Phylogeny

Concept: Taxonomy and Phylogeny

6m

Concept: Homology and Homoplasy

8m

Concept: Cladistics

5m

Phylogeny Additional Practice Problems

List three main differences between Bacteria and Archaea.

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What is a domain? What are the three domains of life?

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Imagine that you are a marine biologist. As part of your exploration, you dredge up an unknown animal species from the seafloor. Describe some of the characteristics you should look at to determine the phylum to which the creature should be assigned.

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Name the five (5) sources of data used to reconstruct phylogenies. 

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Choose all of the sequences from the diagram that are in order from oldest to youngest according to this tree diagram.

A. Morel, H, B, M, Spot

B. The diagram does not have a time component

C. Spot, M, B, H, T

D. T, B, M, Cap

E. Flat, Spot, Cap, Morel

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Why is the sequence similarity generally higher when comparing two globins from mammals than when comparing a globin from a mammal and a globin from a plant?

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Distinguish phylogeny from taxonomy and list one example where each is used.


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Compare and contrast plant and animal cells.

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Which of the following types of data could be compared during the construction of a phylogenetic tree? 

a. Amino acid sequences of the same protein from two individuals of the same species 

b. Base sequences of two different genes from two individuals of the same species 

c. Amino acid sequences of two different proteins from the same individual 

d. Base sequences of the same gene from two individuals of different species 


Refer to the table below.

The table summarizes base sequences of homologous regions of DNA in four different organisms. According to these data, which two organisms would be separated by the largest distance on a phylogenetic tree? 

a. C and D 

b. A and C 

c. B and C 

d. D and A

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Which of the following statements is true of the parsimony method for reconstructing phylogeny?

a. The preferred phylogenetic tree under the parsimony method is the tree with the fewest branches. 

b. Parsimony assumes that once a character changes, it never reverses to the previous state. 

c. The preferred phylogenetic tree under the parsimony method is the tree that requires the smallest number of evolutionary changes to explain the data. 

d. Parsimony assumes that evolutionary convergences do not occur between biological lineages. 


Refer to the table below. 

The table summarizes base sequences of homologous regions of DNA in four different organisms. If A represents the outgroup and B, C, and D represent the ingroup under study, how would a phylogenetic tree be constructed to show the evolutionary relationships between B, C, and D? 

a. B branches off first, followed by D, and then C. 

b. D branches off first, followed by B, and then C. 

c. B branches off first, followed by C, and then D. 

d. C branches off first, followed by D, and then B.

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Are domain and kingdoms the same? Explain.

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Are the two axes on this cladogram labeled correctly?

a. Yes

b. No

Please explain your answer. If yes: please explain why. If no: Please explain why.

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In figure 2; the two-extant species that are most closely related to each other are

a. C and D.

b. E and A.

c. D and E.

d. B and C.

e. A and B.

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In Figure 2; a common ancestor for both species C and E could be at position number

A) 2.

B) 3.

C) 4.

D) 1.

E) 5.

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Using the principle of parsimony and molecular genetic data, which of the following phylogenetic tree would you select to represent the evolutionary relationship of these species? (letters represent a short DNA sequence)

a. Tree 1

b. Tree 2

c. Tree 3

d. All are equally likely

 

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Below is a phylogeny depicting the relationships of nine species of extant beetles, labeled 1-9. A 'P' above their number indicates that the species is poisonous, and an 'NP' indicates that the species is non-poisonous. Some of the ancestor species are also labeled, A-D. Which of the following statements is most likely accurate regarding this group of species?

a. Ancestor A was the first beetle to possess the poison trait.

b. That both species 8 and species 4 possess the poison trait is an example of convergent evolution.

c. The poison trait evolved independently four different times.

d. Ancestor D likely possessed the poison trait.

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Which statement represents the best explanation for the observation that the nuclear DNA of wolves and domestic dogs has a very high degree of homology?

a. Dogs and wolves shared a common ancestor very recently. 

b. Dogs and wolves have very similar morphologies. 

c. Dogs and wolves are both members of the family Canidae.

d. Convergent evolution has occurred.

e. Dogs and wolves belong to the same order.

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According to the chart below, the dotted lines labeled X and Y represent the

a. endosymbiotic origin of the mitochondria and chloroplast, respectively.

b. endosymbiotic origin of the chloroplast and mitochondria, respectively.

c. origin of cyclic and non-cyclic pathways of photosynthesis, respectively.

d. origin of non-cyclic and cyclic pathways of photosynthesis, respectively.

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According to the figure below, we would expect gene and protein sequences from mice to be most different from those of

a. rats.

b. humans.

c. birds.

d. fish.

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The sister taxon to Tarsius is

a. Lemur

b. Callithrix    

c. New World Monkeys 

d. all other species

e. all the other species except Lemur

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Below are some sequence data for three species. Based on these data alone, which two species would be most closely related to one another.

a. Human and chimp         

b. Human and gorilla          

c. Chimp and gorilla

d. All three equally related           

e. No way to tell

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The kingdoms in the domain Eukarya include: 

a. Protista, Monera, and Animalia

b. Fungi, Protista, and Archaea

c. Bacteria, Fungi, and Animalia

d. Animalia, Plantae, and Bacteria

e. Animalia, Plantae, and Protista

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The three domains in the Woese system of classification are: 

a. Monera, Bacteria, and Eukarya

b. Fungi, Protista, and Animalia

c. Archaea, Eukarya, and Protista

d. Monera, Bacteria, and Eukarya

e. Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya

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The "Kingdom" is the most all-inclusive taxonomic category.

a. True

b. False

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MRSA infections occur in humans (Homo sapiens). Homo sapiens are in which kingdom? 

a.  Eukarya

b.  Archaea

c.  Bacteria

d.  Animalia

e.  Protista

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MRSA infections occur in humans (Homo sapiens). Homo sapiens are in which domain?

a.  Archaea

b.  Bacteria

c.  Eukarya

d.  Animalia

e.  Protista

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MRSA infections occur in humans (Homo sapiens). Homo sapiens are a: 

a.  Species

b.  Genus

c.  Domain

d.  Kingdom

e.  Phylum

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Which class do humans belong to?  

a.  Animalia

b.  Mammalia

c.  Primates

d.  Eukarya

e.  Hominidae

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Which taxonomic category would include the least closely related organisms? 

a.  Family

b.  Genus

c.  Order

d.  Phylum

e.  Class

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Which taxonomic category would include the most closely related organisms? 

a.  Family

b.  Class

c.  Kingdom

d.  Domain

e.  Order

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"The most restrictive taxon" and "the ability to breed only among themselves" reference: 

a.  Members of the same species

b.  Members of the same domain

c.  Members of the same genus

d.  Members of the same family

e.  Members of the same kingdom

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The correct sequence of taxonomic categories beginning with domain in descending order are: 

a.  Kingdom - phylum - order - class - genus - family - species

b.  Kingdom - class - phylum - order - family - genus - species

c.  Kingdom - phylum - order - class - genus - family – species

d.  Kingdom - phylum - class - order - family - genus - species

e.  Kingdom - phylum - class - order - genus - family - species

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The genus and species of the caribou is Rangifer tarandus According to taxonomic classification system nomenclature, the next most exclusive level of the system would be:

a. class

b. family

c. order

d. phylum

e. none of the choices is correct

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