Academic

Periodic Properties

Periodic Properties of the Elements The atom represents the smallest indivisible part of matter, but its scientific foundations and theories are as expansive as a galaxy. Within a given atom we have our subatomic particles and the smallest ones called Read more…

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Condensation Reactions

Condensation reactions are reactions in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule, producing a small molecule such as H2O as a byproduct. They typically form a new carbon-carbon bond and result from a nucleophilic enolate and an electrophilic Read more…

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pKa Values

pKa and Acidity The acidity of a compound can be determined by examining its structure, the stability of its conjugate base or by simply looking at its pKa value. The stronger the acid then the lower its pKa value. Given Read more…

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Formal Charge

Formal Charge The formal charge of an element is based on its bonding behavior within a given compound. The most common formal charges observed are -1, 0 and +1. When all the formal charges in a given compound are added Read more…

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Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions

Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions Aldehydes and ketones undergo nucleophilic addition because of the presence of their carbonyl groups. The general mechanism involves the carbonyl carbon being attacked by an incoming nucleophile and the carbonyl oxygen undergoing some type of protonation. Read more…

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Alkene Reactions

So you’ve finally started your exploration into the wonderful world of alkenes. Over time you’ll hopefully realize that they not only form an important topic within your organic chemistry course, but in numerous places of your everyday life. For example, Read more…