Ch.15 - Acid and Base EquilibriumWorksheetSee all chapters
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Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
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The most general definition for acids and bases was developed by Svante Arrhenius near the end of the 19th century. 

Understanding Arrhenius Acids & Bases

According to Svante Arrhenius the two most important ions fundamental to the concept of acids and bases were H3O+ , the hydronium ion, and OH , the hydroxide ion. 

Concept #1: Discussing Arrhenius Acids and Bases. 

Transcript

Hey guys, in this new video, we’re going to take a look at a particular type up acids and bases. Now, we know that there are two types of acids – there are binary acids and oxyacids. We know how to identify bases. Just realize that there are going to be three types of categories for acids and bases, the first one being Arrhenius. We’re going to say the most general definition for acids and bases was developed by Arrhenius near the end of the 19th century. We're going to say according to him, we're going to say that the H+ cation and the OH- anion were the fundamental pieces that helped to identify acids and bases. But the thing with him is he’s failed to describe what happens to acids and bases when we take them out of water. When we take them out of aqueous solutions, what happens? His definition failed to talk about that.
We’re going to say according to his Arrhenius definition, it states that an acid is a compound that increases my concentration of H+ when dissolved in a solvent, the solvent being water, because to him acids and bases only operated in aqueous environments, water. We’re basically going to say an example of an Arrhenius acid is HCl. When it breaks down in water, it's going to give me H+ plus Cl-. His Arrhenius definition for an acid applies to both strong and weak acids because if they can produce H+, then they’re technically Arrhenius. The limitation here is that to him, if you didn't have an H involved, you couldn't be an acid. But we’ll learn later that this is just the wrong way of looking at things.
Now that we know the definition for an acid, let's look at the definition for a base. We’re going to say according to his definition, Arrhenius definition, a base is a compound that increases the concentration of OH- when dissolved in a solvent. What we're going to say here is good example, we have NaOH. When it dissolves in water, it gives me Na+ plus OH-. If it didn’t create any OH- as a product, then it couldn't be described as an Arrhenius base. Again, this definition is the broadest of the three definitions were going to see. It was the earliest one developed that's why it’s so broad. It's basically any compound with H+ or OH-. We’ll learn more and more definitions there are more precise to exactly what acids and bases are. Now that we've seen this, I want you guys to attempt to do these questions. You guys have to tell me how do each of these compounds breakup to give my products, and based on the products, are they Arrhenius bases, Arrhenius acid or maybe neither one. Good luck on the first one, guys. Again, once you're done with it, come back, click on the explanation button and watch a video of me explaining how to break it up and what exactly is it that we're breaking up.

An Arrhenius acid increases the H+ ion when dissolved in a solvent. 

An Arrhenius base increases the OH ion when dissolved in a solvent. 

Practice: Which ions are formed from the dissociation of the following compound?

Practice: Which ions are formed from the dissociation of the following compound?

Practice: Which ions are formed from the dissociation of the following compound?

Additional Problems
Which of the following in an Arrhenius acid? A) H2SO4 B) LiOH C) NH2CH3 D) CH3CH3 E) More than one of these is an Arrhenius acid.
Which of the following is an Arrhenius acid? A) H2SO4 B) LiOH C) NH2CH3 D) CH3CCl3 E) NH3
Which of the following cannot be an Arrhenius acid? a. HCl b. HNO3 c. CH3COOH d. CH4 e. all can be Arrhenius acids
What are the Arrhenius definitions of an acid and a base? 
Write a chemical equation for NaOH(aq) showing how it is an acid or a base according to the Arrhenius definition.
Write a chemical equation for HBr(aq) showing how it is an acid or a base according to the Arrhenius definition.
According to the Arrhenius theory, a neutralization reaction involves:       A) the dissociation of a strong acid to hydrogen ions and an anion. B) the dissociation of a strong base into hydroxide ions and a cation. C) the addition of water to ammonia to make ammonium hydroxide. D) the combination of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions to form water
Which of the following compounds is not an Arrhenius acid?a. H2SO3b. HClOc. KOHd. HF
Classify each of these compounds as an Arrhenius acid, an Arrhenius base, or neither.HClHNO3HBrHClOKOHBa(OH)2NaClLiOHC3H5
What is the Arrhenius base in the equation below?2HCl + Ca(OH)2 → CaCl2 + 2H2Oa. HClb.Ca(OH)2 c. CaCl2d.H2O
Classify each of these compounds as an Arrhenius acid, an Arrhenius base, or neither.HClO3                                          KClNaOH                                           Hg(OH)    2H3PO4                                          Al(OH)     3HCl                                               HBrZn(OH)2                                        C  3H8
Classify each of these compounds as an Arrhenius acid, an Arrhenius base, or neither. 1. HF                                                                             6. NH4OH 2. KCl                                                                            7. LiOH 3. C2H6                                                                           8. HCIO3 4. Mn(OH)2                                                                    9. Ca(OH)2 5. H3PO4                                                                       10. HBr 
Classify each of these compounds as an Arrhenius acid, an Arrhenius base, or neither.a. HNO3 b. Ba(OH)2 c. CH2 d. HBr e. HClO3 f. Mg(OH)2 g. HF h. NaCl i. KOH j. LiOH
Which of the following is an Arrhenius base?a. RbOHb. CH3OHc. KBrd. CH3CO2He. More than one of these compounds is an Arrhenius base.
Classify each of these compounds as an Arrhenius acid, an Arrhenius base, or neither.HClHBrHClOCa(OH)2CH4KOHZn(OH)2H3PO4AgOHKCl
HC2H3O2(aq) is an acid.Write a chemical equation showing how this is an acid according to the Arrhenius definition.Express your answer as a balanced chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer. 
Which of the following are Arrhenius acids?(a) NaHSO4 (b) CH4 (c) NaH (d) H3N
Which of the following are Arrhenius bases?(a) CH3COOH (b) HOH (c) CH3OH (d) H2NNH2
Write a chemical equation for HNO3(aq) showing how it is an acid or a base according to the Arrhenius definition.
According to the Arrhenius concept, if NaOH were dissolved in water, it would act asA. a baseB. a source of H- ionsC. a source of hydronium ionsD. a proton donorE. an acid
What two ions are central to the Arrhenius definitions of acids and bases?
For CH2NH3+, write an equation that shows how the cation acts as an acid.
Write a chemical equation for NH4+(aq) showing how it is an acid or a base according to the Arrhenius definition.
Write a chemical equation for Sr(OH)2(aq) showing how it is an acid or a base according to the Arrhenius definition.
Which of the following is an Arrhenius acid?A) H2SO4B) LiOHC) NH2CH3D) CH3CCl3E) More than one of these is an Arrhenius acid.
Which of the following is an Arrhenius base?a. H2SO4b. LiOHc. NH2CH3d. CH3CH3e. More than one of these is an Arrhenius base.
Write a chemical equation for HC2H3O2(aq) showing how it is an acid or a base according to the Arrhenius definition.
Write a chemical equation for KOH(aq) showing how it is an acid or a base according to the Arrhenius definition.
Write a chemical equation for H2SO4(aq) showing how it is an acid or a base according to the Arrhenius definition.
Using the Arrhenius theory, classify the following as either an acid or a base, by placing the compound in the correct bin.