Ch.8 - Energy and MetabolismSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology

Thermochemistry

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Sections
Thermochemistry
ATP
Enzymes
Metabolism

Concept #1: Thermodynamics

Concept #2: Kinetic and Potential Energy

Concept #3: Gibbs Free Energy and Chemical Reactions

Practice: Spontaneous reactions happen quickly.

Practice: Exergonic reactions occur spontaneously, and do not require energy input to proceed.

Practice: The energy required for a reaction to proceed is __________.

Additional Problems
Reactions that occur spontaneously and release free energy are called a. activation reactions b. exergonic reactions c. catabolistic reactions d. thermodynamic reactions e. end-product reactions
A chemical reaction in which the products contain less energy than the _______ will tend to proceed spontaneously. a. reactants b. enzymes c. coenzymes d. substrates e. cofactors
As energy is being reconverted through the many forms, it is continuously lost as a. electricity b. light c. sound d. heat e. chemical energy
An example (examples) of potential energy is (are): a. Chemical bonds and concentration gradientsb. Light and chemical bondsc. Concentration gradientsd. Chemical bondse. Light
Which statement is not part of the first law of thermodynamics?  a. The amount of energy in the universe is constant b. Energy cannot be created or destroyed c. Energy can be converted to other forms of energy d. Any energy transformation loses some energy to its surroundings as heat e. None of these are correct
Entropy is: a. Orderb. Complexityc. Disorderd. Both order and disorder are correcte. Both complexity and disorder are correct
An endergonic reaction is a reaction that: a. Requires an input of energyb. That typically builds complex molecules from smaller moleculesc. Releases energy to its surroundingsd. Both releases energy to its surroundings and typically build complex molecules from smaller molecules are correcte. Both requires an input of energy and typically builds complex molecules from smaller molecules are correct
The wood in a match is made up of cellulose, which is a polymer of glucose molecules. When you light the match, heat and light are given off, indicating that a ________ reaction is occurring. a. Endergonicb. Kinetic energyc. Exergonicd. Potential energy
Plants require light to perform photosynthesis in which glucose is formed from carbon dioxide and water. This is a _____ reaction.  a. Exergonic b. Kinetic energy c. Endergonic d. Potential energy  
The ΔG for a particular uncoupled reaction in a cell is -5.0 kcal/mol. Based on that information, which of the following is false?  a. The reaction releases free energy. b. An enzyme will likely be utilized to allow the reaction to proceed in a useful time frame. c. The rate of this uncatalyzed reaction will be determined by the quantity of activation energy required to initiate it. d. The products of the reaction have more free energy than the reactants. e. The transition state (reactants pass through this state on their way to becoming products) possesses the most free energy.
Movement of molecules down a concentration gradient is an example of:a. Potential energyb. Oxidationc. Reductiond. Active transporte. Kinetic energy
The first and second laws of thermodynamics apply to nonliving systems like gasoline engines but do not apply to reactions in living cells. a. Trueb. False
Exergonic reactions do not require activation energy to get started since they release energy. a. Trueb. False
A reaction with a negative ΔG is referred to as an: a. endergonic reaction b. entropy reaction c. exergonic reaction d. activation reaction
The reaction A+B→E requires +8.2 kcal of energy. Which of the following could be coupled to the above reaction:a. D+C→F = -7.2 kcalb. X+Y→Z = +10 kcalc. M+N→O = -15 kcal
Match the following equations 1-4 with the energy diagram that best describes the free-energy transitions along the reaction pathway by filling in the equation number in the box under each respective curve. After you have identified a match for each equation, indicate the positions of A, B, and C (if applicable) on the free-energy curves.
The graph below shows energy changes in a specific chemical reaction. Which terms best describe the reaction?A. Endergonic and nonspontaneousB. Endergonic and spontaneousC. Exergonic and spontaneousD. Exergonic and nonspontaneous
Study the figure shown below. What does letter A depict?A. substrate concentrationB. energy of the productsC. energy of activationD. energy of the reactant
A. What is the ΔGº' for the reaction below, given that the ΔGº' for ATP hydrolysis to ADP is -30.5 kJ/mol and the ΔGº' for the hydrolysis of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate is -49.4 kJ/mol?1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + ADP → 3-phosphoglycerate + ATPB. What is the equilibrium constant for this reaction?
In the pathway below, B → C is coupled with ADP → ATP. Categorize the reactions as endergonic or exergonic.A. B → C is endergonic and ADP → ATP is exergonic.B. ADP → ATP is endergonic and B → C is exergonic.C. Both B → C and ADP → ATP are endergonic.D. Both B → C and ADP → ATP are exergonic.
The ΔGº values for the two reaction shows below are given:Oxaloacetate + actyl CoA + H2O → citrate + CoASH (ΔGº=-32.2 kJ/mol; enzyme: citrate synthase)Oxaloacetate + acetate → citrate (ΔGº = -1.9 kJ/mol; enzyme: citratesynthase)Write the advanced hydrolysis reaction for acetyl CoA.