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Biology Biology

Biology Openstax • 2nd Edition •

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Ch.1 - The Study of Life

Introduction to Biology Characteristics of Life Life's Organizational Hierarchy Natural Selection and Evolution Introduction to Taxonomy Scientific Method Experimental Design

Ch.2 - The Chemical Foundation of Life

Atoms- Smallest Unit of Matter Isotopes Introduction to Chemical Bonding Covalent Bonds Noncovalent Bonds Ionic Bonding Hydrogen Bonding Introduction to Water Properties of Water- Cohesion and Adhesion Properties of Water- Density Properties of Water- Thermal Properties of Water- The Universal Solvent Acids and Bases pH Scale Carbon Functional Groups

Ch.3 - Biological Macromolecules

Introduction to Biomolecules Monomers & Polymers Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

Ch.4 - Cell Structure

Microscopes Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells Introduction to Eukaryotic Organelles Endomembrane System: Protein Secretion Endomembrane System: Digestive Organelles Mitochondria & Chloroplasts Endosymbiotic Theory Introduction to the Cytoskeleton Cell Junctions

Ch.5 - Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes

Biological Membranes Types of Membrane Proteins Concentration Gradients and Diffusion Introduction to Membrane Transport Passive vs. Active Transport Simple and Facilitated Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport Endocytosis and Exocytosis

Ch.6 - Metabolism

Introduction to Metabolism Introduction to Energy Chemical Reactions Laws of Thermodynamics ATP Enzymes Enzyme Activation Energy Enzyme Binding Factors Enzyme Inhibition Negative & Positive Feedback

Ch.7 - Cellular Respiration

Redox Reactions Types of Phosphorylation Introduction to Cellular Respiration Glycolysis Pyruvate Oxidation Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Chemiosmosis Review of Aerobic Cellular Respiration Fermentation & Anaerobic Respiration

Ch.8 - Photosynthesis

Introduction to Photosynthesis Leaf & Chloroplast Anatomy Stages of Photosynthesis Electromagnetic Spectrum Pigments of Photosynthesis Light Reactions of Photosynthesis Calvin Cycle Review of Photosynthesis

Ch.9 - Cell Communication

Introduction to Cell Signaling Classes of Signaling Receptors Types of Cell Signaling Signal Amplification

Ch.10 - Cell Reproduction

Introduction to Cell Division Organization of DNA in the Cell Introduction to the Cell Cycle Interphase Phases of Mitosis Cytokinesis Cell Cycle Regulation Review of the Cell Cycle Cancer

Ch.11 - Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Homologous Chromosomes Introduction to Meiosis Meiosis I Meiosis II Mitosis & Meiosis Review Life Cycle of Sexual Reproducers

Ch.12 - Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

Introduction to Mendel's Experiments Genotype vs. Phenotype Punnett Squares Mendel's Experiments Mendel's Laws Monohybrid Crosses Test Crosses Dihybrid Crosses Punnett Square Probability Incomplete Dominance vs. Codominance Epistasis Non-Mendelian Genetics Pedigrees Autosomal Inheritance Sex-Linked Inheritance

Ch.13 - Modern Understandings of Inheritance

Ch.14 - DNA Structure and Function

The Griffith Experiment The Hershey-Chase Experiment Chargaff's Rules Discovering the Structure of DNA Meselson-Stahl Experiment Introduction to DNA Replication DNA Polymerases Leading & Lagging DNA Strands Steps of DNA Replication Telomeres DNA Repair Mutations

Ch.15 - Genes and Proteins

Central Dogma Introduction to Transcription Steps of Transcription Eukaryotic RNA Processing and Splicing Introduction to Types of RNA Genetic Code Introduction to Translation Steps of Translation Post-Translational Modification Review of Transcription vs. Translation

Ch.16 - Gene Expression

Introduction to Regulation of Gene Expression Prokaryotic Gene Regulation via Operons The Lac Operon Glucose's Impact on Lac Operon The Trp Operon Review of the Lac Operon & Trp Operon Introduction to Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Eukaryotic Chromatin Modifications Eukaryotic Transcriptional Control Eukaryotic Post-Transcriptional Regulation Eukaryotic Post-Translational Regulation

Ch.17 - Biotechnology and Genomics

Introduction to DNA-Based Technology Introduction to DNA Cloning Steps to DNA Cloning Introduction to Polymerase Chain Reaction The Steps of PCR Gel Electrophoresis Southern Blotting DNA Fingerprinting Introduction to DNA Sequencing Dideoxy Sequencing

Ch.18 - Evolution and the Origin of Species

Descent with Modification Species

Ch.19 - The Evolution of Populations

Hardy-Weinberg Model Genetic Variation

Ch.20 - Phylogenies and the History of Life

Phylogeny History of Life on Earth

Ch.21 - Viruses


Ch.22 - Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea

Prokaryote Cell Structures Prokaryote Reproduction and Gene Exchange Prokaryote Metabolism and Ecology Prokaryote Lineages

Ch.23 - Protists

Protist Cells Protist Life Cycles Protist Lineages

Ch.24 - Fungi

Fungi Fungi Reproduction

Ch.25 - Seedless Plants

Nonvascular Plants Seedless Vascular Plants

Ch.26 - Seed Plants

Land Plants Seed Plants

Ch.27 - Introduction to Animal Diversity

Overview of Animals

Ch.28 - Invertebrates

Porifera and Cnideria Lophotrochozoans Ecdysozoans Echinoderms

Ch.29 - Vertebrates

Chordates Aminotes Primates and Homonids

Ch.30 - Plant Form and Physiology

Roots and Shoots Tissues Growth Water Potential Phototropism Tropisms and Hormones Plant Defenses

Ch.31 - Soil and Plant Nutrition

Soil and Nutrients Nitrogen Fixation

Ch.32 - Plant Reproduction

Plant Development Flowers Seeds

Ch.33 - The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function

Animal Tissues Metabolism and Homeostasis Thermoregulation

Ch.34 - Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System


Ch.35 - The Nervous System

Neurons and Action Potentials Central and Peripheral Nervous System

Ch.36 - Sensory Systems

Sensory System

Ch.37 - The Endocrine System

Endocrine System Blood Sugar Homeostasis

Ch.38 - The Musculoskeletal System

Musculoskeletal System

Ch.39 - The Respiratory System

Respiratory System Gas Exchange

Ch.40 - The Circulatory System

Circulatory System Heart Physiology

Ch.41 - Osmotic Regulation and Excretion

Osmoregulation and Excretion

Ch.42 - The Immune System

Immune System Innate Immunity Adaptive Immunity

Ch.43 - Animal Reproduction and Development

Animal Reproduction Developmental Biology Animal Development

Ch.44 - Ecology and the Biosphere


Ch.45 - Population and Community Ecology

Population Ecology Community Interactions Community Structure

Ch.46 - Ecosystems


Ch.47 - Conservation Biology and Biodiversity

Conservation Biology

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