With age, the tissues making up a heart valve can lose flexibility and become stiff and narrowed while retaining their one-way closure properties. Suppose a man's aortic valve is affected by this condition but his ventricles do not change their force of contraction. Which of the following will likely happen?
a. Volume of blood flowing out of the left ventricle during a contraction will increase.
b. The body's total blood volume will drop.
c. Blood will flow more rapidly than normal through the atria and right ventricle.
d. Pressure within the left ventricle will increase during the systole phase.