For most terrestrial ecosystems, pyramids composed of species abundances, biomass, and energy are similar in that they have a broad base and a narrow top. The primary reason for this pattern is that ________.
a. secondary consumers and top carnivores require less energy than producers
b. at each step, energy is lost from the system
c. biomagnification of toxic materials limits the secondary consumers and top carnivores
d. top carnivores and secondary consumers have a more general diet than primary producers
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