Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular StructureSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Chemical Bonds

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Sections
Chemical Bonds
Lattice Energy
Lattice Energy Application
Born Haber Cycle
Dipole Moment
Lewis Dot Structure
Octet Rule
Formal Charge
Resonance Structures
Additional Sections
Percent Ionic Character
Bond Energy

A chemical bond is the connection of different elements through the sharing, transferring or pooling of electrons. 

Types of Chemical Bonds

Concept #1: Explanation for Bond Formation

Concept #2: Understanding an Ionic Bond

An ionic bond involves the transferring of an electron from one element to another element. 

Concept #3: Understanding a Covalent Bond

A covalent bond involves the sharing of electron(s) between elements. 

Concept #4: Understanding a Metallic Bond

A metallic "bond" isn't really a bond. Think of electrons as being loosely connected or "pooling"  on the surface of many metals. 

Depending on the element or elements involved we can describe bonds as forming: atomic elements, molecular elements, molecular compounds or ionic compounds. 

Practice: Describe each of the following as either a(n): atomic element, molecular element, molecular compound or ionic compound. 

a) Iodine 

b) NH3

c) Graphite

d) Na3P

e)Ag2SO4

 

The Ionic Bonding Model

Concept #5: Understanding the Ionic Bonding Model

An ionic bond forms when a cation and anion combine because of their opposite charges. 

Practice: Determine the molecular formula of the compound formed from each of the following ions.

a. K  &    P3-

b. Sn4+    &    O2-

c. Al3+   &   CO32-

Additional Problems
A covalent bond is best described as A) the sharing of electrons between atoms. B) the transfer of electrons. C) a bond between a metal and a nonmetal. D) a bond between a metal and a polyatomic ion. E) a bond between two polyatomic ions.
The strength of an ionic bond comes principally from: A. the mutual attraction of opposite electrical charges B. the conversion of atoms into compounds C. the conversion of compounds into atoms D. the sharing of electrons E. the movement of electrons from cations to anions  
Which of the following compounds contains both ionic and covalent bonds? (A) HCl (B) NaCl (C) H2O (D) NaOH (E) CO2
Select the option below that best completes the following statement: Fe(NO 3)3 is _________, KBr is _________, and N2O3 is _________. a) a covalent molecule, a covalent molecule, a covalent molecule b) a covalent molecule, an ionic compound, an ionic compound c) an ionic compound, a covalent molecule, a covalent molecule d) an ionic compound, an ionic compound, a covalent molecule e) an ionic compound, an ionic compound, an ionic compound
A pure covalent bond would form in which of these pairs of atoms? a. Br-Br b. H-Cl c. Na-Cl d. Se-Br e. Li-Br
An ionic bond is best described as: a. the sharing of electrons. b. the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. c. the attraction that holds the atoms together in a polyatomic ion. d. the attraction between 2 nonmetal atoms.  e. the attraction between 2 metal atoms.
Consider the following compounds I.  N2O4 II. Ca(NO3)2 III. SiH4 IV. SrBr2 Which of the following statements is NOT true? a. Two of the compounds from the list are ionic compounds. b. All of the compounds show empirical formulas. c. II contains both ionic bond and covalent bonds. d. Both I and III are covalent compounds.
In which compound below is it inappropriate to use a line or dash to represent a shared electron pair in a bond? a. KCl b. HCl c. Br2 d. BrF e. I2
Which statement is TRUE? (A) A covalent bond is formed through the sharing of electrons. (B) A covalent bond has a lower potential energy than the two separate atoms. (C) An ionic bond is much stronger than most covalent bonds. (D) In metallic bonding, all of the atoms pool their valence electrons (E) All of the above statements are true.
Which covalent bond is the most polar?A) C–F      B) N–F    C) F–F      D) Cl–F
Predict the type of bonding you would expect to find within the substance: Co(s)a. covalentb. ionicc. metallic
Predict the type of bonding you would expect to find within the substance: CoCl  2(s) a. covalentb. ionicc. metallic
Predict the type of bonding you would expect to find within the substance: CCl  4(l) a. covalentb. ionicc. metallic
Rank these bonds from most ionic to most covalent in character. Ca-F, K-F, F-F, Br-F, Cl-F
Which of the following contains ionic bonding?a. OCl2 b. SrF2c. HCld. Ale. CO
Which molecule or compound below contains a polar covalent bond?a. ZnSb. NCl3c. C2H4d. LiIe. AgCl
Which of the following has bonds that are the most polar?1. SO32–2. PCl4+3. IF54. SCl2
Which electrostatic forces hold atoms together in a molecule? A) electron-nucleus forces B) nucleus-nucleus forces C) electron-electron forces D) all three forces
Are the bonds in each of the following substances ionic, nonpolar covalent, or polar covalent?a. KClb. P4c. BF3d. SO2e. Br2f. NO2 
What type of bonds exist in each of these compounds: Ionic, nonpolar covalent, polar covalent KCl BCl3  P4  Br2  CO SO2
The diagram below shows a potential energy curve between pairs of particles. Refer to the diagram below for the following questions and choose from the given answer selections for each.
Which of the beryllium halides, if any, are considered ionic compounds?
Determine whether the following pairs of elements can form ionic compounds.a. oxygen and calciumb. lithium and fluorinec. potassium and calciumd. nickel and chlorinee. fluorine and sodiumf. sulfur and bromine
Using the given table of electronegativity values, determine whether each bond is nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, or ionic.
Answer each of the following questions dealing with the following compounds.NaF              PH 3              Cl  2              P 4              CH 4              NaOBra. Which of the following compound(s) contains a  polar covalent bond? b. Which of the following compound(s) contains a  non-polar covalent bond? c. Which of the following compound(s) contains a  pure covalent bond? d. Which of the following compound(s) contains a  polar ionic bond? e. Which of the following compound(s) contains both a  polar ionic bond and a polar covalent bond?   
Classify these bonds as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent.P-Cl, Li-Cl, C-C
When two atoms form a chemical bond A. It is due to the attraction between electrons of one atom and electrons of the other B. It is due to the attraction between protons of one atom and neutrons of the other C. It is due to the repulsion between protons of one atom and protons of the other D. There is an overall reduction of energy between charged particles that compose atoms
Which of the following bonds is the most polar covalent but not ionic?a. Mg - Fb. B - Fc. O - Fd. Cl - Fe. Br - F
Rank these bonds from most ionic to most covalent in character. K-F, Cl-F, F-F, Ca-F, Br-F
Which of the following bonds is the least polar covalent (but not non-polar covalent bond)?a. O - Ob. O - Fc. I - Fd. Br - Fe. Na - F
Which substance has ionic bonds?a. O2b. BaOc. H2Od. OF2
For the following bonds assign charges to each atom. Use + and - for ionic compounds and δ+ and δ- for covalent bonds where electrons are not equally shared. If a covalent bond has electrons equally shared, leave it blank.i. Na - Fii. Cl - Cliii. H - Fiv. C - Ov. K - Cl
Which of the following statements is TRUE? A) An ionic bond is much stronger than most covalent bonds. B) A covalent bond is formed through the transferring of electrons. C) Ionic compounds at room temperature usually conduct electricity. D) Once dissolved in water, covalent compounds usually conduct electricity. E) None of the above.  
Which of the following two compounds has the strongest nitrogen-nitrogen bond? H2NNH2, HNNH
Classify these bonds as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent.   a. Na-F b. P-Cl c. Cl-Cl
A carbon atom and a hydrogen atom form what type of bond in a molecule?A) ionic bondB) hydrogen bondC) Van der Waals interactionD) polar covalent bondE) nonpolar covalent bond
a. How many covalent bonds does carbon form if each of its  unpaired electrons participate in one bond? b. How many covalent bonds does oxygen form if each of its  unpaired electrons participate in one bond? c. How many covalent bonds does nitrogen form if each of its  unpaired electrons participate in one bond? d. How many covalent bonds does hydrogen form if each of its  unpaired electrons participate in one bond?
Predict the type of bonding you would expect to find within each substance. Types of bonds: Covalent, Ionic, and Metallica. Co(s)b. CoCl2(s)c. CCl4(l)
Classify these bonds as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent. a. C-C b. K-Br c. F-Br
Which of the following pairs of elements is most likely to form an ionic bond?a. K, Clb. Cl, Oc. S, Od. C, N
Classify the following compounds as having covalent or ionic bonds: barium fluoride, aluminum carbide, magnesium chloride, dinitrogen monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, rubidium oxide
Identify the compound with the smallest percent ionic character. a. HF b. IBr c. HCl d. LiF 
A compound ACl3 (A is an element) has a melting point of -112 °C. Would you expect the compound to be molecular or ionic? If you were told that A is either scandium or phosphorus, which do you think is the more likely choice?
Classify these compounds as ionic or molecular.
In liquid chloromethane (structure shown in the (Figure 1)) what kinds of bonds are present between the molecules? • lonic • Covalent • Permanent dipole • Induced dipole