All Chapters
Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology
Viruses should not be considered living organisms because they do not consist of one or more cells.  a. True b. False
Most bacteriophages consist of only a _______________ coat and a ____________________ core.  a. Lipid, protein b. Polysaccharide, nucleic acid c. Protein, lipid d. Protein, nucleic acid e. Polysaccharide, protein
The study of viruses has contributed much to our understanding of _____.a. diseaseb. geneticsc. the characteristics of living thingsd. all of the above
Viruses always have at least _____.a. a nucleusb. a cell wallc. an inner core of nucleic acidd. None of these
Which of the following characteristics of living things do viruses have?a. Metabolismb. Cellular organizationc. Evolutiond. Independent reproduction
Match each of the following characteristics to the lytic cycle, lysogenic cycle, or both.the bacterial cell wall is broken openthe phage genome is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome the host DNA is degraded the phage genome enters the host cellthe phage genome replicates with the host DNA
Viral DNA and capsids are assembled to produce hundreds of viral particles during the _____ stage of the lytic cycle.a. attachmentb. biosynthesisc. maturationd. release
RNA animal viruses that have a DNA stage are called _____.a. bacteriophagesb. retrovirusesc. viroids
A virus consists of:a. RNA or DNA and a cell membraneb. RNA or DNA and a protein coatc. RNA and DNA and a protein coatd. proteins, cell membrane and RNA
How do viruses reproduce?a. they divide by mitosisb. sexually, by external fertilizationc. replication outside the hostd. inserting DNA into the host cell
Which of the following is smallest?a. eukaryote cellb. bacteriac. bacteriophaged. cell membrane protein
Retroviruses are different from viruses in that:a. they have RNA instead of DNAb. they can become dormantc. a and b 
 Vaccines can be used to prevent viral infection by:a. creating an immune response in the hostb. destroying any viruses that enter the hostc. creating a blocking protein on the celld. preventing replication of the virus
Antiviral drugs that are used after infection often prevent:a. cell divisionb. immune system degradationc. reinfection by other virusesd. uptake of the virus
______ are small naked fragments of RNA that infect plant cells.a. Prionsb. Nucleonsc. Prophagesd. Macrophagese. Viroids
Why do some viruses seem to go away and then return later, like a cold sore?a. host has been infected with a different strainb. the immune system forgot the virusc. the virus had entered the lysogenic cycled. the virus mutated
Viruses that cause lysis in host cells are calleda. temperate virusesb. phagocytic virusesc. prionsd. virulent virusese. infectious viruses
Which of the following is not a viral disease?a. mumpsb. measlesc. chicken poxd. rubellae. diphtheria
Copying the HIV virus' nucleic acid depends ona. replicaseb. reverse transcriptasec. transcriptased. reverse replicasee. nucleases
What happens after the virus has been taken up by the cell?a. it begins making protein b. it dividesc. it inserts into the host DNAd. it switches to infectious mode
Typically, viruses form _______________ around their nucleic acid.a. an envelopeb. a cell wallc. a capsidd. a cell membranee. a capsule
The viral enzyme, _________, causes the host cell to synthesize a double strand of DNA complementary to the viral RNA.a. reverse transcriptaseb. chemokinasec. virased. replicasee. antiscriptase
When a virus kills the infected host cell in which it is replicating, the reproductive cycle is called a ________ cycle.a. lysogenicb. phagocyticc. lyticd. viroidale. endocytic
Of the viruses listed below, the most lethal isa. influenzab. Ebolac. measlesd. herpes simplex 
Why would you never see ribosomes in a virus?a. Viruses hijack the ribosomes of host cells in order to create the necessary proteins when reproducing.b. Viruses do not use ribosomes when making proteins and have adapted a different method to translate proteins.c. Viruses leave their ribosomes outside of the host cell as they have already synthesized all necessary prior to infection.d. Viruses do not have any need to create proteins, so ribosomes would be worthless.
The basic structure of a virus contains:a. a nucleic acidb. a cell wallc. a protein coatd. both a and be. both a and c
Why is it necessary to receive a flu shot every year in order to avoid getting the flu?a. Influenza destroys the body's antibody reserves and yearly vaccinations are needed to restore antibody levels.b. Your body must be introduced to influenza yearly in order for your body to continue creating antibodies.c. Influenza undergoes genetic mutations throughout the year which allows it to evade previously created cellular defenses. 
Which of the following are not matched correctly:a. virulent virus-lytic cycleb. temperate virus-non-infecting virusc. lysogenic virus-genome becomes part of host genomed. lytic cycle-kills host celle. none of the above
List the order of the major events in the viral multiplication cycle of lytic bacteriophage.a. Endocytosis, replication, assembly, budding, exocytosisb. Absorption, integration, synthesis, assembly, releasec. Endocytosis, replication, assembly, budding 
The HIV virus uses the host cell's reverse transcriptase to manufacture DNA.a. Trueb. False
Some viruses enter the cell through endocytosis.a. Trueb. False
HIV is a DNA virus.a. Trueb. False
Viruses are not considered to be "alive" due to all of the following reasons excepta they do not contain DNAb. they do not have cellsc. they do not have a metabolismd. they can only reproduce within a host
Viruses and bacteria are the only infectious agents found in plants and animals.a. Trueb. False
A retrovirus _____.a. is a DNA virusb. integrates DNA into the host chromosomec. is active immediately after insertion into the host celld. All of these
Gene therapy for familial hypercholesterolemia uses a retrovirus to insert normal genes into _____ cells.a. bone marrow stemb. tumorc. liverd. ovarian
Know parts and functions of parts of viruses; What is the size of viruses?
Describe the structure of a viral particle. What are prions?
Why are ribosomes important in the replication of DNA viruses?
Describe the general morphological features of a virus and speculate as to the reasons that they are so alike.
Which virus mutates more often: one using DNA for its genes or one using RNA for its genes?
Briefly describe, at least 2, fundamental characteristics of living cells that are missing in viruses.
The base composition of a newly discovered virus is 32.1% G, 16.9% A, 18.0% T, 0% U, and 33.0% C. The viral genome is resistant to exonucleases but is susceptible to endonucleases. What is the likely genome composition of the virus?A. Circular, double-stranded DNAB. Circular, single-stranded DNAC. Linear double-stranded RNAD. Circular, double-stranded RNAE. Linear single-stranded RNAF. Linear single-stranded DNA
The base composition ofa newly discovered virus is 32.1% G, 17.8% A, 0%T, 28% U, and 22.1% C. This viral genome is susceptible to exonucleases and endonucleases. What is the likely genome computation for thie virus?A. Linear, single-stranded DNAB. Circular, double-stranded RNAC. Circular, single-stranded DNAD. Linear, single stranded RNAE. Linear, double-stranded RNAF. Circular, double-stranded DNA
How is a helical virus different from an icosahedral virus?
Describe the lytic and lysogenic cycles of viral replication.
What is the role of the core proteins that some DNA viruses package along with their genome?
Describe the three required features present in all viruses. Include the name, function, and macromolecule composition of each structure involved.
What two types of shapes/symmetry are recognized in viruses? Describe (or give an example) to illustrate the major differences between the following: a "naked virus", an enveloped virus, and a complex virus.
What do virions of retroviruses contain that other animal virions do not?A. a double stranded DNA genomeB. a single stranded DNA genomeC. a reverse transcriptase enzymeD. a lysozyme enzymeE. both C and D
What is the name of a virus' protein shell?
In general, animal viruses differ from bacterial viruses in that _______.A. the entire virion of an animal virus enters the host cell.B. only the viral DNA of the virion enters the animal host cell.C. animal viruses are never enveloped.D. all animal viruses are lyticE. None of the above.
How do virus cross plasma membrane?
Discuss why viruses are considered infectious "particles" on the borderline between living and non-living.