Ch.11 - Cell SignalingSee all chapters
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Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology

Transduction and Response

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Cell Signaling
Transduction and Response

Concept #1: Secondary Messangers and Phosphorylation Cascades

Concept #2: cAMP and Adenylyl Cyclase

Concept #3: Signal Amplification, Scaffolding Proteins, and Crosstalk

Concept #4: Response and Apoptosis

Additional Problems
Cyclic AMP and calcium ions are often used within a cell asa.  neurotransmittersb.  primary signals c.  hormonesd.  secondary messengers
When the morphogen produced by the AER reaches other cells it binds to molecules embedded in the cellular membrane. The AER signal is then sent into the cell through the process of ________ which commonly occurs through  ___________________.a. reception, phosphorylation cascadesb. induction, determinationc. transduction, phosphorylation cascadesd. cellular response, determinatione. differentiation, control of gene expression
Which of the following is not considered to be a second messenger?a. cAMPb. Ca++ ionsc. diacyl glycerol (DAG)d. inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)e. phospholipase C
Some enzymic receptors and most G protein-linked receptors carry the signal molecule’s message into the target cell by utilizing other substances within the cytoplasm commonly calleda.  genesb.  enzymesc.  second messengersd.  first messengers
Which pair are examples of second messengers?a.  sodium, potassium ionsb.  amino acids, proteinsc.  steroids, lipidsd.  sugars, starchese.  cAMP, calcium ions
Apoptosis is also called:   a. Replication b. Mitosis c. Programmed cell death d. The cell cycle e. Programmed cellular reproduction
Your research project involves the characterization of a particular signal transduction pathway. Specifically, you have been studying a receptor tyrosine kinase and protein X, which initiates downstream events. You are certain that protein X is part of the signal transduction pathway, but have been unable to identify a direct protein-protein interaction between the receptor tyrosine kinase and the protein X. What should you do next?a. Try to identify a coactivator protein.b. Try to identify proteins that act downstream of protein X.c. Try to identify an adapter protein that can interact with both the receptor and protein X.d. Confirm the interaction between the receptor tyrosine kinase and its signal molecule.
If the effector protein phospholipase C failed to cleave phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), the action of which of the following molecules would be affected?a. cAMPb. calmodulinc. protein kinase A (PKA)d. protein kinase C (PKC)
A small number of surface receptors can ultimately generate a large intracellular response, as each step of the pathway is often expanded by signal _________.a. amplificationb. transductionc. dampeningd. splitting
List 5 major cell types that use mechanotransduction to regulate cell behavior. In two-to-three sentences for each cell type, describe why the cell's mechanical environment is important for is function.
Briefly explain the difference between necrosis and apoptosis? Why is the latter part of the cell's program?
How are extracellular mechanical signals converted to electrochemical signals in cells?
Kinases A. add phosphate groupsB. activate proteins by adding a phosphateC. inactivate proteins by adding a phosphateD. A and B are trueE. A and C are trueF. A, B, and C are true