Ch.7 - Quantum MechanicsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Jules Bruno

Electromagnetic spectrum

What is the electromagnetic spectrum

Before us we have the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is the different forms of radioactive energy that exists in our universe. The small portion that we can see with our naked eye is the visible light spectrum. Something like this here will not be given on your exams so it is important that you remember the order of the electromagnetic spectrum. 

If we take a look here, we should realize that the electromagnetic spectrum tries to relate three variables to one another

  1. Energy

  2. Frequency

  3. Wavelength. 

Electromagnetic spectrum frequency 

Frequency is represented by the letter mu. Frequency is how many waves we get within a given amount of time. The waves that we’re referring to are these waves down here. 

Let’s say that this to this represented one second. Within that once second, we can see that there’s not that many waves within that given amount of time, so the frequency will be very low. 

But as we move more to the right, we can see that there’s and more packing of waves within about the same amount of time. That means our frequency is increasing. We’re getting more waves per given amount of time. 

Electromagnetic spectrum wavelength

We’re going to say here that wavelength, which is represented by the symbol lambda,  represents the distance from one crest of the wave, which is the top, to the next. We can see here that the wavelength, the distance between one wave to the next, is very large. But as we go more to the right, the distance between the waves is decreasing. 

This is important because as we can see, there is some type of relationship we can establish. We can see that as we’re going from left to right, the wavelength gets shorter. It was the longest on this end but then it shortens as it gets over to this end. 

Electromagnetic spectrum energy

The opposite is happening to frequency and energy. On this end, the frequency and energy were very low, but then as we go more to the right, they get higher. We’re going to say here that energy and frequency are directly related. That means that they increase together or decrease together. Besides directly related, you may hear that they are directly proportional to one another. If one increases, the other one increases. They are the opposite of wavelength. Opposite, another term for it we could say is inversely proportional. That means if they’re increasing, that means wavelength is decreasing. Wavelength is inversely proportional or the opposite of energy and frequency. 

Electromagnetic spectrum visible light

Again, you’re not going to be given this chart so you have to remember the order. Radio waves have the longest wavelength, and therefore the lowest frequency and energy. Next we’d have microwaves, then infrared. The visible light spectrum is the part that we can see. Remember, with the visible light spectrum we have ROYGBIV which stands for red light, orange light, yellow light, green light, blue light, indigo and violet. After visible, we have ultraviolet, then we have x-ray and then finally, gamma rays which have the shortest wavelength and therefore the highest energy and frequency. 

When it comes to ROYGBIV, if you can't recall what side ROY is on and what side BIV is on, infrared has red in it that’s why it’s next to the red portion. Ultraviolet has violet in it that’s why it’s next to the violet portion. It also follows the same trend. As we move from left to right, wavelength is decreasing.

Here, we’re going to say the visible light spectrum is typically between 700 nanometers and 400 nanometers in terms of its wavelength. Nanometers is referring to the wavelength of these different colors of light. Again, you won't be given this electromagnetic spectrum. It’s essential that you remember the relationship it shares with these 3 variables and then the order that it’s presented. 


Jules Bruno

Jules felt a void in his life after his English degree from Duke, so he started tutoring in 2007 and got a B.S. in Chemistry from FIU. He’s exceptionally skilled at making concepts dead simple and helping students in covalent bonds of knowledge.


Additional Problems
What is the correct order of decreasing energy? 1. microwaves, visible light, x-rays, γ-rays, ultraviolet light 2. visible light, microwaves, x-rays, γ-rays, ultraviolet light 3. visible light, ultraviolet light, microwaves, , x-rays, γ-rays 4. microwaves, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, γ-rays, 5. γ-rays, x-rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, microwaves 
Which is the best description of the color of an object with the following absorption spectrum?
Which color in the rainbow has the shortest wavelength?  1. blue 2. green 3. red 4. yellow 5. orange
What is the correct order of increasing energy? 1. microwaves, x-rays, γ-rays, visible light, ultraviolet light 2. microwaves, ultraviolet light, visible light, x-rays, γ-rays 3. ultraviolet light, visible light, microwaves, x-rays, γ-rays 4. x-rays, γ-rays, microwaves, visible light, ultraviolet light 5. microwaves, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, γ-rays
What kind of radiation causes molecules to vibrate? 1. ultraviolet 2. x-rays 3. visible 4. infrared 5. microwave
Place the following types of electromagnetic radiation in order of increasing wavelength. a) X-Ray b) Gamma Rays c) Radio d) Visible light 1 at (4.45 x 10 –9 J) e) Visible Light 2 at (3.56 x 10 –17 m)
On the electromagnetic spectrum, visible light is immediately between two other wavelength regions. Name them. A. Microwave and infrared B. Ultraviolet and x-ray C. X-ray and gamma ray D. Radio and microwave E. Ultraviolet and infrared
A popular kitchen appliance produces electromagnetic radiation with a frequency of 2450 MHz. With reference to the figure below , answer the following:Using the diagram, determine whether the wavelength of the appliances radiation belongs to the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Based on your finding, would the appliances radiation be visible to the human eye?
Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments synthesized by plants. The observed color of an object is not the color of light it absorbs but rather the complementary color, as described by a color wheel such as the one shown here. On this wheel, complementary colors are across from each other. Based on this wheel, what color is absorbed most strongly if a plant is orange?
The following diagrams represent two electromagnetic waves, drawn on the same scale. Which wave has a longer wavelength?
The following diagrams represent two electromagnetic waves, drawn on the same scale. Which wave has a higher frequency?
Instruments for obtaining MRI data are typically labeled with a frequency, such as 600 MHz. In what region of the electromagnetic spectrum does a photon with this frequency belong?
Describe the difference between red light and blue light.
Label each of the following statements as true or false. For those that are false, correct the statement.Visible light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
The molecule 2-butene, C4 H8, can undergo a geometric change called cis-trans isomerization: As discussed in the "Chemistry and Life" box on the chemistry of vision, such transformations can be induced by light and are the key to human vision.Is the wavelength in your answer to part D in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum?
One of the emission lines of the hydrogen atom has a wavelength of 93.07 nm.In what region of the electromagnetic spectrum is this emission found?
Consider the two waves shown here , which we will consider to represent two electromagnetic radiations.Identify the region of the electromagnetic spectrum to which wave B belongs.
Arrange the following spectral regions in order of increasing wavelength:infrared, microwave, ultraviolet, visible.A) ultraviolet < visible < infrared < microwaveB) microwave < visible < infrared < ultravioletC) ultraviolet < infrared < visible < microwaveD) microwave < infrared < visible < ultraviolet
Which color in the rainbow has the shortest wavelength?1. blue2. green3. red4. yellow5. orange
As the wavelength of light increases, which is also true of light?A. frequency decreases and energy decreasesB. frequency decreases and energy increasesC. frequency increases and energy decreasesD. frequency increases and energy decreasesE. frequency and energy remain constant
Which of the following statements is NOT true? a) Energy increases as the wavelength decreases.b) Energy increases as the frequency increases.c) Frequency increases as the wavelength decreases.d) All of the statements are true.
Identify the color that has a wavelength of 535 nm.a. blueb. yellowc. redd. green
Place the following types of electromagnetic radiation in order of decreasing energy: Ultraviolet light, Radio waves, Microwaves A. Radio waves > Microwaves > Ultraviolet light B. Ultraviolet light > Microwaves > Radio waves C. Radio waves > Ultraviolet light > Microwaves D. Ultraviolet light > Radio waves > Microwaves E. Microwaves > Radio waves > Ultraviolet light
Which one of the following types of radiation has the shortest wavelength, the greatest energy AND the highest frequency?A. ultraviolet radiationB. infrared radiationC. visible red lightD. visible blue lightE. none because short wavelength is associated with low energy and low frequency, not high energy and high frequency
Which of the responses contains all the true statements and no others regarding electromagnetic radiation (light)?I. As energy increases frequency decreases.II. As wavelength increases energy decreases.III. As wavelength increases frequency decreases.IV. The product of wavelength and frequency is constant.a) I, III and IVb) I and IIc) I, II and IVd) II, III and IVe) III and IV
Determine which of the following statements are false, and correct them. (a) Electromagnetic radiation is incapable of passing through water. (b) Electromagnetic radiation travels through a vacuum at a constant speed, regardless of wavelength. (c) Infrared light has higher frequencies than visible light. (d) The glow from a fireplace, the energy within a microwave oven, and a foghorn blast are all forms of electromagnetic radiation. 
In the electromagnetic spectrum UV (ultraviolet) light is to the left and IR (infrared) light to the right of visible light. Which of the following statements is/are correct?(1) UV light has lower wavelengths.(2) IR light has lower frequencies.(3) IR light has lower energiesa. (1) and (2)b. (1) and (3)c. (2) and (3)d. only one of these (1 or 2 or 3)e. All three (1 and 2 and 3)
Two electromagnetic waves are represented below.Wave (b) has thea) higher frequency and higher energy than Wave (a).b) lower frequency and lower energy than wave (a)c) higher frequency and lower energy than wave (a).d) lower frequency and higher energy than wave (a).e) more information is needed.
Label each of the following statements as true or false. For those that are false, correct the statement. (a) Visible light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Determine which of the following statements are false and correct them. (a) The frequency of radiation increases as the wavelength increases.
Label each of the following statements as true or false. For those that are false, correct the statement. (b) Ultraviolet light has longer wavelengths than visible light.
Label each of the following statements as true or false. For those that are false, correct the statement. (c) X-rays travel faster than microwaves.
Label each of the following statements as true or false. For those that are false, correct the statement. (d) Electromagnetic radiation and sound waves travel at the same speed. 
Arrange the following kinds of electromagnetic radiation in order of increasing wavelength: infrared, green light, red light, radio waves, X-rays, ultraviolet light.
(c) Would the radiations in part (a) or part (b) be detected by an X-ray detector?
If you put 120 volts of electricity through a pickle, the pickle will smoke and start glowing an orange-yellow color. The light is emitted because the sodium ions in the pickle become excited; their return to the ground state results in light emission (see Figure 6.13b and Sample Exercise 6.3). (c) Calculate the energy gap between the excited and ground states for the sodium ion.
If you put 120 volts of electricity through a pickle, the pickle will smoke and start glowing an orange-yellow color. The light is emitted because the sodium ions in the pickle become excited; their return to the ground state results in light emission (see Figure 6.13b and Sample Exercise 6.3). (d) If you soaked the pickle for a long time in a different salt solution, such as strontium chloride, would you still observe 589 nm light emission? Why or why not?
A popular kitchen appliance produces electromagnetic radiation with a frequency of 2450 MHz. With reference to the figure below, answer the following:Which of the following is the appliance likely to be?(i) A toaster oven(ii) A microwave oven(iii) An electric hotplate
A popular kitchen appliance produces electromagnetic radiation with a frequency of 2450 MHz. With reference to the figure below, answer the following:If the radiation is not visible, do photons of this radiation have more or less energy than photons of visible light?
A source of electromagnetic radiation produces infrared light. Which of the following could be the wavelength of the light?
Rank the colors of visible light (green, red, and blue—) from the highest energy per photon to the lowest energy per photon.
The light produced by a red neon sign is due to the emission of light by excited neon atoms. Qualitatively describe the spectrum produced by passing light from a neon lamp through a prism.
The familiar phenomenon of a rainbow results from the diffraction of sunlight through raindrops.Does the wavelength of light increase or decrease as we proceed outward from the innermost band of the rainbow?
Which group of types of light is listed in order of increasing frequency?(a) visible, ultraviolet, infrared(b) infrared, visible, ultraviolet(c) ultraviolet, visible, infrared(d) infrared, ultraviolet, visible
Ozone in the upper atmosphere absorbs energy in the 210-230 nm range of the spectrum. In what region of the electromagnetic spectrum does this radiation occur?
You may want to reference (Pages 214 - 216) Section 6.1 while completing this problem.List the following types of electromagnetic radiation in order of decreasing wavelength:(a) the gamma rays produced by a radioactive nuclide used in medical imaging(b) radiation from an FM radio station at 93.1 MHz on the dial(c) a radio signal from an AM radio station at 680 kHz on the dial(d) the yellow light from sodium vapor streetlights(e) the red light of a light-emitting diode, such as in a calculator display.
A carbon–oxygen double bond in a certain organic molecule absorbs radiation that has a frequency of 6.0 x 1013 s-1. To what region of the spectrum does this radiation belong?
The hydrogen atom can absorb light of wavelength 1094 nm.In what region of the electromagnetic spectrum is this absorption found?        
A stellar object is emitting radiation at 3.60 mm.What type of electromagnetic spectrum is this radiation?
List the following types of electromagnetic radiation in order of increasing energy per photon.a. radio wavesb. microwavesc. infrared radiationd. ultraviolet radiation
In fireworks, the heat of the reaction of an oxidizing agent, such as KClO  4, with an organic compound excites certain salts, which emit specific colors. Strontium salts have an intense emission at 641 nm, and barium salts have one at 493 nm. What colors do these emissions produce?
Covalent bonds in a molecule absorb radiation in the IR region and vibrate at characteristic frequencies. The C—O bond absorbs radiation of wavelength 9.6 μm. What frequency (in s−1) corresponds to that wavelength?
In a game of “Clue,” Ms. White is killed in the conservatory. A spectrometer in each room records who is present to help find the murderer. For example, if someone wearing yellow is in a room, light at 580 nm is reflected. The suspects are Col. Mustard, Prof. Plum, Mr. Green, Ms. Peacock (blue), and Ms. Scarlet. At the time of the murder, the spectrometer in the dining room shows a reflection at 520 nm, those in the lounge and the study record lower frequencies, and the one in the library records the shortest possible wavelength. Who killed Ms. White? Explain.
Which wavelength of light has the highest frequency?a) 10 nmb) 10 mmc) 1 nmd) 1 mm
The electromagnetic spectrum. Wavelengths in the spectrum range from very short gamma rays to very long radio waves.By how many orders of magnitude do the two waves differ in wavelength?
Light travels at a speed of 2.998×108 m/s in a vacuum.Would radiation with a wavelength 0.82 nm or a frequency of 6.5×1011 s-1 be detected by an X-ray detector?
In the electromagnetic spectrum UV (ultraviolet) light is to the left and IR (infrared) light to the right of visible light. Which of the following statements is/are correct?(1) UV light has lower wavelengths.(2) IR light has lower frequencies.(3) IR light has lower energiesa. (1) and (2)b. (1) and (3)c. (2) and (3)d. only one of these (1 or 2 or 3)e. All three (1 and 2 and 3)
It is possible to convert radiant energy into electrical energy using photovoltaic cells.Assuming equal efficiency of conversion, would infrared or ultraviolet radiation yield more electrical energy on a per-photon basis?
What is the correct order of decreasing energy?1. microwaves, visible light, x-rays, γ-rays. ultraviolet light2. visible light, microwaves, x-rays, γ-rays, ultraviolet light3. visible light, ultraviolet light, microwaves, x-rays, γ-rays4. microwaves, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, γ-rays5. γ-rays, x-rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, microwaves
Rank the following kinds of electromagnetic radiation in order of decreasing wavelength?Red Light, Radio Waves, Microwaves, Infrared Light, Ultraviolet Light, X-rays, Gamma Rays, Violet Light
Of the following, ______________ radiation has the longest wavelength and _____________ radiation has the greatest energy.                              infrared                  gamma               visiblea) infrared, gammab) gamma, infraredc) visible, gammad) infrared, visiblee) visible, infrared
1) A neon lamp produces what kind of visible spectrum?2) The particle of light emitted when an atom changes from a higher energy level to a lower energy level is called3) The wavelength of blue light is greater than red light and its energy is greater. True or False?4) In the grating equation nλ=d sinθ, the quantity θ will be determined in the lab using what?5) The study and analysis of light according to its component wavelengths is called?
Match the characteristics with the correct type of radiation:  alpha, beta, gamma-lowest penetrating power-purely composed of energy-capable of shallow, sunburn-like, skin damage-causes most internal biological damage-highest penetrating power-travels at 9/10 the speed of light-travels at speed of light-travels at a 1/10 the speed of light
A carbon–oxygen double bond in a certain organic molecule absorbs radiation that has a frequency of 6.0 x 1013 s-1. A carbon–oxygen bond in a different molecule absorbs radiation with frequency equal to 5.4 x 1013 s-1. Is this radiation more or less energetic?
Select the arrangement of electromagnetic radiation which starts with the lowest wavelength and increases to greatest wavelength. 1) radio, infrared, ultraviolet, gamma rays 2) radio, ultraviolet, infrared, gamma rays 3) gamma rays, radio, ultraviolet, infrared 4) gamma rays, infrared, radio, ultraviolet 5) gamma rays, ultraviolet, infrared, radio
Select the arrangement of electromagnetic radiation which starts with the lowest energy and increases to greatest energy. 1) radio, visible, infrared, ultraviolet 2) infrared, visible, ultraviolet, microwave 3) visible, ultraviolet, infrared, gamma rays 4) X-radiation, visible, infrared, microwave 5) microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet
A laser pointer used in a lecture hall emits light at 650 nm.Using the figure below, predict the color associated with this wavelength.
One type of electromagnetic radiation has a frequency of 107.1 MHz, another type has a wavelength of 2.12 x 10-10 m, and another type of electromagnetic radiation has photons with energy equal to 3.97 x 10-19 J/photon. Identify each type of electromagnetic radiation and place them in order of increasing photon energy and increasing frequency.
Which of the following wavelengths of light has the highest energy?i) 4.0 x 10-4 mii) 3.8 x 10-9 miii) 9.2 x 105 miv) 7.3 x 101 mv) 1.5 x 10-14 m
Place the following types of electromagnetic radiation in order of increasing wavelength untraviolet light gamma rays microwaves.a. ultraviolet light < gamma rays < microwavesb. gamma rays < microwaves < ultraviolet lightc. microwaves < ultraviolet light < gamma raysd. gamma rays < ultraviolet light < microwavese. microwaves < gamma rays < ultraviolet light