Solution: Name and briefly describe three major differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes in a) transcription, and b) translation.
Name and briefly describe three major differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes in a) transcription, and b) translation.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Transcription:
Prokaryotic transcription and translation is a continuous process that happens inside the cytoplasm while eukaryotic transcription is a different process which occurs only in the nucleus.
Prokaryotic transcription usually involves only one type of RNA polymerase enzymes for the synthetization all types of RNA inside the cell, including mRNA, rRNA and tRNA. However, in the Eukaryotic Transcription process, different RNA polymerases are used. RNA polymerase I for the synthetization of rRNA, RNA polymerase II for the synthetization of mRNA, RNA polymerase III for the synthetization of tRNA and 5S RNA.
The prokaryotic transcription initiation machinery is simple because the DNA or the genetic material isn’t associated with any histone proteins while the eukaryotic transcription initiation is complex because the genetic material is associated with proteins.