Carboxylic Acid Derivative Reactions

The most common Carboxylic Acid Derivative Reactions involve the formation of esters and amides

Types of Carboxylic Acid Derivative Reactions

Concept: Understanding Carboxylic Acid Derivative Reactions 

Video Transcript

Hey guys! In this new video, we're going to take a look at carboxylic acid derivative reactions. We're going to say here that esters and amines are involved in reactions that deal with carboxylic acids. In the first one, we have esterification. Under this reaction, a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol and undergoes a dehydration reaction in order to form an ester.
Here, this is important. If you're going to do a dehydration reaction, you need to realize that you're going to lose water. The water comes from the OH from the carboxylic acid combining with the H from the alcohol. It has to be that way. The alcohol does not give up its OH. The alcohol only gives up its hydrogen. It’s the carboxylic acid that's giving up its OH. What we get here as our product at the end is our ester. Our ester would look like this. We have that and then here we have the O from the alcohol plus the chain. This is our ester. Remember, what makes something an ester? It has a C double bond O connected to O connected to C. That is your ester.
In the same way, we can make something called an amide in a very similar way. Let's see how that works. We're going to say here amide formation under this reaction, a carboxylic acid reacts with an amine and undergoes a dehydration reaction in order to form an amide. Same basic thing happens. The OH again gives up its OH.
For this reaction to work, the nitrogen has to have at least one hydrogen so that we can lose water. N needs a hydrogen. We lose that so this is what we make now. CH3CH2C double bond O. Here, this N here is connected now to that carbon and that N is connected to what? A methyl and an ethyl individually. Draw those. It's connected to that methyl and it's connected to that ethyl. This is an amide. We haven't seen this functional group yet but an amide is just a C double bond O, a carbonyl, connected to nitrogen. That's what makes it an amide, different from an amine. An amine is a carbon single bonded to nitrogen. That carbon doesn't have a double bond O. It's usually sp3-hybridized, so this is an amine whereas a C double bond O connected to N is an amide.
Again, a lot of these functional groups have different pronunciations based on which professor you have for the semester, based on a lot of factors regionally, country-wise. All of them are unique. All of them are correct. All of them same pronunciation in different ways, they're all correct. These other reactions and we're going to say here that an amide and an ester, since they come from carboxylic acids, they are derivatives of carboxylic acids. That just means that they have come from carboxylic acid in some way with the reaction of another compound. These are the major reactions that you need to know in order to make an ester and in order to make an amide.

Under Esterification a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol to create an ester. 

Under Amide formation a carboxylic acid reacts with an amine in a similar manner to lose water.