In voltaic/galvanic cells electrical current is created, while in an electrolytic cell electrical current is consumed to drive the reaction.

The ampere or amp represents the SI unit for electrical current and represents charge per second.

**Example:** Gold can be plated out of a solution containing Au** ^{3+}** based on the following half reaction:

Au** ^{3+}** (aq) + 3 e

a) What mass of gold is plated by a 41 minute flow of 6.8 A current?

4m **Example:** A solution of Mn** ^{+5}** is used to plate out Mn in an electrochemical cell. If a total of 1.13 g of Mn is plated out in a total time of 1600 seconds, what was the electrical current used? (

**Example:** If steady current of 15 amperes is provided by a stable voltage of 12 Volts for 600 seconds, answer each of the following questions.

a) Calculate the ** total charge** that passes through the circuit in this time.

b) Calculate the ** total number of moles of electrons** that pass through the circuit in this time.

c) Calculate the ** total amount of energy** that passes through the circuit in this time.

d) Calculate the ** power** that the battery provides during this process.

5m

A current of 4.02 A is passed through a Ni(NO_{3})_{2} solution. How long (in hours) would this current have to be applied to plate out 6.20 g of nickel?

Watch Solution

Oxygen Supply in Submarines Nuclear submarines can stay under water nearly indefinitely because they can produce their own by the electrolysis of water.

How many liters of O_{2} at 298 K and 1.00 bar are produced in 3.00 hr in an electrolytic cell operating at a current of 0.0200 A?

Watch Solution

How many grams of Cu metal (63.55 g/mol) will be plated out of a Cu(NO_{3 })_{2} solution by passing a current of 3.00 amperes for 11 minutes? (1 Faraday = 96,485 Coulombs)

1. 2.608 g

2. 0.652 g

3. 1.304 g

4. 0.0721 g

Watch Solution

A current of 0.5 amp flows through an electrochemical cell that evolves Cl _{2} gas by the oxidation of Cl^{1-}. What number of moles of Cl _{2} gas are generated in a period of 30 min?

A) 900 mole

B) 9.3 x10^{-3} mole

C) 4.6 x10^{-3} mole

D) 1.6 x 10^{-4} mole

E) 7.8 x 10^{-5} mole

Watch Solution

If the following half-reactions are used in an electrolytic cell:

Li ^{+}(aq) + e^{−} → Li(s) E^{ 0} = − 3.04

Mg ^{2+}(aq) + 2e^{−} → Mg(s) E ^{0} = − 2.38

And 10 Amps are applied for 1 minute, determine which solid would form and how much would form in grams.

A. 0.043 grams of Lithium

B. 0.022 grams of Lithium

C. 0.15 grams of Magnesium

D. 0.076 grams of Magnesium

E. 0.086 grams of Lithium

Watch Solution

How many minutes will be required to deposit 1.00 g of chromium metal from an aqueous CrO_{4}^{2-} solution using a current of 6.00 amperes?

(A) 186 min

(B) 30.9 min

(C) 15.4 min

(D) 5.15 min

Watch Solution

A current of 5.00 A is passed through an aqueous solution of chromium (III) nitrate for 30.0 min. How many grams of chromium metal will be deposited at the cathode?

a) 0.027 g

b) 1.62 g

c) 4.85 g

d) 6.33 g

Watch Solution

A vanadium electrode is oxidized electrically. If the mass of the electrode decreases by 114 mg during the passage of 650 coulombs, what is the oxidation state of the vanadium product?

a) +1

b) +2

c) +3

d) +4

Watch Solution

A 215 mL sample of a 0.500 M NaCl solution with an initial pH of 7.00 is subjected to electrolysis. After 15.0 minutes, a 10.0 mL portion (or aliquot) of the solution was removed from the cell and titrated with 0.100 M HCI solution. The endpoint in the titration was reached upon addition of 22.8 mL of HCl. Assuming constant current, what was the current (in A) running through the cell?

Watch Solution

A current of 11.3 A is applied to 1.25 L of a solution of 0.552 M HBr converting some of the H^{+} to H_{2}(g), which bubbles out of solution. What is the pH of the solution after 73 minutes?

Watch Solution

A 0.0251 L sample of a solution of Cu ^{+} requires 0.0322 L of 0.129 M KMnO_{4} solution to reach the equivalence point. The products of the reaction are Cu^{2+} and Mn^{2+}. What is the concentration of the Cu^{2+} solution?

Watch Solution

A sample of impure tin of mass 0.535 g is dissolved in strong acid to give a solution of Sn^{2+}. The solution is then titrated with a 0.0448 M solution of NO _{3}^{-}, which is reduced to NO(g). The equivalence point is reached upon the addition of 0.0344 L of the NO_{3}^{-} solution. Find the- percent by mass of tin in the original sample, assuming that it contains no other reducing agents.

Watch Solution

A metal forms the fluoride MF _{3}. Electrolysis of the molten fluoride by a current of 3.86 A for 16.2 minutes deposits 1.25 g of the metal. Calculate the molar mass of the metal.

Watch Solution

The molar mass of a metal (M) is 50.9 g/mol; it forms a chloride of unknown composition. Electrolysis of a sample of the molten chloride with a current of 6.42 A for 23.6 minutes produces 1.20 g of M at the cathode. Determine the empirical formula of the chloride.

Watch Solution

A rechargeable battery is constructed based on a concentration cell constructed of two Ag/Ag^{+} half-cells. The volume of each half-cell is 2.0 L and the concentrations of Ag ^{+} in the half-cells are 1.25 M and 1.0 x 10^{–3} M.

c. Upon recharging, how long would it take to redissolve 1.00 x 10 ^{2} g of silver at a charging current of 10.0 amps?

Watch Solution

A rechargeable battery is constructed based on a concentration cell constructed of two Ag/Ag^{+} half-cells. The volume of each half-cell is 2.0 L and the concentrations of Ag ^{+} in the half-cells are 1.25 M and 1.0 x 10^{–3} M.

a. How long can this battery deliver 2.5 A of current before it goes dead?

Watch Solution

A battery relies on the oxidation of magnesium and the reduction of Cu ^{2+}. The initial concentrations of Mg^{2+} and Cu^{2+} are 1.0 x 10^{–4} M and 1.5 M, respectively, in 1.0-liter half-cells.

c. How long can the battery deliver 5.0 A before going dead?

Watch Solution

A battery relies on the oxidation of magnesium and the reduction of Cu ^{2+}. The initial concentrations of Mg^{2+} and Cu^{2+} are 1.0 x 10^{–4} M and 1.5 M, respectively, in 1.0-liter half-cells.

b. What is the voltage of the battery after delivering 5.0 A for 8.0 h?

Watch Solution

What mass of aluminum metal can be produced per hour in the electrolysis of a molten aluminum salt by a current of 25 A?

Watch Solution

A major source of sodium metal is the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. What magnitude of current produces 1.0 kg of sodium metal in 1 hour?

Watch Solution

Silver can be electroplated at the cathode of an electrolysis cell by the half-reaction:

Ag^{+} (aq) + e^{– }→ Ag (s)

What mass of silver would plate onto the cathode if a current of 6.8 A flowed through the cell for 72 min?

Watch Solution

Copper can be electroplated at the cathode of an electrolysis cell by the half-reaction:

Cu^{2+}(aq) + 2 e^{–} → Cu(s)

How much time would it take for 325 mg of copper to be plated at a current of 5.6 A?

Watch Solution

What mass of lead sulfate is formed in a lead-acid storage battery when 1.00 g of Pb undergoes oxidation?

Watch Solution

If each of these ions were reduced to metal with one coulomb, which would yield the greatest mass?

A. Cu^{2+}

B. Ag^{+}

C. Hg^{2+}

D. Cu^{+}

Watch Solution

A given amount of electric charge deposits 2.159 g of silver from an Ag ^{+} solution. What mass of copper from a Cu^{2+} solution will be deposited by the same amount of electric charge?

A. 0.635 g

B. 1.97 g

C. 2.54 g

D. 127 g

Watch Solution

The following half-reactions combine to make an electrolytic cell:

K^{+} (*aq*) + e^{-} → K (*s*) E° = −2.93

Li^{+} (*aq*) + e^{-} → Li (*s*) E° = −3.05

If a current of 1.5 Amps is placed on this cell for 5 minutes, which of the following describes the mass of solid formed (in grams) and the voltage required of the current.

[1 Amp = 1 coul/s; 96500 coul = 1 mol e^{-}]

A. 0.0324 g; - 0.12 V

B. 0.000539 g ; - 0.12 V

C. 0.00466 g; 0.12 V

D. 0.0324 g; 5.98 V

E. 0.00466 g; 5.98 V

Watch Solution

If the following half-reactions are used in an electrolytic cell:

Li^{+}(*aq*) + e ^{−} → Li(*s*) E° = −3.04

Mg^{2+}(*aq*) + 2 e ^{−} → Mg(*s*) E° = −2.38

And 10 Amps are applied for 1 minute, determine which solid would form and how much would form in grams.

A. 0.043 grams of Lithium

B. 0.022 grams of Lithium

C. 0.15 grams of Magnesium

D. 0.076 grams of Magnesium

E. 0.086 grams of Lithium

Watch Solution

Amps are equivalent to which unit?

A. Volts

B. Moles of e^{−}

C. Coulombs

D. Volts / second

E. Coulombs / second

Watch Solution

How many seconds will be required to deposit 6.23 g of Ag from a solution that contains Ag^{+} ions if a current of 0.35 A is used?

a. 1.7 x 10^{6}

b. 1.6 x 10^{4}

c. 2.0 x 10^{3}

d. 2.1 x 10^{2}

Watch Solution

A solution of Mn^{+5} is used to plate out Mn in an electrochemical cell. If a total of 3.70 g of Mn is plated out in a total time of 1 seconds, what was the electrical current used? (**MW of Mn is 54.94 g/mol**)

Watch Solution

Gold can be plated out of a solution containing Au ^{3+} based on the following half reaction:

Au ^{3+} (aq) + 3 e ^{- }^{→ } Au (s)

What mass of gold is plated by a 53 minute flow of 8.2 A current?

Watch Solution