Use the figure to answer the following question.
Treehoppers (a type of insect) produce honeydew, which ants use for food. Treehoppers have a major predator, the jumping spider. Researchers hypothesized that the ants would protect the treehoppers from the spiders. In an experiment, researchers followed study plots with ants removed from the system and compared them to a control plot. From the figure, what can you conclude?
a. Ants do somehow protect the treehoppers from spiders.
b. Ants eat the honeydew produced by treehoppers.
c. Ants reduce the numbers of treehoppers.
d. No specific conclusions can be drawn from this figure.
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