Ch.16 - DNA SynthesisSee all chapters
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DNA Replication

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Sections
History of Genetic Research
DNA Replication
Repair Mechanisms and Telomeres

Concept #1: Prokaryotic DNA Replication

Concept #2: Leading and Lagging Strand

Concept #3: Eukaryotic DNA Replication

Additional Problems
If one strand of a DNA molecule has the base sequence of 5' CGGCATTA 3' the complementary strand of DNA will read:  a. 3' CGGCATTA 5' b. 3' ATTACGGC 5' c. 3' GCCGTUUT 5' d. 3' GCCGTAAT 5' e. 3' TAATGCCG 5'
What is the function of DNA polymerase III? a. to unwind the DNA helix during replication b. to hold apart the 2 strands of DNA c. to add nucleotides to the end of the growing DNA strand d. to repair damaged DNA molecules e. to rejoin two DNA strands after replication
In DNA replication, new nucleotides are added on: a. at the 5’ end b. at the 3’ end c. at both ends in equal amounts d. at both ends, but mostly at the 3’ end
For DNA replication, bacteria and humans will have the same number of replication bubbles.a. Trueb. False
As DNA replication continues and the replication bubble expands, the parental double helix is unwound and separated into its two component strands. This unwinding and separating of the DNA requires three different types of proteins: helicase, topoisomerase, and single-strand binding proteins. Sort the phrases into the appropriate bins depending on which protein they describe.
What strategies do cells use to ensure that newly replicated DNA does not contain errors? (more than one answer)a. DNA polymerase replaces the newly replicated DNA on any chromosomes on which there are mistakes.b. Enzymes proofread the DNA after the DNA has been replicated and replace any mismatched nucleotides.c. Enzymes repair mistakes in the new DNA double helix after the new double helix separates from the original double helix.d. As DNA polymerase synthesizes new DNA, the DNA polymerase finds and corrects misplaced nucleotidese. Enzymes remove and resynthesize any misshapen sequences in the DNA prior to replication.
The enzyme that unwinds DNA is: a. Helicaseb. Primasec. DNA polymerased. ATP synthasee. Ligase
The enzyme that joins Okazaki fragments is:  a. Primase b. DNA polymerase c. Ligase d. ATP synthase e. Helicase
In order for an RNA primer to be synthesized on the DNA which of the following enzymes is necessary:a. Gyraseb. DNA polymerase Ic. DNA ligased. Primase
The enzyme that builds a short complementary piece of RNA at the start of each DNA segment to be replicated is:  a. DNA polymerase b. Primase c. ATP synthase d. Ligase e. Helicase
The enzyme that adds nucleotides to form new strands of DNA is: a. Primaseb. ATP synthasec. Ligased. Helicasee. DNA polymerase
The figure below is a DNA replication bubble. The leading and lagging strands of the following DNA replication figure are labeled. Instructions: Label all 5' and 3' ends of the DNA strands. 
The primer in DNA synthesis is composed of : a. DNA b. RNA c. m-RNA d. r-RNA
Which of the following statements best describes DNA polymerase?a. It is an enzyme that polymerizes to the DNA and keeps the replication fork open.b. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of nucleotides to the 5' end of a growing DNA strand.c. It is an enzyme required to produce a primer needed for DNA replication.d. It is an enzyme required to glue pieces of DNA fragments together.e. It is an enzyme that requires the presence of a nucleic acid primer to catalyze the addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing DNA strand.
If a mutation causes the "G" base in the base sequence 5' AATGAC 3' to be read as a "T" base, DNA replication of the mutated sequence will read:  a. 3' AATTAC 5' b. 3' TTCCTG 5' c. 3' GGCCGT 5' d. 3' TTAATG 5' e. 3' AATGAC 5'
Arrange the steps of DNA replication in the order that they occur.1. single stranded DNA binding proteins bind to each template strand.2. DNA polymerase synthesizes DNA.3. DNA ligase joins DNA fragments together4. Helicase unwinds the DNA double helix.5. RNA primers are added.6. RNA primers are removed.
Change in a cell's DNA sequence is a regular occurrence in the process of replication.  a. True b. False
A replicated chromosome consists of two "sister chromatids." a. Trueb. False
To confirm the semiconservative model of replication, it was important for Meselson and Stahl to quantify the amount of DNA in each band produced by density-gradient centrifugation. To accomplish this, they took advantage of the fact that DNA absorbs ultraviolet light, and used UV light to photograph each tube. By scanning the UV photographs with a microdensitometer, graphs like the ones below were produced. The height of each peak in the graph is directly proportional to the concentration of DNA in the corresponding band. Also, the position of each peak reflects the 14N and 15N content of the band. Suppose that the scientists analyzed the same amount of DNA (10 units) by density-gradient centrifugation after two, three, and four rounds of replication in 14N medium. What would you predict the microdensitometer graph would look like after each round? The beginning of the experiment as well as Replication Cycle 1 is given to you. Match up replication rounds “A”, “B” and “C” in the correct order with Replication Cycles 2, 3 and 4.Match up replication rounds “A”, “B” and “C” in the correct order with Replication Cycles 2, 3 and 4.a) replication cycle 2 =b) replication cycle 3 =c) replication cycle 4 =
The diagram below shows a bacterial replication fork and its principal proteins. Drag the labels to their appropriate locations in the diagram to describe the name or function of each structure. Use pink labels for the pink targets and blue labels for the blue targets.
Which enzyme helps with the separation of DNA strands during replication? a. helicase b. endonuclease I c. ligase d. DNA polymerase e. primase
What are the functions of enzyme DNA polymerase?
Assuming the figure below shows five Okazaki fragments formed during DNA replication and the direction of replication on that strand is shown with the arrow.(a) Identify the leading and lagging strands.(b) label the polarity of each strand and direction of synthesis(c) How can the fragments be joined together to form a continuous strand?(d) Where will a primer be added on each strand?
Name and briefly describe three major differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes in a) transcription, and b) translation.
Explain the difference between the leading and lagging strands of DNA. 
What is semiconservative replication? What does that mean for DNA?
Describe basic DNA/RNA architecture.
Although both RNA and RNA are built from nucleotides, describe how the RNA nucleotides differs from the DNA nucleotide. Briefly explain RNA function.
The mechanisms of DNA synthesis differs between the two new dughter strands during replication. This is due to the fact that A. one RNA primer attaches to the 5' end of the parent strand and the other primer to the 3' end.B. both daughter strands can't extend toward the replication fork because there would not be room for two DNA polymerase enzymes.C. both RNA primers attach to the 3' end of the template strands, which are at opposite ends from each other.D. the DNA strands run antiparallel to each other and the DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing strand.
Below is a schematic diagram of a replication fork. Which of the following primers could be used in lagging strand synthesis?A. Primer AB. Primer BC. Primer CD. Primer D
What is the dilemma with DNA synthesis of a linear molecule?
What would be the consequence of replicating DNA and assembling all new nucleosomes?A. Modified histones would not be in the same positions in each of the new daughter chromosomes.B. DNA polymerase would not be able to dislodge from the newly synthesized DNA.C. Repressors would no longer be able to recognize the promoters of operons.D. There would be no consequence, because that's the mechanism.
One strand of DNA serves as a template for the synthesis of a new strand through _____ base pairing.A. conservativeB. complementaryC. doubleD. parallelE. helical
Given the following parent strand sequence, what would the daughter strand sequence look like? Note the given orientations of the strands. Parent sequence: 5' - GAT CAC TAT GGG CGA GTC TCC TGA - 3'
How does RNA participate in DNA replication?A. RNA transports free nucleotide triphosphates to the phosphodiester bond formation site of DNA polymerase III.B. RNA relaxes supercoiling of DNA strands.C. RNA serves as a primer for elongation by DNA polymerase.D. RNA prevents reannealling of separated DNA strands.
Which of the following statements about DNA replication is false?A. Replication forks represent areas of active DNA synthesis on the chromosomes.B. Error rates for DNA replication are reduced by proofreading of the DNA polymerase.C. The sliding clamp protein increases the rate of DNA synthesis.D. Ligases and polymerases function in the vicinity of replication forks.E. Okazaki fragments are synthesized as part of the leading strand formation.
The mechanism of DNA replication is _____.A. intermediateB. complementaryC. dispersiveD. semiconservativeE. conservative
In what direction is the leading strand of DNA synthesized? In what direction is the lagging strand of DNA synthesized?
if Meselson and Stahl had first grown the cells in 14N-containing medium and then moved them into 15N-containing medium before taking samples, what would have been the result after each of the two replications?
What are okazaki fragments?
Primers are synthesized _____ on the lagging strand of areplication fork.A. at the beginning of every Okazaki fragmentB. only at the 3' end of the newly synthesized strandC. only at the 5' end of the newly synthesized strandD. It depends on whether the synthesis is continuous ordiscontinuousE. at multiple places in an Okazaki fragment
What is Replication and where is it used?
Explain the importance of promoter and polymerase interaction in terms of the efficiency of the expression levels?
What functional class of proteins is essential to the initiation of transcription?
What is the key feature of DNA that allows it to be copied?A. the arrangement of chromosomesB. Okazaki fragmentsC. complementary base pairingD. the sugar-phosphate backbone
Which strand (top or bottom) would the promoter be found on? Why?
What is the difference between the leading and lagging strand? Describe how replication occurs on both strands.
RNA and DNA have different chemical structures. Identify how these two molecules differ?
Product of DNA replication:A. one mRNA moleculeB. polypeptideC. parental (template) DNA strandD. two daughter DNA moleculesE. one daughter DNA molecule
Which is involved in replicating the lagging strand of DNA, but is not involved in leading strand DNA replication?A. ribosomeB. RNA primerC. DNA polymeraseD. Okazaki fragmentsE. phosphodiester bonds
Replication creates a complementary strand of DNA. Given the following parental strand of DNA, what would be the nucleotide sequence of the daughter strand?AACTGGCATCGACTAGGG
Specify the function or enzymatic activity of the following enzymes or enzyme complexes that participate in DNA replication: primosome, gyrase, DNA ligase, polymerase I (Pol I), and polymerase III (Pol III).
Which site (A or B) serves as the primer for the leading strand in region 2?Shown is a schematic of replicatin DNA in a bacterial cell.A. Site AB. Site BC. Site A or BD. There isn't enough information
In what direction is the leading strand of DNA synthesized? In what direction is the lagging strand of DNA synthesized?
Describe the main differences in replicating the lagging and leading strands of bacterial chromosome. Name the three main enzymes that carries out the lagging strand replication. 
Explain the function of DNA polymerase in DNA replication.
Below is a close-up of the portion ofaDNA replication bubble found in the highlighted box. Helicase is shown as a green triangle currently moving from left to right. Based on what you know about the creation of new DNA during replication, which is the lagging strandand why? A. A is the lagging strand, as DNA is always synthesized in the 5' to 3' manner.B. B is the lagging strand, as DNA is always synthesized in the 5' to 3' manner.C. A is the lagging strand, as DNA is always synthesized in the 3' to 5' manner.D. B is the lagging strand, as DNA is always synthesized in the 3' to 5' manner.E. It is impossible to tell, with the information provided.
DNA replication occurs during interphase. Which image below shows the products of replication if the parent strands are blue and the new strands are red?A. AB. BC. CD. DE. E
Compare and contrast DNA with RNA. Identify 2 similarities and 2 differences between DNA and RNA.