Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond TheorySee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

According to the VSEPR Model, bond angles result from surrounding elements and lone pairs around the central element positioning themselves at an optimal distance. 

Idealized Bond Angles

Concept #1: VSEPR Model for Bonding 

The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory gives bond angles based on the number of groups around the central element. 

Concept #2: Ideal Bond Angles

The more lone pairs on the central element then the more compressed the bond angle, and the greater the deviation from an ideal bond angle. 

Concept #3: Lone Pairs & Bond Angles 

Example #1: Determine the bond angles of each of the following compounds. 

CO2

Example #2: Determine the bond angles of each of the following compounds. 

BrF4+

Practice: Determine the bond angle of the following compound. AsCl5

Practice: Determine the bond angle of the following compound: IF3.

Additional Problems
The best predicted shape and bond angle of SbH 3 is 1. trigonal pyramidal; 107°. 2. trigonal pyramidal; 109.5°. 3. tetrahedral; 109.5°. 4. trigonal planar; 120°.
The bond angels in SF5+ are expected to be: a. 90° b. 120° c. 90° and 120° d. 90° and 180° e. 90°, 120° and 180°
The bond angles in NO2Cl (N is the central atom) are 1. 90° 2. < 190.5° 3. 109.5° 4. 120° 5. < 120°
Of the following, which molecule has the largest bond angle? A. SO3 B. SF2 C. HCN D. H2S E. PF3
If PBr3Cl2 is a nonpolar molecule, determine the Cl—P—Br bond angle. a. 120 b. 180 c. 90 d. 109 e. 55  
What is the actual bond angle between oxygen-sulfur bonds on molecules of SO 3? (a) 109.5° (b) < 109.5° (c) > 109.5° (d) 120° (e) <120°
Of the following molecules given below, which has the largest bond angle? a) SO3 b) SF2 c) HCN d) H2S e) PF3
If PBr3Cl2 is a nonpolar molecule, determine the Cl-P-Br bond angle? a. 120 b. 180 c. 90 d. 109 e. 55
What is the value of the smallest bond angle in XeBr 4?   a. 109.5 b. 120 c. 90 d. 180 e. 45
Place the following in order of  increasing X-Se-X bond angle, where X represents the outer atoms in each molecule.   SeO2       SeCl 6       SeF2   A) SeCl6 < SeF2 < SeO2 B) SeF2 < SeO2 < SeCl6 C) SeF2 < SeCl6 < SeO2 D) SeO2 < SeF2 < SeCl6 E) SeCl6 < SeO2 < SeF2
Which of the following molecules would have the smallest angles at the central atom? A. CH4 B. NH3 C. H2O D. CO2 E. PF5
Which molecule has the smallest bond angles? a) CO2 b) H2O c) NH3 d) BF3 e) CCl4
Which one of the following molecules and ions will definitely have at least one 90° bond angle in it? (In each case except water, the central atom is the first one in the formula.)   a) AlCl4 - b) NH3 c) PCl5 d) CO2 e) H2O  
Which of the following has bond angles slightly less than 120 o? NO3- HO2- NO2- CS32- I3+
What set of species is arranged in order of increasing O–N–O bond angle? a) NO2–, NO2, NO2+ b) NO2, NO2–, NO2+ c) NO2+, NO2, NO2– d) NO2, NO2+, NO2–
Which has the largest bond angle? a) angle O–S–O in SO42– b) angle Cl–C–Cl in HCCl 3 c) angle in F–Be–F in BeF2 d) angle in H–O–H in H 2O  
The O–Si–O bond angles in SiO2 (quartz) are closest to  a) 180° b) 120° c) 110° d) 100°
The molecule below has been detected in gas clouds between stars. The predicted C–N–H bond angle is about a) 90° b) 109° c) 120° d) 180°
Draw the Lewis structure of BrF3 and determine the bond angle between an equatorial F atom and an axial F atom = 90º < 90º > 120º = 120 = 109.5º
Which of the following molecules or ions has the   smallest H-N-H bond angle?   NH4+   NH3   NH2−   H2N-NH2   H2N-CH­3
The C—N—O bond angle in nitromethane, CH3NO2, is expected to be approximately 1) 60° 2) 90° 3) 109.5° 4) 120° 5) 180°
In cumulene, what are the C=C=C and H-C-H bond angles, respectively? Enter the C=C=C bond angle followed by the H-C-H bond angle separated by a comma.
Which of the following molecules or ions has the smallest H-N-H bond angle? a) NH4+ b) NH3 c) NH2− d) H2N-NH2 e) H2N-CH3
Methyl isocyanate, CH3NCO, was made infamous in 1984 when an accidental leakage of this compound from a storage tank in Bhopal, India, resulted in the deaths of about 3,800 people and severe and lasting injury to many thousands more.Complete the model of the structure, including estimates of all the bond angles in the compound.
Hydrogen bonding in ice. The empty channels in the structure of ice make water less dense as a solid than as a liquid.What is the approximate H-O bond angle in ice, where H-O is the covalent bond and OH is the hydrogen bond?
How would you expect the H - X - H bond angle to vary in the series H2O, H2S, H2Se ? (Hint: The size of an electron pair domain depends in part on the electronegativity of the central atom.)
Butadiene, C4H6, is a planar molecule that has the following carbon-carbon bond lengths: Predict the bond angles around each of the carbon atoms.
You may want to reference (Pages 342 - 351)Section 9.2 while completing this problem.The atoms of the compound methylhydrazine, CH6N2 which is used as a rocket propellant, are connected as follows: What do you predict for the ideal values of the C-N-N and H-N-H angles, respectively?
You may want to reference(Pages 342 - 351)Section 9.2 while completing this problem.Give approximate values for the indicated bond angles in the molecule shown.
There are two compounds of the formula Pt(NH3 )2 Cl2 as shown below. The compound on the right is called cisplatin, and the compound on the left is called transplatin. You may want to reference (Pages 338 - 393) Chapter 9 while completing this problem.One of these compounds is an anticancer drug, and one is inactive. The anticancer drug works by its chloride ions undergoing a substitution reaction with nitrogen atoms in DNA that are close together, forming a N-Pt-N angle of about 90. Which compound would you predict to be the anticancer drug?
You may want to reference(Pages 342 - 351)Section 9.2 while completing this problem.Give approximate values for the indicated bond angles in the molecule shown.
You may want to reference(Pages 342 - 351)Section 9.2 while completing this problem.Give approximate values for the indicated bond angles in the molecule shown.
You may want to reference(Pages 342 - 351)Section 9.2 while completing this problem.Give approximate values for the indicated bond angles in the molecule shown.
The bond angles increase steadily in the series PF3, PCl3, PBr3 and PI3. After consulting the data on atomic radii in Chapter 8 in the textbook, provide an explanation for this observation.
Suppose that a molecule has four bonding groups and one lone pair on the central atom. Suppose further that the molecule is confined to two dimensions (this is a purely hypothetical assumption for the sake of understanding the principles behind VSEPR theory). Estimate the bond angles.
You may want to reference(Page 436) Section 10.3 while completing this problem.Predict the relative bond angles in BF3 and SO2.
You may want to reference (Pages 439 - 440) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.Predict the molecular geometry and bond angle of ClNO.
If these three balloons are all the same size, what angle is formed between the red one and the green one?
The lactic acid molecule, CH3CH (OH) COOH, gives sour milk its unpleasant, sour taste. You may want to reference (Pages 338 - 393) Chapter 9 while completing this problem.What are the approximate bond angles around each carbon atom in the molecule?
In the actual structure of acetic acid, which bond angle is expected to be the smallest?
One resonance structure of the nitrate ion is The bond angles in this ion are 120 .Is this observation consistent with the preceding discussion of the effect of multiple bonds on bond angles?
It might seem that a square-planar geometry of four electron domains around a central atom would be more favorable than a tetrahedron. Can you rationalize why the tetrahedron is preferred, based on angles between electron domains?
Consider the Lewis structure for glycine, the simplest amino acid: What are the approximate bond angles about each of the two carbon atoms?
Azo dyes are organic dyes that are used for many applications, such as the coloring of fabrics. Many azo dyes are derivatives of the organic substance azobenzene, C12 H10 N2. A closely related substance is hydrazobenzene, C12 H12 N2. The Lewis structures of these two substances are showin in the diagram. (Recall the shorthand notation used for organic molecules.)Predict the N-N-C angles in each of the substances.
Consider the Lewis structure for glycine, the simplest amino acid: What are the approximate bond angles at the nitrogen?
The compound with the following Lewis structure is acetylsalicylic acid, better known as aspirin: . You may want to reference (Pages 362 - 368) Section 9.6 while completing this problem.What are the approximate values of the bond angles labeled 1, 2, and 3?
What are the C-C-C bond angles in diamond?
Predict the bond angles about the central atom in H2S
In which of the following molecules can you confidently predict the bond angles about the central atom, and for which would you be a bit uncertain?
The phosphorus trihalides (PX3) show the following variation in the bond angle X-P-X: PF3, 96.3 ; , 100.3 PCl3 ; , 101.0 ; { m Pl_3}, 102.0 Pl3 . The trend is generally attributed to the change in the electronegativity of the halogen.What is the general trend in the X-P-X angle as the electronegativity increases?
You may want to reference (Pages 343 - 351) Section 9.2 while completing this problem.In which of the following AFn molecules or ions is there more than one F - A - F bond angle?
The vertices of a tetrahedron correspond to four alternating corners of a cube. By using analytical geometry, demonstrate that the angle made by connecting two of the vertices to a point at the center of the cube is 109.5109.5, the characteristic angle for tetrahedral molecules.The angle made by connecting two of the vertices to a point at the center of the cube is
You may want to reference (Pages 343 - 351) Section 9.2 while completing this problem.Methane (CH4) and the perchlorate ion (ClO4-) are both described as tetrahedral. What does this indicate about their bond angles?
Draw the Lewis structure for SeF4 and answer the following questions.How many valence electrons are present in this compound?How many bonding electrons are present in this compound?How many lone pair (non-bonding) electrons are present in this compound?Is SeF4 a polar or non-polar compound? What is the geometry of SeF4? What is the shape of SeF4? What are the approximate bond angles made by the atoms in this structure? 
The molecular geometry of NO2- is, Use VSEPR to justify your answer.A) bent, bond angle - 109°B) trigonal planarC) linearD) bent, bond angle - 120°
What is the value of the bond angles in CCl 4?
What is the value of the smallest bond angle in ClF 4-?
What is the value of the bond angles in COH 2?
What is the VSEPR geometry for CIO3-? _________________What is the molecular geometry = shape of CIO3-? ___________________Is CIO3- a polar or non-polar ion? ______________What is the approximate O-Cl-O bond angle in CIO3-? ______________
What is the value of the bond angle in ICl 2-?
NO3- :Molecular geometry?Ideal bond angle?Are polar bonds present?Is there an overall dipole?Octect rule violator and how?
What are the expected bond angles in ICl4+?a. 90°b. 109.5°c. 120°d. 180 °
What is the value of the bond angles in CH4, IF 4-, AlCl3, and I3?
What is the value of the bond angles in SiCl 4?
What is the value of the smallest bond angle in XeF 4?
What is the value of the bond angles in BCl 3?
What is the value of the bond angle in I 3-?
The molecular geometries for H2O and SO2 are bent. The H-O-H bond angle in H2O is about 109°, whereas the bond angle for O-S-O is about 120°. Explain using lewis diagrams why the molecules have the same molecular geometry but different bond angles.
Predict the ideal bond angle(s) around each central atom in this molecule. 
1. Draw the Lewis structure of the azide anion N  3-. Give its geometry. Is N3- polar (in the sense of having a non-zero electric dipole moment)?  2. Draw the Lewis structure of nitryl fluoride NO 2F (N is at the center). Give its geometry, including a discussion of the angles. Is NO2F polar?   3. Rationalize the following bond angles: NH 3 106.6°; NF3 102.2°; NCl3 106.8°.
Predict the molecular geometry and bond angle of ClNO. Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule.
Compare the shapes and bond angles of these oxynitrogen ions. NO3-, NO2-, NO43-, NO2+
A molecule with a seesaw molecular geometry has a bond angle of A) <120° for equatorial bonds and <90 degree for axial bonds B) 180° C) <90° D) 120° for equatorial bonds and 90° for axial bonds E) 120°
Compare the bond angle in H2O to OF2. Which angle is larger? Why?
Determine the Electron geometry, molecular geometry, idealized bond angles for each molecule.PF3, SBr2, CHCl3, CS2
What are the expected bond angles in ICl 4 + ? Check all that apply. a) 90° b) 109.5° c) 120° d) 180°
In cumulene (C4H4) , what are the C=C=C and H-C-H bond angles, respectively? 
PI3Cl2 is a nonpolar molecule. Based on this information, determine the I-P-I bond angle, the Cl-P-Cl bond angle, and the I-P-Cl bond angle.Enter the number of degrees of the I-P-I , Cl-P-Cl, and I-P-Cl bond angles, separated by commas (e.g., 30,45,90)
Label the bond angles in the structures given below based on VSEPR.
Predict the ideal bond angle(s) around each central atom in this molecule.
What are the expected bond angles of ICl 4+? Choose all that apply:a) 90°b) 109.5°c) 120°d) 180°
Predict the ideal bond angle(s) around each central atom in this molecule.
The bond angle in NH3 is (smaller, larger) than the bond angle in CH4 because 1. smaller; nitrogen is smaller than carbon. 2. larger; the bond angles in trigonal planar molecules are larger than those in tetrahedral molecules. 3. smaller; the hybridization of nitrogen results in smaller bond angles than the hybridization of carbon. 4. smaller; the bond angles in trigonal planar molecules are smaller than those in tetrahedral molecules. 5. smaller; the unshared pair of electrons on nitrogen is more repulsive to the bonded electron pairs. 6. larger; the hybridization of nitrogen results in larger bond angles than the hybridization of carbon. 7. larger; nitrogen is larger than carbon.
a. What is the molecular geometry of BrI 5? b. Ignoring lone-pair effects, what is the smallest bond angle in BrI 5? (Express your answer as an integer).
Select the correct value for the indicated bond angle in each of the following compounds:
Determine the bond angle fora. N2O (oxygen is terminal)b. SO2c).H2Sd).PF3
Ignoring lone-pair effects, what is the smallest bond angle in ICl 5?
Compare the shapes and bond angles of these oxynitrogen ions. NO43- NO2- NO2+ NO3-
Predict the approximate bond angles in the following molecule. a. C C-C angle b. H-C-H angle
Select the correct value for the indicated bond angle in each of the following compounds:
Complete a Lewis structure for the compound shown below, then answer the following questions. What are the predicted bond angles about the carbon and nitrogen atoms? How many lone pairs of electrons are present in the Lewis structure? How many double bonds are present?
Predict the molecular structure, bond angles, and polarity (has a net dipole moment or has no net dipole moment) for each of the following compounds.a. SeCl4
Predict the molecular structure, bond angles, and polarity (has a net dipole moment or has no net dipole moment) for each of the following compounds.b. SF2
Predict the molecular structure, bond angles, and polarity (has a net dipole moment or has no net dipole moment) for each of the following compounds.c. KrF4
Predict the molecular structure, bond angles, and polarity (has a net dipole moment or has no net dipole moment) for each of the following compounds.d. CBr4
Predict the molecular structure, bond angles, and polarity (has a net dipole moment or has no net dipole moment) for each of the following compounds.e. IF3
Predict the molecular structure, bond angles, and polarity (has a net dipole moment or has no net dipole moment) for each of the following compounds.f. ClF5
Determine the electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following:(a) O3
Determine the electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following:(b) H3O+
Determine the electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following:(c) NF3
Determine the electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following:(a) SO42−
Determine the electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following:(b) NO2−
Determine the electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following:(c) PH3
Determine the electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following:(a) CO32−
Determine the electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following:(b) SO2
Use VSEPR to predict the geometry (including bond angles) about each interior atom of methyl azide (CH3N3), and make a sketch of the molecule. Would you expect the bond angle between the two interior nitrogen atoms to be the same or different? Would you expect the two nitrogen-nitrogen bond lengths to be the same or different?In the resonance structure with the electron geometry "C tetrahedral; 1st N trigonal planar; 2nd N linear" would you expect the two nitrogen-–nitrogen bond angles and bond lengths to be the same or different?
Determine the electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following:(c) CF4
Determine the electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following:(a) SO3
Use VSEPR to predict the geometry (including bond angles) about each interior atom of methyl azide (CH3N3), and make a sketch of the molecule. Would you expect the bond angle between the two interior nitrogen atoms to be the same or different? Would you expect the two nitrogen-nitrogen bond lengths to be the same or different?In the resonance structure with the electron geometry "C tetrahedral; 1st N tetrahedral; 2nd N linear" would you expect the two nitrogen-–nitrogen bond angles and bond lengths to be the same or different?
Determine the electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following:(b) N2O (N is central)
Determine the electron-group arrangement, molecular shape, and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following:(c) CH2Cl2
Name the shape and give the AXmEn classification and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following general molecules:
Name the shape and give the AXmEn classification and ideal bond angle(s) for each of the following general molecules:
Determine the shape, ideal bond angle(s), and the direction of any deviation from those angles for each of the following:(a) ClO2−
Determine the shape, ideal bond angle(s), and the direction of any deviation from those angles for each of the following:(b) PF5
Determine the shape, ideal bond angle(s), and the direction of any deviation from those angles for each of the following:(c) SeF4
Determine the shape, ideal bond angle(s), and the direction of any deviation from those angles for each of the following:(d) KrF2
Determine the shape, ideal bond angle(s), and the direction of any deviation from those angles for each of the following:(a) ClO3−
Determine the shape, ideal bond angle(s), and the direction of any deviation from those angles for each of the following:(b) IF4−
Determine the shape, ideal bond angle(s), and the direction of any deviation from those angles for each of the following:(c) SeOF2
Determine the shape, ideal bond angle(s), and the direction of any deviation from those angles for each of the following:(d) TeF5−
Determine the shape around each central atom in each molecule, and explain any deviation from ideal bond angles:(a) CH3OH
Determine the shape around each central atom in each molecule, and explain any deviation from ideal bond angles:(b) N2O4 (O2NNO2)
Determine the shape around each central atom in each molecule, and explain any deviation from ideal bond angles:(a) H3PO4 (no H—P bond)
Determine the shape around each central atom in each molecule, and explain any deviation from ideal bond angles:(b) CH3—O—CH2CH3
Determine the shape around each central atom in each molecule, and explain any deviation from ideal bond angles:(a) CH3COOH
Determine the shape around each central atom in each molecule, and explain any deviation from ideal bond angles:(b) H2O2
Determine the shape around each central atom in each molecule, and explain any deviation from ideal bond angles:(a) H2SO3 (no H—S bond)
Determine the shape around each central atom in each molecule, and explain any deviation from ideal bond angles:(b) N2O3 (ONNO2)
Why is the H–N–H angle in NH3 smaller than the H–C–H bond angle in CH4? Why is the H–N–H angle in NH4+ identical to the H–C–H bond angle in CH4?
Arrange the following AFn species in order of  increasing  F—A—F bond angles:BF3, BeF2, CF4, NF3, OF2.
Arrange the following ACln species in order of  decreasing  Cl—A—Cl bond angles:SCl2, OCl2, PCl3, SiCl4, SiCl62−.
State an ideal value for each of the bond angles in each molecule, and note where you expect deviations:
State an ideal value for each of the bond angles in each molecule, and note where you expect deviations:
Because both tin and carbon are members of Group 4A(14), they form structurally similar compounds. But tin exhibits a greater variety of structures because it forms several ionic species. Predict the shapes and ideal bond angles, including any deviations:(a) Sn(CH3)2
Because both tin and carbon are members of Group 4A(14), they form structurally similar compounds. But tin exhibits a greater variety of structures because it forms several ionic species. Predict the shapes and ideal bond angles, including any deviations:(b) SnCl3−
Because both tin and carbon are members of Group 4A(14), they form structurally similar compounds. But tin exhibits a greater variety of structures because it forms several ionic species. Predict the shapes and ideal bond angles, including any deviations:(c) Sn(CH3)4
Because both tin and carbon are members of Group 4A(14), they form structurally similar compounds. But tin exhibits a greater variety of structures because it forms several ionic species. Predict the shapes and ideal bond angles, including any deviations:(d) SnF5−
Because both tin and carbon are members of Group 4A(14), they form structurally similar compounds. But tin exhibits a greater variety of structures because it forms several ionic species. Predict the shapes and ideal bond angles, including any deviations:(e) SnF62−
In the gas phase, phosphorus pentachloride exists as separate molecules. In the solid phase, however, the compound is composed of alternating PCl4+ and PCl6− ions. What change(s) in molecular shape occur(s) as PCl5 solidifies? How does the Cl—P—Cl angle change?
Consider the following Lewis structure where E is an unknown element:What are some possible identities for element E? Predict the molecular structure (including bond angles) for this ion.
Consider the following Lewis structure where E is an unknown element:What are some possible identities for element E? Predict the molecular structure (including bond angles) for this ion.
Predict the molecular structure (including bond angle) of the following. a. SeO3 
Predict the molecular structure (including bond angle) of the following. b. SeO2
Predict the molecular structure (including bond angle) of the following. a. PCl3 
Vitamin B6 is an organic compound whose deficiency in the human body can cause apathy, irritability, and an increased susceptibility to infections. Below is an incomplete Lewis structure for vitamin B6. Complete the Lewis structure and answer the following questions. Hint: Vitamin B6 can be classified as an organic compound (a compound based on carbon atoms). The majority of Lewis structures for simple organic compounds have all atoms with a formal charge of zero. Therefore, add lone pairs and multiple bonds to the structure below to give each atom a formal charge of zero.b. Give approximate values for the bond angles marked a through g in the structure.
Predict the molecular structure (including bond angle) of the following. b. SCl2 
Predict the molecular structure (including bond angle) of the following. c. SiF
Predict the molecular structure and bond angle of the following. a. CCl4
Predict the molecular structure and bond angle of the following. b. NCl3
Predict the molecular structure and bond angle of the following. c. SeCl2
Two molecules used in the polymer industry are azodicarbonamide and methyl cyanoacrylate. Their structures areAzodicarbonamide is used in forming polystyrene. When added to the molten plastic, it decomposes to nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and ammonia gases, which are captured as bubbles in the molten polymer. Methyl cyanoacrylate is  super glue. As the glue sets, methyl cyanoacrylate polymerizes across the carbon–carbon double bond. d. Give approximate values for the bond angles marked a through h in the previous structures.
Predict the molecular structure and bond angle of the following. d. ICl
Predict the molecular structure and bond angle of the following. a. NO2-, NO3-, N2O4 (N2O4 exists as O2N—NO2.)
Predict the molecular structure and bond angle of the following. b. OCN-, SCN-, N3-(Carbon is the central atom in OCN - and SCN-.)
Predict the molecular structure and bond angle of the following.a. POCl3, SO42-, XeO4, PO43-, ClO4-
Predict the molecular structure and bond angle of the following.b. NF3, SO32-, PO33-, ClO3-
Predict the molecular structure and bond angle of the following.c. ClO2-, SCl2, PCl2-
Predict the molecular structure and bond angle of the following.d. O3
Predict the molecular structure and bond angle of the following.e. SO2
Predict the molecular structure and bond angle of the following.f. SO3
The actual bond angle in NO2 is 134.3°, and in NO2− it is 115.4°, although the ideal bond angle is 120° for both. Explain.
Propylene oxide is used to make many products, including plastics such as polyurethane. One method for synthesizing it involves oxidizing propene with hydrogen peroxide:(a) What is the molecular shape and ideal bond angle around each carbon atom in propylene oxide?
Propylene oxide is used to make many products, including plastics such as polyurethane. One method for synthesizing it involves oxidizing propene with hydrogen peroxide:(b) Predict any deviation from the ideal for the actual C—C—C bond angles (assume the three atoms in the ring form an equilateral triangle).
Predict the molecular structure (including bond angle) of the following.a. XeCl2
Predict the molecular structure (including bond angle) of the following.b. ICl3
Predict the molecular structure (including bond angle) of the following.c. TeF4
Predict the molecular structure (including bond angle) of the following.d. PCl5
Predict the molecular structure (including bond angle) of the following.a. ICl5
Hot and spicy foods contain molecules that stimulate paindetecting nerve endings. Two such molecules are piperine and capsaicin:Piperine is the active compound in white and black pepper, and capsaicin is the active compound in chili peppers. The ring structures in piperine and capsaicin are shorthand notation. Each point where lines meet represents a carbon atom.d. Give approximate values for the bond angles marked a through l in the above structures.
Predict the molecular structure (including bond angle) of the following.b. XeCl4
Predict the molecular structure (including bond angle) of the following.c. SeCl6
Tryptophan is one of the amino acids found in proteins:Predict the bond angles at points a, b, and c.
One of the first drugs to be approved for use in treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was azidothymidine (AZT). Complete the Lewis structure for AZT.f. What is the N=N=N bond angle in the azide (—N 3) group?
One of the first drugs to be approved for use in treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was azidothymidine (AZT). Complete the Lewis structure for AZT.g. What is the H—O—C bond angle in the side group attached to the five-membered ring?
Ethylene, C2H4, and tetrafluoroethylene, C2F4, are used to make the polymers polyethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), respectively.(a) Draw the Lewis structures for C2H4 and C2F4, and give the ideal H—C—H and F—C—F bond angles.
Ethylene, C2H4, and tetrafluoroethylene, C2F4, are used to make the polymers polyethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), respectively.(b) The actual H—C—H and F—C—F bond angles are 117.4° and 112.4°, respectively. Explain these deviations.
In complete sentences, describe why someone might expect the bond angles in methane (CH4) to be 90˚ even though the bond angles are actually 109.5˚.
You may want to reference (Pages 439 - 440)  Section 10.4 while completing this problem.Determine the idealized bond angle for each molecule.CF4NF3OF2H2S
You may want to reference (Pages 439 - 440)  Section 10.4 while completing this problem.In which cases do you expect deviations from the idealized bond angle?CF4NF3OF2H2S
Use the Molecule Shape simulator (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16MolecShape) to explore real molecules. On the Real Molecules tab, select H2O. Switch between the “real” and “model” modes. Explain the difference observed.
Use the Molecule Shape simulator (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/16MolecShape) to explore real molecules. On the Real Molecules tab, select “model” mode and S2O. What is the model bond angle? Explain whether the “real” bond angle should be larger or smaller than the ideal model angle.
Based on the bond angles in CH4, NH3, and H2O. rank the magnitude of these repulsions. Rank from strongest to weakest repulsion. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them.
What are the expected bond angles of ICl 4+? Choose all that apply:a. 90 degreesb. 109.5 degreesc. 120 degreesd. 180 degrees