Biology Biology

Biology Openstax • 2nd Edition •

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Ch.1 - The Study of Life

Characteristics of Life

Ch.2 - The Chemical Foundation of Life

Atoms Bonding Properties of Water Acids and Bases

Ch.3 - Biological Macromolecules

Carbon Polymers Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

Ch.4 - Cell Structure

Cells Nucleus Endomembrane System Endosymbionts Cytoskeleton Cell Junctions

Ch.5 - Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes

Fluid Mosaic Model Osmosis and Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Active Transport Bulk Transport

Ch.6 - Metabolism

Thermochemistry ATP Enzymes Metabolism

Ch.7 - Cellular Respiration

Redox Reactions Cellular Respiration Glycolysis Pyruvate Oxidation Citric Acid Cycle ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation

Ch.8 - Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis Light Reactions Calvin Cycle The Need for CO2

Ch.9 - Cell Communication

Cell Signaling Reception Transduction and Response

Ch.10 - Cell Reproduction

Cell Division Mitosis Cell Cycle Regulation

Ch.11 - Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction Meiosis

Ch.12 - Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

Mendel's Experiment Independent Assortment Extensions to Mendel

Ch.13 - Modern Understandings of Inheritance

Genetic Counseling Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance Chromosome Abnormalities and Non-Mendelian Inheritance

Ch.14 - DNA Structure and Function

History of Genetic Research DNA Replication Repair Mechanisms and Telomeres Mutation

Ch.15 - Genes and Proteins

Gene Expression and the Genetic Code Transcription RNA Processing Translation

Ch.16 - Gene Expression

Bacterial Gene Regulation Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

Ch.17 - Biotechnology and Genomics

DNA Cloning PCR and Dideoxy Sequencing DNA Fingerprinting

Ch.18 - Evolution and the Origin of Species

Descent with Modification Species

Ch.19 - The Evolution of Populations

Hardy-Weinberg Model Genetic Variation

Ch.20 - Phylogenies and the History of Life

Phylogeny History of Life on Earth

Ch.21 - Viruses


Ch.22 - Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea

Prokaryote Cell Structures Prokaryote Reproduction and Gene Exchange Prokaryote Metabolism and Ecology Prokaryote Lineages

Ch.23 - Protists

Protist Cells Protist Life Cycles Protist Lineages

Ch.24 - Fungi

Fungi Fungi Reproduction

Ch.25 - Seedless Plants

Nonvascular Plants Seedless Vascular Plants

Ch.26 - Seed Plants

Land Plants Seed Plants

Ch.27 - Introduction to Animal Diversity

Overview of Animals

Ch.28 - Invertebrates

Porifera and Cnideria Lophotrochozoans Ecdysozoans Echinoderms

Ch.29 - Vertebrates

Chordates Aminotes Primates and Homonids

Ch.30 - Plant Form and Physiology

Roots and Shoots Tissues Growth Water Potential Phototropism Tropisms and Hormones Plant Defenses

Ch.31 - Soil and Plant Nutrition

Soil and Nutrients Nitrogen Fixation

Ch.32 - Plant Reproduction

Plant Development Flowers Seeds

Ch.33 - The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function

Animal Tissues Metabolism and Homeostasis Thermoregulation

Ch.34 - Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System


Ch.35 - The Nervous System

Neurons and Action Potentials Central and Peripheral Nervous System

Ch.36 - Sensory Systems

Sensory System

Ch.37 - The Endocrine System

Endocrine System Blood Sugar Homeostasis

Ch.38 - The Musculoskeletal System

Musculoskeletal System

Ch.39 - The Respiratory System

Respiratory System Gas Exchange

Ch.40 - The Circulatory System

Circulatory System Heart Physiology

Ch.41 - Osmotic Regulation and Excretion

Osmoregulation and Excretion

Ch.42 - The Immune System

Immune System Innate Immunity Adaptive Immunity

Ch.43 - Animal Reproduction and Development

Animal Reproduction Developmental Biology Animal Development

Ch.44 - Ecology and the Biosphere


Ch.45 - Population and Community Ecology

Population Ecology Community Interactions Community Structure

Ch.46 - Ecosystems


Ch.47 - Conservation Biology and Biodiversity

Conservation Biology

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