Fossil Records: used with other data such as nucleotide and amino acid sequences to create evolutionary trees
: nucleotide and amino acid sequences are subject to mutations
Recent reconstructions of evolutionary history are often dependent on assigning divergence in terms of changes in amino acid or nucleotide sequences. For example, a comparison of cytochrome c shows 10 amino acid differences between humans and dogs, 24 differences between humans and moths and 38 differences between humans and yeast.
What problems might one encounter in such a calibration?
a. uncertainty of the fossil record
b. different population structures occur among different taxa
b. different mutation rates occur among different taxa
c. the same mutation rates occur among different taxa
d. the same population structures occur among different taxa
e. amino acid and nucleotide substitutions can occur linearly in the time
f. uncertainty of the times of major paleontological events
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