Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular StructureSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Chemical Bonds

See all sections
Sections
Chemical Bonds
Lattice Energy
Lattice Energy Application
Born Haber Cycle
Dipole Moment
Lewis Dot Structure
Octet Rule
Formal Charge
Resonance Structures
Additional Practice
Bond Energy

A chemical bond is the connection of different elements through the sharing, transferring or pooling of electrons. 

Types of Chemical Bonds

Concept #1: Explanation for Bond Formation

Concept #2: Understanding an Ionic Bond

An ionic bond involves the transferring of an electron from one element to another element. 

Concept #3: Understanding a Covalent Bond

A covalent bond involves the sharing of electron(s) between elements. 

Concept #4: Understanding a Metallic Bond

A metallic "bond" isn't really a bond. Think of electrons as being loosely connected or "pooling"  on the surface of many metals. 

Depending on the element or elements involved we can describe bonds as forming: atomic elements, molecular elements, molecular compounds or ionic compounds. 

Practice: Describe each of the following as either a(n): atomic element, molecular element, molecular compound or ionic compound. 

a) Iodine 

b) NH3

c) Graphite

d) Na3P

e)Ag2SO4

 

The Ionic Bonding Model

Concept #5: Understanding the Ionic Bonding Model

An ionic bond forms when a cation and anion combine because of their opposite charges. 

Practice: Determine the molecular formula of the compound formed from each of the following ions.

a. K  &    P3-

b. Sn4+    &    O2-

c. Al3+   &   CO32-

Additional Problems
The electrons in a bond are not always shared equally. For which bond below are the electrons shared most unequally? 1. H — F 2. H — I 3. H — Cl 4. H — Br  
Circle the bond that is the most polar. a) I—Br b) Rb—F c) O—F d) F—F e) N—O
Arrange the following bonds in order of *increasing* ionic character H—Cl C—H H—H  O—H A) C—H < H —Cl < O—H < H—H B) C—H < O—H < H—Cl < H—H C) H—H < C—H < O—H < H—Cl D) H—Cl < C—H < H—H < O—H E) H—H < C—H < H—Cl < O—H
A covalent bond is best described as A) the sharing of electrons between atoms. B) the transfer of electrons. C) a bond between a metal and a nonmetal. D) a bond between a metal and a polyatomic ion. E) a bond between two polyatomic ions.
The strength of an ionic bond comes principally from: A. the mutual attraction of opposite electrical charges B. the conversion of atoms into compounds C. the conversion of compounds into atoms D. the sharing of electrons E. the movement of electrons from cations to anions  
Choose the bond below that is least polar. a. C–Cl b. C–Br c. C–F d. C–I
Which of the following bonds would be the most polar without being considered ionic? a) Mg–O b) C–O c) O–O d) Si–O e) N–O
In which case is the bond polarity incorrect?     δ+  δ-             δ  +  δ-               δ+  δ-               δ+  δ- 1. S     Cl          2. C     F          3. O     S          4. H     O
Determine the answer for the question below. Which of the following substances has polar covalent bonds? 1. SO2 2. Na2S 3. Cl2 4. LiCl
Which of the compounds below has bonds with the least covalent character? AgI AgCl AgF AlCl3 BeCl2
Given the electronegativities below, which single bond has the lowest degree of polarity? i. Element:                      H      C      N      O ii. Electronegativity        2.1    2.5    3.0    3.5 a. C-H b. N-H c. O-H d. O-C e. O-N
Which of the following compounds contains both ionic and covalent bonds? (A) HCl (B) NaCl (C) H2O (D) NaOH (E) CO2
Which species below contains a pure covalent bond? a) Li2CO3 b) SCl6 c) Cl2 d) PF3 e) NaCl
Select the option below that best completes the following statement: Fe(NO 3)3 is _________, KBr is _________, and N2O3 is _________. a) a covalent molecule, a covalent molecule, a covalent molecule b) a covalent molecule, an ionic compound, an ionic compound c) an ionic compound, a covalent molecule, a covalent molecule d) an ionic compound, an ionic compound, a covalent molecule e) an ionic compound, an ionic compound, an ionic compound
What type of bonding is found in the molecule HCl? 1. ionic 2. nonpolar covalent 3. polar covalent 4. metallic  
Place the following bonds in order of increasing polarity. C—Cl    C—C    C—F    C—I
Answer each of the following questions dealing with the following bonds. N—O               K—F                B—N                S—Cl               Br—Br              C—H a. Which of the following is expected to have the  greatest bond polarity?   b. Which of the following is expected to have the  lowest bond polarity?       
A pure covalent bond would form in which of these pairs of atoms? a. Br-Br b. H-Cl c. Na-Cl d. Se-Br e. Li-Br
How many of the following are polar covalent bonds?            C-Cl            C-S      N-H         H-O a. 0              b. 1                  c. 2                 d. 3                   e. 4
Which of the molecules listed has the most polar bonds between the central atom and the oxygen atom? a) OF2 b) NO3– c) SO3 d) CO32− e) ClO4−
An ionic bond is best described as: a. the sharing of electrons. b. the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. c. the attraction that holds the atoms together in a polyatomic ion. d. the attraction between 2 nonmetal atoms.  e. the attraction between 2 metal atoms.
Consider the following compounds I.  N2O4 II. Ca(NO3)2 III. SiH4 IV. SrBr2 Which of the following statements is NOT true? a. Two of the compounds from the list are ionic compounds. b. All of the compounds show empirical formulas. c. II contains both ionic bond and covalent bonds. d. Both I and III are covalent compounds.
Arrange the following bonds in increasing order of bond polarity (placing the one with the lowest polarity first) H-H, O-H, Cl-H, S-H and F-H a.  H-H < O-H < Cl-H < F-H < S-H b.  F-H < S-H < Cl-H < H-H < O-H c.  S-H < O-H < F-H < Cl-H < H-H d.  F-H <S-H < Cl-H <H-H < O-H e.  H-H < S-H < Cl-H < O-H < F-H
Choose the bond below that is  least polar. a. C-Cl b. C-Br c. C-F d. C-l
In which compound below is it inappropriate to use a line or dash to represent a shared electron pair in a bond? a. KCl b. HCl c. Br2 d. BrF e. I2
Which statement is TRUE? (A) A covalent bond is formed through the sharing of electrons. (B) A covalent bond has a lower potential energy than the two separate atoms. (C) An ionic bond is much stronger than most covalent bonds. (D) In metallic bonding, all of the atoms pool their valence electrons (E) All of the above statements are true.
Which of the following substances has polar covalent bonds? a. SO2 b. Na2S c. Cl2 d. LiCl
Which of the following has the bonds ranked in order of increasing ionic character? 1. Cl-Cl < Si-Cl < Br-Cl < Mg-Br < Rb-Cl 2. Mg-Br < Rb-Cl < Si-Cl < Br-Cl < Cl-Cl 3. Cl-Cl < Br-Cl < Si-Cl < Rb-Cl < Mg-Br 4. Cl-Cl < Br-Cl < Si-Cl < Mg-Br < Rb-Cl
Which of the following species has bonds with the most ionic character? 1. SnO2 2. P4O10 3. CO2 4. PCl3 5. NO2
Based on electronegativity differences, which of the following is most likely to involve ionic bonding? a) NH3 b) Cl2 c) CH4 d) BaF2 e) SO3
Predict the chemical formula of the ionic compound formed between the following pairs of elements.Al and F
Predict the chemical formula of the ionic compound formed between the following pairs of elements.K and S
Predict the chemical formula of the ionic compound formed between the following pairs of elements.Y and O
Predict the chemical formula of the ionic compound formed between the following pairs of elements.Mg and N
Enter the chemical formulas of the ionic compounds that are expected to form when the following pairs of elements are combined. You may want to reference(Pages 301 - 306)Section 8.2 while completing this problem.Barium and fluorine
Enter the chemical formulas of the ionic compounds that are expected to form when the following pairs of elements are combined. You may want to reference(Pages 301 - 306)Section 8.2 while completing this problem.Cesium and chlorine
Enter the chemical formulas of the ionic compounds that are expected to form when the following pairs of elements are combined. You may want to reference(Pages 301 - 306)Section 8.2 while completing this problem.Lithium and nitrogen
Enter the chemical formulas of the ionic compounds that are expected to form when the following pairs of elements are combined. You may want to reference(Pages 301 - 306)Section 8.2 while completing this problem.Aluminum and oxygen
You may want to reference (Pages 400 - 402) Section 9.7 while completing this problem.Use the figure to estimate the percent ionic character of the BrF bond.
Illustrated are four ions - A, B, X, and Y - showing their relative ionic radii. The ions shown in red carry positive charges: a 2+ charge for A and a 1+ charge for B. Ions shown in blue carry negative charges: a 1- charge for X and a 2- charge for Y.Which combinations of these ions produce ionic compounds where there is a 1:1 ratio of cations and anions?
A portion of a two-dimensional "slab" of NaCl(s) is shown here in which the ions are numbered. Which colored balls must represent sodium ions?
A portion of a two-dimensional "slab" of NaCl(s) is shown here in which the ions are numbered. Which colored balls must represent chloride ions?
What kind of bond normally occurs between lithium and oxygen
By referring only to the periodic table, select the element in the group K, C, Zn, F, that is most likely to form an ionic compound with Ba.
In the following pair of binary compounds determine which one is a molecular substance and which one is an ionic substance. SbCl5 and AlF3.
Use the appropriate naming convention (for ionic or molecular substances) to assign a name to each of the compounds TiCl4 and CaF2.
Use the appropriate naming convention (for ionic or molecular substances) to assign a name to each of the compounds SbCl5 and AlF3.
How does the ionic bonding model explain the relatively high melting points of ionic compounds?
Explain percent ionic character of a bond.
Do any bonds have 100% ionic character?
Energy is required to remove two electrons from Ca to form Ca2 + , and energy is required to add two electrons to O to form O2 - . Yet CaO is stable relative to the free elements. Which statement is the best explanation?
Estimate the percent ionic character of the CO bond. The electronegativity of C is 2.5 and O is 3.5.
You may want to reference (Pages 307 - 309) Section 8.3 while completing this problem.A substance XY, formed from two different elements, boils at -33 oC. Is XY likely to be a covalent or an ionic substance?
You may want to reference (Pages 307 - 309) Section 8.3 while completing this problem.Which of these elements is unlikely to form covalent bonds? S, H, K, Ar, Si
Consider the collection of nonmetallic elements O, P, Te, I and B.Which two would form the most polar single bond?
Using the electronegativities of Br and Cl, estimate the partial charges on the atoms in the Br-Cl molecule.
The measured dipole moment of BrCl is 0.57 D. If you assume the bond length in BrCl is the sum of the atomic radii, what are the partial charges on the atoms in BrCl using the experimental dipole moment?
You may want to reference (Pages 300 - 301) Section 8.1 while completing this problem.How many electrons must a sulfur atom gain to achieve an octet in its valence shell?
The substance chlorine monoxide, ClO (g), is important in atmospheric processes that lead to depletion of the ozone layer. The ClO molecule has has an experimental dipole moment of 1.24 D and the Cl - O bond length is 1.60 Å.Based on the electronegativities of the elements, which atom would you expect to have a partial negative charge in the ClO molecule?
You may want to reference (Pages 310 - 315) Section 8.4 while completing this problem.Which of the following bonds are polar?
Indicate the polarity of any polar bonds within the structure of CS2.
What is the electron sea model for bonding in metals?
How does the electron sea model explain the conductivity of metals?
How does the electron sea model explain the malleability and ductility of metals?
A classmate of yours is convinced that he knows everything about electronegativity.In the case of atoms X and Y having different electronegativities, he says, the diatomic molecule X-Y must be polar. Is your classmate correct?
Consider the collection of nonmetallic elements O, P, Te, I and B.Which two would be likely to form a compound of formula XY2?
Consider the collection of nonmetallic elements O, P, Te, I and B.Which combinations of elements would likely yield a compound of empirical formula X2Y3?
You have a yellow solid that melts at 41oC and boils at 131oC and a green solid that melts at 2320oC.If you are told that one of them is Cr2O3 and the other is OsO4, which one do you expect to be the yellow solid?
You may want to reference (Pages 300 - 301) Section 8.1 while completing this problem.If an atom has the electron configuration 1s22s22p3, how many electrons must it gain to achieve an octet?
You and a partner are asked to complete a lab entitled “Oxides of Ruthenium” that is scheduled to extend over two lab periods. The first lab, which is to be completed by your partner, is devoted to carrying out compositional analysis. In the second lab, you are to determine melting points. Upon going to lab you find two unlabeled vials, one containing a soft yellow substance and the other a black powder. You also find the following notes in your partner’s notebook - Compound 1: 76.0% Ru and 24.0% O (by mass), Compound 2: 61.2% Ru and 38.8% O (by mass).Upon determining the melting points of these two compounds, you find that the yellow compound melts at 25 oC, while the black powder does not melt up to the maximum temperature of your apparatus, 1200 oC. What is the identity of the yellow compound?
You and a partner are asked to complete a lab entitled “Oxides of Ruthenium” that is scheduled to extend over two lab periods. The first lab, which is to be completed by your partner, is devoted to carrying out compositional analysis. In the second lab, you are to determine melting points. Upon going to lab you find two unlabeled vials, one containing a soft yellow substance and the other a black powder. You also find the following notes in your partner’s notebook - Compound 1: 76.0% Ru and 24.0% O (by mass), Compound 2: 61.2% Ru and 38.8% O (by mass).What is the identity of the black compound?
You and a partner are asked to complete a lab entitled “Oxides of Ruthenium” that is scheduled to extend over two lab periods. The first lab, which is to be completed by your partner, is devoted to carrying out compositional analysis. In the second lab, you are to determine melting points. Upon going to lab you find two unlabeled vials, one containing a soft yellow substance and the other a black powder. You also find the following notes in your partner’s notebook - Compound 1: 76.0% Ru and 24.0% O (by mass), Compound 2: 61.2% Ru and 38.8% O (by mass).Which compound is molecular?
You and a partner are asked to complete a lab entitled “Oxides of Ruthenium” that is scheduled to extend over two lab periods. The first lab, which is to be completed by your partner, is devoted to carrying out compositional analysis. In the second lab, you are to determine melting points. Upon going to lab you find two unlabeled vials, one containing a soft yellow substance and the other a black powder. You also find the following notes in your partner’s notebook - Compound 1: 76.0% Ru and 24.0% O (by mass), Compound 2: 61.2% Ru and 38.8% O (by mass).Which compound is ionic?
What is a chemical bond?
Give the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond.
The answer to the question “ What is a chemical bond ?” depends on the bonding model. Answer these three questions:What is a covalent chemical bond according to the Lewis model?
In the following pair of binary compounds determine which one is a molecular substance and which one is an ionic substance. SiF4 and LaF3.
In the following pair of binary compounds determine which one is a molecular substance and which one is an ionic substance. FeCl2 and ReCl6.
In the following pair of binary compounds determine which one is a molecular substance and which one is an ionic substance. PbCl4 and RbCl.
Use the appropriate naming convention (for ionic or molecular substances) to assign a name to each of the compounds SiF4 and LaF3.
Use the appropriate naming convention (for ionic or molecular substances) to assign a name to each of the compounds FeCl2 and ReCl6.
Use the appropriate naming convention (for ionic or molecular substances) to assign a name to each of the compounds PbCl4 and RbCl.
In the following pair of binary compounds determine which one is a molecular substance and which one is an ionic substance. TiCl4 and CaF2.
In the following pair of binary compounds determine which one is a molecular substance and which one is an ionic substance. ClF3 and VF3.
What is wrong with the following statement? Atoms form bonds in order to satisfy the octet rule.
Use the appropriate naming convention (for ionic or molecular substances) to assign a name to each of the compounds ClF3 and VF3.
Why are bonding theories important? Give some examples of what bonding theories can predict.
Why do chemical bonds form? What basic forces are involved in bonding?
What are the three basic types of chemical bonds? What happens to electrons in the bonding atoms in each case?
According to Lewis theory, what is a chemical bond?
How do a pure covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, and an ionic bond differ?
Determine if a bond between each pair of atoms would be pure covalent, polar covalent, or ionic.
Which covalent bond is the most polar?A) C–F      B) N–F    C) F–F      D) Cl–F
Based on electronegativity differences, which of the following is most likely to involve ionic bonding?a) NH3b) Cl2c) CH4d) BaF2e) SO3
Which bond is most polar?A. C-FB. Si-FC. S-FD. O-FE. C-O
Predict the type of bonding you would expect to find within the substance: Co(s)a. covalentb. ionicc. metallic
Predict the type of bonding you would expect to find within the substance: CoCl  2(s) a. covalentb. ionicc. metallic
Predict the type of bonding you would expect to find within the substance: CCl  4(l) a. covalentb. ionicc. metallic
Rank these bonds from most ionic to most covalent in character. Ca-F, K-F, F-F, Br-F, Cl-F
Which of the following contains ionic bonding?a. OCl2 b. SrF2c. HCld. Ale. CO
Which molecule or compound below contains a polar covalent bond?a. ZnSb. NCl3c. C2H4d. LiIe. AgCl
Which of the following has bonds that are the most polar?1. SO32–2. PCl4+3. IF54. SCl2
Which electrostatic forces hold atoms together in a molecule? A) electron-nucleus forces B) nucleus-nucleus forces C) electron-electron forces D) all three forces
Are the bonds in each of the following substances ionic, nonpolar covalent, or polar covalent?a. KClb. P4c. BF3d. SO2e. Br2f. NO2 
What type of bonds exist in each of these compounds: Ionic, nonpolar covalent, polar covalent KCl BCl3  P4  Br2  CO SO2
The diagram below shows a potential energy curve between pairs of particles. Refer to the diagram below for the following questions and choose from the given answer selections for each.
Which of the beryllium halides, if any, are considered ionic compounds?
Determine whether the following pairs of elements can form ionic compounds.a. oxygen and calciumb. lithium and fluorinec. potassium and calciumd. nickel and chlorinee. fluorine and sodiumf. sulfur and bromine
Using the given table of electronegativity values, determine whether each bond is nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, or ionic.
Answer each of the following questions dealing with the following compounds.NaF              PH 3              Cl  2              P 4              CH 4              NaOBra. Which of the following compound(s) contains a  polar covalent bond? b. Which of the following compound(s) contains a  non-polar covalent bond? c. Which of the following compound(s) contains a  pure covalent bond? d. Which of the following compound(s) contains a  polar ionic bond? e. Which of the following compound(s) contains both a  polar ionic bond and a polar covalent bond?   
Which one of the following bonds is the most polar?a. H-Clb. H-Sc. H-Fd. H-Pe. H-O 
Identify the compound with the most polar bond. A. NH3 B. AsH3 C. SbH3 D. PH3
Classify these bonds as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent.P-Cl, Li-Cl, C-C
When two atoms form a chemical bond A. It is due to the attraction between electrons of one atom and electrons of the other B. It is due to the attraction between protons of one atom and neutrons of the other C. It is due to the repulsion between protons of one atom and protons of the other D. There is an overall reduction of energy between charged particles that compose atoms
Which of the following bonds is the most polar covalent but not ionic?a. Mg - Fb. B - Fc. O - Fd. Cl - Fe. Br - F
Rank these bonds from most ionic to most covalent in character. K-F, Cl-F, F-F, Ca-F, Br-F
Which of the following bonds is the least polar covalent (but not non-polar covalent bond)?a. O - Ob. O - Fc. I - Fd. Br - Fe. Na - F
Which substance has ionic bonds?a. O2b. BaOc. H2Od. OF2
For the following bonds assign charges to each atom. Use + and - for ionic compounds and δ+ and δ- for covalent bonds where electrons are not equally shared. If a covalent bond has electrons equally shared, leave it blank.i. Na - Fii. Cl - Cliii. H - Fiv. C - Ov. K - Cl
Which of the following statements is TRUE? A) An ionic bond is much stronger than most covalent bonds. B) A covalent bond is formed through the transferring of electrons. C) Ionic compounds at room temperature usually conduct electricity. D) Once dissolved in water, covalent compounds usually conduct electricity. E) None of the above.  
Which of the following substances has the least ionic character?1. BeCl22. CaCl23. BaCl24. KCl
Predict whether MnO is ionic or covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table.
Predict whether CoBr 2 is ionic or covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table.
Predict whether K 2S is ionic or covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table.
Predict whether CaF 2 is ionic or covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table.
Predict whether CaO is ionic or covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table.
For the following ionic compound formula, identify the main group to which X belongs:XF2
For the following ionic compound formula, identify the main group to which X belongs:MgX
For the following ionic compound formula, identify the main group to which X belongs:X2SO4
For the following ionic compound formula, identify the main group to which X belongs:X3PO4
For the following ionic compound formula, identify the main group to which X belongs:X2(SO4)3
For the following ionic compound formula, identify the main group to which X belongs:X(NO3)2
For the following ionic compound formula, identify the main group to which X belongs:X2O3
For the following ionic compound formula, identify the main group to which X belongs:XCO3
For the following ionic compound formula, identify the main group to which X belongs:Na2X
For the following ionic compound formula, identify the main group to which X belongs:CaX2
For the following ionic compound formula, identify the main group to which X belongs:Al2X3
For the following ionic compound formula, identify the main group to which X belongs:XPO4
Without using Fig. 3‑4, predict which bond from the following group will be the most polar.b. Al—Br, Ga—Br, In—Br, Tl—Br
 Iron(III) sulfate [Fe 2(SO 4) 3] is composed of Fe 3+ and SO4 2− ions. Explain why a sample of iron(III) sulfate is uncharged.
Which of the following two compounds has the strongest nitrogen-nitrogen bond? H2NNH2, HNNH
Predict whether Cl 2CO is ionic or covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table.
Predict whether NCl 3 is ionic or covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table.
Predict whether CO is ionic or covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table.
Predict whether HI is ionic or covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table.
Predict whether IBr is ionic or covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table.
Predict whether CO 2 is ionic or covalent, based on the location of their constituent atoms in the periodic table.
Consider the molecules SCl 2, F2, CS2, CF4, and BrCl.(a) Which has bonds that are the most polar?
Consider the molecules BF3, PF3, BrF3, SF4, and SF6.(a) Which has bonds that are the most polar?
Without using Fig. 3‑4, predict which bond from the following group will be the most polar.a. C—F, Si—F, Ge—F
Without using Fig. 3‑4, predict which bond from the following group will be the most polar.b. P—Cl or S—Cl
Without using Fig. 3‑4, predict which bond from the following group will be the most polar.c. S—F, S—Cl, S—Br
Without using Fig. 3‑4, predict which bond from the following group will be the most polar.a. C—H, Si—H, Sn—H
Without using Fig. 3‑4, predict which bond from the following group will be the most polar.c. C—O or Si—O
Without using Fig. 3‑4, predict which bond from the following group will be the most polar.d. O—F or O—Cl
Which is the most polar bond?(a) C–C               (b) C–H               (c) N–H               (d) O–H               (e) Se–H
Identify the more polar bond in the following pair of bonds: HF or HCl.
Identify the more polar bond in the following pair of bonds: NO or CO.
Identify the more polar bond in the following pair of bonds: SH or OH.
Identify the more polar bond in the following pair of bonds: PCl or SCl.
Identify the more polar bond in the following pair of bonds: CH or NH.
Identify the more polar bond in the following pair of bonds: SO or PO.
Identify the more polar bond in the following pair of bonds: CN or NN.
 Which of the following molecules or ions contain polar bonds?(a) O3           (b) S 8           (c) O  22−           (d) NO 3−           (e) CO 2           (f) H 2S           (g) BH 4−
List the bonds P—Cl, P—F, O—F, and Si—F from least polar to most polar.
You may want to reference (Pages 382 - 416) Chapter 9 while completing this problem.Does urea contain polar bonds?
You may want to reference (Pages 382 - 416) Chapter 9 while completing this problem.Which bond in urea is most polar?
Hydrogen has an electronegativity value between boron and carbon and identical to phosphorus. With this in mind, rank the following bonds in order of decreasing polarity: P—H, O—H, N—H, F—H, C—H.
Classify these bonds as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent.   a. Na-F b. P-Cl c. Cl-Cl
What information can you use to predict whether a bond between two atoms is covalent or ionic?
State the type of bonding—ionic, covalent, or metallic—you would expect of the following:CsF(s)
State the type of bonding—ionic, covalent, or metallic—you would expect of the following:N2(g)
State the type of bonding—ionic, covalent, or metallic—you would expect of the following:Na(s)
State the type of bonding—ionic, covalent, or metallic—you would expect of the following:ICl3(g)
State the type of bonding—ionic, covalent, or metallic—you would expect of the following:N2O(g)
State the type of bonding—ionic, covalent, or metallic—you would expect of the following:LiCl(s)
State the type of bonding—ionic, covalent, or metallic—you would expect of the following:O3(g)
State the type of bonding—ionic, covalent, or metallic—you would expect of the following:MgCl2(s)
Correct the following statement: “The bonds in solid PbCl 2 are ionic; the bond in a HCl molecule is covalent. Thus, all of the valence electrons in PbCl 2 are located on the Cl– ions, and all of the valence electrons in a HCl molecule are shared between the H and Cl atoms.”
State the type of bonding—ionic, covalent, or metallic—you would expect of the following:BrO2(g)
State the type of bonding—ionic, covalent, or metallic— you would expect of the following:Cr(s)
State the type of bonding—ionic, covalent, or metallic— you would expect of the following:H2S(g)
State the type of bonding—ionic, covalent, or metallic— you would expect of the following:CaO(s)
Explain the difference between a nonpolar covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, and an ionic bond.
A fundamental difference between compounds containing ionic bonds and those containing covalent bonds is the existence of molecules. Explain why molecules exist in solid covalent compounds but do not exist in solid ionic compounds.
Without using Fig. 3‑4, predict which bond from the following group will be the most polar.d. Ti—Cl, Si—Cl, Ge—Cl
Classify the bonding in each of the following molecules as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent.a. H2
Classify the bonding in each of the following molecules as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent.b. K3P
Classify the bonding in each of the following molecules as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent.c. NaI
Classify the bonding in each of the following molecules as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent.d. SO2
Classify the bonding in each of the following molecules as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent.e. HF
Classify the bonding in each of the following molecules as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent.f. CCl4
Classify the bonding in each of the following molecules as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent. g. CF4
Classify the bonding in each of the following molecules as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent. h. K2S
Predict the type of bond (ionic, covalent, or polar covalent) one would expect to form between the following pair of element.a. Rb and Cl
Predict the type of bond (ionic, covalent, or polar covalent) one would expect to form between the following pair of element.b. S and S
Predict the type of bond (ionic, covalent, or polar covalent) one would expect to form between the following pair of element.c. C and F
Predict the type of bond (ionic, covalent, or polar covalent) one would expect to form between the following pair of element.d. Ba and S
Predict the type of bond (ionic, covalent, or polar covalent) one would expect to form between the following pair of element.e. N and P
Predict the type of bond (ionic, covalent, or polar covalent) one would expect to form between the following pair of element.f. B and H
List all the possible bonds that can occur between the elements P, Cs, O, and H. Predict the type of bond (ionic, covalent, or polar covalent) one would expect to form for each bond.
A carbon atom and a hydrogen atom form what type of bond in a molecule?A) ionic bondB) hydrogen bondC) Van der Waals interactionD) polar covalent bondE) nonpolar covalent bond
a. How many covalent bonds does carbon form if each of its  unpaired electrons participate in one bond? b. How many covalent bonds does oxygen form if each of its  unpaired electrons participate in one bond? c. How many covalent bonds does nitrogen form if each of its  unpaired electrons participate in one bond? d. How many covalent bonds does hydrogen form if each of its  unpaired electrons participate in one bond?
Predict the type of bonding you would expect to find within each substance. Types of bonds: Covalent, Ionic, and Metallica. Co(s)b. CoCl2(s)c. CCl4(l)
Classify these bonds as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent. a. C-C b. K-Br c. F-Br
Which of the following pairs of elements is most likely to form an ionic bond?a. K, Clb. Cl, Oc. S, Od. C, N
Classify the following compounds as having covalent or ionic bonds: barium fluoride, aluminum carbide, magnesium chloride, dinitrogen monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, rubidium oxide
Identify the compound with the smallest percent ionic character. a. HF b. IBr c. HCl d. LiF 
A compound ACl3 (A is an element) has a melting point of -112 °C. Would you expect the compound to be molecular or ionic? If you were told that A is either scandium or phosphorus, which do you think is the more likely choice?
Classify these compounds as ionic or molecular.
In liquid chloromethane (structure shown in the (Figure 1)) what kinds of bonds are present between the molecules? • lonic • Covalent • Permanent dipole • Induced dipole