In an ecosystem:
• Energy flow: unidirectional
- energy is transferred from producers to consumers with a loss in energy (as heat) for each step
What is one way in which energy flow differs from chemical cycling?
a) Energy flow is unidirectional; chemical elements can be recycled.
b) Energy can enter but cannot leave an ecosystem; chemical elements can leave but cannot enter an ecosystem.
c) Energy flows from lower to higher trophic levels; chemicals cycle from higher to lower trophic levels.
d) Energy can both enter and leave an ecosystem; chemical elements always remain within a single ecosystem.
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