Ch.16 - DNA SynthesisWorksheetSee all chapters
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Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology

Solution: Name and briefly describe three major differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes in a) transcription, and b) translation.

Problem

Name and briefly describe three major differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes in a) transcription, and b) translation.


Solution

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Transcription: 

  • Prokaryotic transcription and translation is a continuous process that happens inside the cytoplasm while eukaryotic transcription is a different process which occurs only in the nucleus.
  • Prokaryotic transcription usually involves only one type of RNA polymerase enzymes for the synthetization all types of RNA inside the cell, including mRNA, rRNA and tRNA. However, in the Eukaryotic Transcription process, different RNA polymerases are used.  RNA polymerase I for the synthetization of rRNA, RNA polymerase II for the synthetization of mRNA, RNA polymerase III for the synthetization of tRNA and 5S RNA.
  • The prokaryotic transcription initiation machinery is simple because the DNA or the genetic material isn’t associated with any histone proteins while the eukaryotic transcription initiation is complex because the genetic material is associated with proteins.
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