Two species of barnacles, Balanus and Chthamalus, can both survive on the lower rocks just above the lowtide line on the Scottish coast, but only Balanus actually does so, with Chthamalus adopting a higher zone. Which of the following best accounts for this niche separation?
b. predation of Chthamalus by Balanus
c. primary succession
d. competitive exclusion
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