Academic

Percent Error

Precision and Accuracy When we investigate the quality of an experimental decision or calculation we take into account two major principles: The first principle, which deals with the reproducibility of our calculations, is called precision. The second principle called accuracy deals with how close our measured calculation is to the Read more…

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Molecular vs Electron Geometry

Molecular and Electron Geometry The shape of a chemical compound is essential in understanding its polarity and by extension its intermolecular forces. For now let’s review the key differences and similarities that exist with the molecular geometry and electron geometry of Lewis Dot Structures. Molecular & Electron Geometry

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Periodic Properties

Periodic Properties of the Elements The atom represents the smallest indivisible part of matter, but its scientific foundations and theories are as expansive as a galaxy. Within a given atom we have our subatomic particles and the smallest ones called the electrons have a big impact on  physical and chemical Read more…

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How to Memorize The Solubility Rules

Understanding Solubility The solubility of a compound represents the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given solvent. Soluble means that the compound is aqueous, breaks up into ions and can be classified as an electrolyte because it conducts electricity. Insoluble means that the compound is a solid, Read more…

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Condensation Reactions

Condensation reactions are reactions in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule, producing a small molecule such as H2O as a byproduct. They typically form a new carbon-carbon bond and result from a nucleophilic enolate and an electrophilic carbonyl.  P.S. Here is the 2-hour super-comprehensive version if you are not Read more…

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pKa Values

pKa and Acidity The acidity of a compound can be determined by examining its structure, the stability of its conjugate base or by simply looking at its pKa value. The stronger the acid then the lower its pKa value. Given below are the pKa values for the most commonly discussed Read more…

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Formal Charge

Formal Charge The formal charge of an element is based on its bonding behavior within a given compound. The most common formal charges observed are -1, 0 and +1. When all the formal charges in a given compound are added together we obtain its net charge. Formal Charge

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Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions

Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions Aldehydes and ketones undergo nucleophilic addition because of the presence of their carbonyl groups. The general mechanism involves the carbonyl carbon being attacked by an incoming nucleophile and the carbonyl oxygen undergoing some type of protonation. Below are the most important nucleophilic addition reactions between aldehydes Read more…

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Benzene EAS Reactions

If you’ve ever been in a car, train, plane or even ridden a motorcycle then you have a shared history with benzene. Besides being one of the simplest aromatic compounds in organic chemistry, benzene represents the nature part of many petroleum compounds such as crude oil and gasoline. Benzene EAS Read more…