Ch.15 - Acid and Base EquilibriumWorksheetSee all chapters
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Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

The most general definition for acids and bases was developed by Svante Arrhenius near the end of the 19th century. 

Understanding Arrhenius Acids & Bases

According to Svante Arrhenius the two most important ions fundamental to the concept of acids and bases were H3O+ , the hydronium ion, and OH , the hydroxide ion. 

Concept #1: Discussing Arrhenius Acids and Bases. 

Transcript

Hey guys, in this new video, we’re going to take a look at a particular type up acids and bases. Now, we know that there are two types of acids – there are binary acids and oxyacids. We know how to identify bases. Just realize that there are going to be three types of categories for acids and bases, the first one being Arrhenius. We’re going to say the most general definition for acids and bases was developed by Arrhenius near the end of the 19th century. We're going to say according to him, we're going to say that the H+ cation and the OH- anion were the fundamental pieces that helped to identify acids and bases. But the thing with him is he’s failed to describe what happens to acids and bases when we take them out of water. When we take them out of aqueous solutions, what happens? His definition failed to talk about that.
We’re going to say according to his Arrhenius definition, it states that an acid is a compound that increases my concentration of H+ when dissolved in a solvent, the solvent being water, because to him acids and bases only operated in aqueous environments, water. We’re basically going to say an example of an Arrhenius acid is HCl. When it breaks down in water, it's going to give me H+ plus Cl-. His Arrhenius definition for an acid applies to both strong and weak acids because if they can produce H+, then they’re technically Arrhenius. The limitation here is that to him, if you didn't have an H involved, you couldn't be an acid. But we’ll learn later that this is just the wrong way of looking at things.
Now that we know the definition for an acid, let's look at the definition for a base. We’re going to say according to his definition, Arrhenius definition, a base is a compound that increases the concentration of OH- when dissolved in a solvent. What we're going to say here is good example, we have NaOH. When it dissolves in water, it gives me Na+ plus OH-. If it didn’t create any OH- as a product, then it couldn't be described as an Arrhenius base. Again, this definition is the broadest of the three definitions were going to see. It was the earliest one developed that's why it’s so broad. It's basically any compound with H+ or OH-. We’ll learn more and more definitions there are more precise to exactly what acids and bases are. Now that we've seen this, I want you guys to attempt to do these questions. You guys have to tell me how do each of these compounds breakup to give my products, and based on the products, are they Arrhenius bases, Arrhenius acid or maybe neither one. Good luck on the first one, guys. Again, once you're done with it, come back, click on the explanation button and watch a video of me explaining how to break it up and what exactly is it that we're breaking up.

An Arrhenius acid increases the H+ ion when dissolved in a solvent. 

An Arrhenius base increases the OH ion when dissolved in a solvent. 

Practice: Which ions are formed from the dissociation of the following compound?

Practice: Which ions are formed from the dissociation of the following compound?

Practice: Which ions are formed from the dissociation of the following compound?