.ns2c. ns2np6d. ns2np2
The atomic numbers (Z), electron configurations, and numbers of unpaired electrons for five ions are listed in the following table. Assume that all unpaired electrons have parallel spins. Indicate the element symbol, charge, and energy state (ground or excited) for each of the five cases.
Give the actual ground-state electron configuration for copper (Cu).
The electron configuration of a vanadium atom (V) is a) [Ar] 4s24p3 b) [Ar] 4s23p3 c) [Ar] 4d34s2 d) [Ar] 3d5 e) [Ar] 3d34s2
Why is Ru3+ electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s0 instead of having a full s orbital?
What is the charge on the most stable ion of each of the following elements? K, N, Mg, S, Ba, Al, I, O
Which of the atoms listed below has a total of only four valence electrons?(a) Beryllium(b) Carbon(c) Nitrogen(d) Oxygen(e) Fluorine
What is the electron configuration of a nitride ion in its ground state? 
Fill in the blanks with the correct ground state electron configuration  (noble gas configuration) for the given atom or the atom for the given ground state electron configuration.
What is the ground-state electron configuration of a neutral atom of nickel?
Write the ground-state electron configuration for calcium, Ca. 
For a multi-electron atom, arrange the electron subshells of the following listing in order of increasing energy:6s, 4f, 2p, 5d.
Write the electron configuration of Co3+ (Cobalt 3+ ion). Explain.
The following electron configurations represent excited states. Identify the element and enter its ground-state condensed electron configuration. Express your answer as a chemical symbol.A. 1s22s22p43s1B. [Ar] 4s13d 104p25p1C. [Kr]5s24d 25p1
Determine the number of valence electrons for each of the following three elements. Express your answer as an integer. a. AIb. Snc. Br
Identify the outer electron configurations for the (a) alkali metals, (b) alkaline earth metals, (c) halogens, (d) noble gases.
How many valence electrons does an oxygen (O) atom have? (You can determine the number of valence electrons by referring to the group number on the periodic table or by writing its electron configuration. For main group elements, the electrons past the noble gas core are the valence electrons.) a) 0 b) 2 c) 4 d) 6 e) 8
a. Enter the full electron configuration for Cl –.b. What is the atomic symbol for the noble gas that also has this electron configuration?
Determine the element of lowest atomic number that contains a half-filled d subshell in the ground state.
Write the full electron configuration of chlorine. Write the noble gas electron configuration for chlorine. How many valence electrons does chlorine have?
What is the electron configuration for the Ca 2+ ion (calcium ion)?
The electron configuration of an Fe2+ ion is ________. a) [Ar]4s24d 4 b) [Ar]4s23d 6 c) [Ar]3d 3 d) [Ar]3d 5 e) [Ar]3d 6
What is the ground-state electron configuration of a neutral atom of iron? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
What is the ground-state electron configuration of the fluoride ion F -? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
What is the ground-state electron configuration of the oxide ion O 2-? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
Which element has the following configuration: [Xe]6s 24f 4? Enter the chemical symbol for the element.
Write the electron configuration for arsenic (As).
Use the periodic table to determine each of the following:a. The number of 3s electrons in Mg.b. The number of 3d electrons in Cr.c. The number of 4d electrons in Mo.d. The number of 6p electrons in Pb.
Which element is most likely to react with oxygen?a. aluminumb. argonc. magnesiumd. nitrogene. silicon
Electron configuration for Ru3+.
Give the full electron configuration for calcium (Ca).
What element has the electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2?A.ironb.carbonc.silicond.oxygene. sulfer
Use the periodic table to identify the element with the following electron configuration. Spell out the full name of the element.a. [Ne]3s1b. [Kr]5s24d10c. [Xe]6s2d. [Kr]5s24d105p3
What is the ground state electron configuration of Sn2+?
A. Enter the ground-state condensed electron configuration for Ge.B. Enter the ground-state condensed electron configuration for Nb.Express your answer in condensed form in order of increasing orbital energy as a string without blank space between orbitals.
How many inner/core and how many outer/valence electrons are in Te? a. 46 inner/core and 6 outer/valence b. 36 inner/core and 12 outer/valence c. 36 inner/core and 6 outer/valence d. 46 inner/core and 12 outer/valence
Which of the following electron configurations of neutral atoms represent excited states? a. 2s2 b. 1s22s22p63s23p63d2 c. [Ar]4s23d3 d. [Xe]6s24f1 e. [Kr]5s14d5
Is the electron configuration for Ag+ [Kr]4d10?
How many inner/core and how many outer/valence electrons are in Te? a. 46 inner/core and 6 outer/valence b. 36 inner/core and 12 outer/valence c. 36 inner/core and 6 outer/valence d. 46 inner/core and 12 outer/valence  
What element is represented by the electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 ?
Enter the full electron configuration for S2-. What is the atomic symbol for the noble gas that also has this electron configuration?
What is the ground-state electron configuration of the sulfide ion S2−? Express your answer in condensed form, in order of increasing orbital energy.
Write the electronic configuration of vanadium(V).
List all orbitals from 1s through 5s according to increasing energy for multielectron atoms. Rank orbitals from smallest to largest energy.1s,3p,4p,3s,3d,4s,2p,2s,5s.
How many electrons does a Co atom have in it's 3d subshell? How many of those electrons are unpaired?
Which element has the following electron configuration: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p2?
What element forms an ion with an electronic configuration of [Ar] and a -2 charge?
What element forms an ion with an electronic configuration of [Kr] and a -2 charge?
Write the electron configuration for the following ions, and determine which have noble-gas configurations: a. Cd2+ b. P3-  c. Zr4+  d. Ru3+ e. As3- f. Ag+
Which of these ions have six d electrons in the outermost d subshell? a. Os2+ b. Y2+ c. Tc2+ d. Mn2+ e. Fe2+ f. Zn2+ g. Ru2+
Sort the following electron configurations of neutral atoms based on whether they represent an excited state configuration or a ground state configuration.
Identify the electron configuration of the metal ion in Fe(NO3)3. a. [Ar]3d6 b. [Ar]4s23d6 c. [Ar]4s23d3 d. [Ar]4s23d6 e. [Ar]3d5  
Which of the following is the correct condensed electron configuration for the atom or ion indicated?a. The electron configuration of V is [Ar]4s24d3.b. The electron configuration of Al3+ is [Ne]3s23p4.c. The electron configuration of Sb3+ is [Kr]5s24d10.d. The electron configuration of Br+ is [Kr].e. The electron configuration of Co 2+ is [Ar]4s23d5.
Write the electron configuration for the following elements and ions using spdf notation (without noble gas abbreviations):Cr Si Fe2+P3- 
Which of these ions have one d electron in the outmost d subshell? a. Hg2+  b. Zn2+ c. Y2+ d. Fe2+  e. Cd2+  f. Sc2+  g. Tc2+
a. Write the condensed electron configurations of K +, I-, Ba2+, S2-, and Al3+.b. Which are Isoelectronic with Ar (answer yes or no)? 
Write the electron configuration for the following elements and ions using noble gas spdf notation: Sn2+ Br‾
An atom of chlorine has several valence electrons in itsa. nucleusb. first shellc. second shelld. third shell
You may want to reference (un pages 76-78) Section 3.3 while completing this problem Part A What is the electronic configuration for the ion formed when nitrogen gains three electrons: Express your answer in complete form, in order of increasing orbital energy. For example, 1s22s2 would be entered as 1s22s2. Part B Enter the symbol for the ion formed when nitrogen gains three electrons.
A monatomic ion with a charge of +2 has an electronic configuration of 1s 22s22p6. This ion is (n) ___________. What is the chemical symbol of the noble gas this ion is isoelectronic with? What is the formula of the ion?
How many electrons must each element gain or lose to have the same electron confguration as Ne? 
Identify the valence subshell occupied by electrons in molybdenum atoms. a. 5p b. 5d c. 5s d. 4d
What element forms an ion with an electronic configuration of [Xe] and a -2 charge? Give the symbol for the element.
A bromine atom with a positive charge: (i) 1s22s22p2 (ii) [Ne]3s^23p2 (iii) [Ar]3d104s24p4 (iv) 1s22s1 
Enter the name of the element for the corresponding electron configuration: (a) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d1 (b) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s1(c) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p5 (d) 1s22s22p63s23p4 
Write the corresponding electron configuration for the following pictorial representation. Give the full electron configuration (do not use the noble gas abbreviation). Name the element, assuming that the configuration describes a neutral atom. iron
A monatomic ion with a charge of +1 has an electronic configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6 This ion is a(n) ____________.What is the chemical symbol of the noble gas this ion is isoelectronic with? What is the formula of the ion?
The following Lewis diagram represents the valence electron configuration of a main-group element. If this element is in period 6, its valence electron configuration is:
Consider the element with the electron configuration [Xe]6s24f7. This element is (a) a representative element. (b) a lanthanide element. (c) a nonmetal. (d) an actinide clement. (e) a noble gas.
Write the corresponding electron configuration for the following pictorial representation. Given the full electron configuration (do not use the noble gas abbreviation). Name the element, assuming that the configuration described a neutral atom. 
Write the electron configuration of potassium, Z = 19. Use the buttons at the top of the tool to add orbitals in order of increasing energy, starting at the bottom with the lowest energy orbit
Here is the ground-state electron configuration of a +2 cation of an unknown Element E. Use this diagram to answer the questions below.
Write the corresponding electron configuration for the following pictorial representation. Give the full electron configuration (do not use the noble gas abbreviation).Name the element assuming that the configuration descries a neutral atom.
Enter the full electron configuration for P3-. What is the atomic symbol for the noble gas that also has this electron configuration?
Nonmetal gain electrons under certain conditions to attain a noble-gas electron configuration. How many electron must be gained by the element O? Which noble-gas electron configuration is attained in this process? (i) xenon (ii) krypton (iii) helium (iv) radon (v) argon (vi) neon
Determine the identity of the element with the following electron configuration. Enter the symbol of the element. [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4 
Identify the atom with the following ground-state electron configuration: [Ar] Express your answer as a chemical symbol.
Part AThe element that corresponds to the electron configuration 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d3 is _____ (i) cobalt (ii) vanadium (iii) manganese (iv) iron (v) scandium
Enter the full electron configuration for Cl-. What is the atomic symbol for the noble gas that also has this electron configuration? 
Indicate the number of unpaired electrons present in each of the following atoms.a. Sc: unpaired e-b. Mn: unpaired e-c. Se: unpaired e- 
Give the number of electrons in the indicated orbital's for the following. 3d in titanium
Which of the following electron configurations is NOT allowed?a. 1s22s22p73s1b. 1s12s12p6c. 1s22s22p5d. 1s22s22p1 
How many valence electrons are in Ne2+? 
Which of the following ions are isoelectronic with Xe? Check all that apply. a. Ba2+ b. I- c. Te2+ d. Rb+ 
An s orbital can hold _____ electrons.a. 6b. 10c. 18d. 2e. 8 
Calcium has _________ valence electrons.a. 10b. 8c. 6d. 4e. 2 
Which statement is true of the atom with an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1?a. This is the electron configuration for sodium.b. This element is in Group 1A.c. This element is in Period 3.d. All of these are true. 
How many electrons are in the outermost electron shell of the halogens?a. 2b. 5c. 1d. 7 
Which of the following is the correct noble gas electron configuration for an ion of barium?[Kr]5s^24d^105p^66s^2[Kr]5s^25p^6 [Kr] 5s^24d^105p^66s^1[Kr] 5s^24d^105p^6 [Kr] 5s^24d^105p^66s^26p^2
Write the corresponding electron configuration for the following pictorial representation. Give the full electron configuration (do not use the noble gas abbreviation). Name the element, assuming that the configuration describes a neutral atom.