Ch.27 - PhylogenyWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology
Additional Problems
The three domains in the Woese system of classification are: a. Monera, Bacteria, and Eukaryab. Fungi, Protista, and Animaliac. Archaea, Eukarya, and Protistad. Monera, Bacteria, and Eukaryae. Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
The kingdoms in the domain Eukarya include:  a. Protista, Monera, and Animalia b. Fungi, Protista, and Archaea c. Bacteria, Fungi, and Animalia d. Animalia, Plantae, and Bacteria e. Animalia, Plantae, and Protista
Below are some sequence data for three species. Based on these data alone, which two species would be most closely related to one another.a. Human and chimp         b. Human and gorilla          c. Chimp and gorillad. All three equally related           e. No way to tell
The sister taxon to Tarsius isa. Lemurb. Callithrix    c. New World Monkeys d. all other speciese. all the other species except Lemur
The correct sequence of taxonomic categories beginning with domain in descending order are:  a.  Kingdom - phylum - order - class - genus - family - species b.  Kingdom - class - phylum - order - family - genus - species c.  Kingdom - phylum - order - class - genus - family – species d.  Kingdom - phylum - class - order - family - genus - species e.  Kingdom - phylum - class - order - genus - family - species
"The most restrictive taxon" and "the ability to breed only among themselves" reference: a.  Members of the same speciesb.  Members of the same domainc.  Members of the same genusd.  Members of the same familye.  Members of the same kingdom
Which taxonomic category would include the most closely related organisms?  a.  Family b.  Class c.  Kingdom d.  Domain e.  Order
Which taxonomic category would include the least closely related organisms?  a.  Family b.  Genus c.  Order d.  Phylum e.  Class
Which class do humans belong to?   a.  Animalia b.  Mammalia c.  Primates d.  Eukarya e.  Hominidae
MRSA infections occur in humans (Homo sapiens). Homo sapiens are a: a.  Speciesb.  Genusc.  Domaind.  Kingdome.  Phylum
MRSA infections occur in humans (Homo sapiens). Homo sapiens are in which domain?a.  Archaeab.  Bacteriac.  Eukaryad.  Animaliae.  Protista
MRSA infections occur in humans (Homo sapiens). Homo sapiens are in which kingdom? a.  Eukaryab.  Archaeac.  Bacteriad.  Animaliae.  Protista
The "Kingdom" is the most all-inclusive taxonomic category. a. True b. False
Below is a phylogeny depicting the relationships of nine species of extant beetles, labeled 1-9. A 'P' above their number indicates that the species is poisonous, and an 'NP' indicates that the species is non-poisonous. Some of the ancestor species are also labeled, A-D. Which of the following statements is most likely accurate regarding this group of species?a. Ancestor A was the first beetle to possess the poison trait.b. That both species 8 and species 4 possess the poison trait is an example of convergent evolution.c. The poison trait evolved independently four different times.d. Ancestor D likely possessed the poison trait.
Which of the following statements is true of the parsimony method for reconstructing phylogeny?a. The preferred phylogenetic tree under the parsimony method is the tree with the fewest branches. b. Parsimony assumes that once a character changes, it never reverses to the previous state. c. The preferred phylogenetic tree under the parsimony method is the tree that requires the smallest number of evolutionary changes to explain the data. d. Parsimony assumes that evolutionary convergences do not occur between biological lineages. Refer to the table below. The table summarizes base sequences of homologous regions of DNA in four different organisms. If A represents the outgroup and B, C, and D represent the ingroup under study, how would a phylogenetic tree be constructed to show the evolutionary relationships between B, C, and D? a. B branches off first, followed by D, and then C. b. D branches off first, followed by B, and then C. c. B branches off first, followed by C, and then D. d. C branches off first, followed by D, and then B.
Which of the following types of data could be compared during the construction of a phylogenetic tree? a. Amino acid sequences of the same protein from two individuals of the same species b. Base sequences of two different genes from two individuals of the same species c. Amino acid sequences of two different proteins from the same individual d. Base sequences of the same gene from two individuals of different species Refer to the table below.The table summarizes base sequences of homologous regions of DNA in four different organisms. According to these data, which two organisms would be separated by the largest distance on a phylogenetic tree? a. C and D b. A and C c. B and C d. D and A
The genus and species of the caribou is Rangifer tarandus According to taxonomic classification system nomenclature, the next most exclusive level of the system would be:a. classb. familyc. orderd. phylume. none of the choices is correct
According to the figure below, we would expect gene and protein sequences from mice to be most different from those ofa. rats.b. humans.c. birds.d. fish.
Which statement represents the best explanation for the observation that the nuclear DNA of wolves and domestic dogs has a very high degree of homology? a. Dogs and wolves shared a common ancestor very recently.  b. Dogs and wolves have very similar morphologies.  c. Dogs and wolves are both members of the family Canidae. d. Convergent evolution has occurred. e. Dogs and wolves belong to the same order.
In Figure 2; a common ancestor for both species C and E could be at position numberA) 2.B) 3.C) 4.D) 1.E) 5.
In figure 2; the two-extant species that are most closely related to each other area. C and D.b. E and A.c. D and E.d. B and C.e. A and B.
Are the two axes on this cladogram labeled correctly?a. Yesb. NoPlease explain your answer. If yes: please explain why. If no: Please explain why.
Using the principle of parsimony and molecular genetic data, which of the following phylogenetic tree would you select to represent the evolutionary relationship of these species? (letters represent a short DNA sequence)a. Tree 1b. Tree 2c. Tree 3d. All are equally likely 
According to the chart below, the dotted lines labeled X and Y represent thea. endosymbiotic origin of the mitochondria and chloroplast, respectively.b. endosymbiotic origin of the chloroplast and mitochondria, respectively.c. origin of cyclic and non-cyclic pathways of photosynthesis, respectively.d. origin of non-cyclic and cyclic pathways of photosynthesis, respectively.
Imagine that you are a marine biologist. As part of your exploration, you dredge up an unknown animal species from the seafloor. Describe some of the characteristics you should look at to determine the phylum to which the creature should be assigned.
Name the five (5) sources of data used to reconstruct phylogenies. 
Choose the correct statements about proteins and evolution. Select all that apply.A. Two proteins that have similar tertiary structure are said to be homologous.B. The tertiary structure of a protein is more conserved than the primary structure.C. Lupine leghemoglobin and human α-hemoglobin are only about 16% identical. This is an example of divergent evolution.D. Orthologs are derived from a common ancestor, but often have different functions.E. Percent identity for a random alignment of two nucleic acids is likely to be lower than the percent identity for an equal-length random alignment of two polypeptide segments.
Are domain and kingdoms the same? Explain.
What is a domain? What are the three domains of life?
Distinguish phylogeny from taxonomy and list one example where each is used.
Why is the sequence similarity generally higher when comparing two globins from mammals than when comparing a globin from a mammal and a globin from a plant?
Compare and contrast plant and animal cells.
List three main differences between Bacteria and Archaea.
Based on the phylogeny shown below, which of the following statements about taxon relationships is not supported?A. Humans are more closely related to bats than they are to iguanas.B. Rabbits are more closely related to tortoises than they are to bats.C. Tortoises are more closely related to sparrows than they are to rabbits.D. Cobra are more closely related to iguanas than they are to sparrows.
Consider the phylogenetic tree below. Which of the following clade groups would be polyphyletic?A. G, H, F, and J, K, and IB. D, E, C, and BC. B, C, D, E, G, H, and FD. G, H, and FE. J, K, and I
Consider the following two cladograms of a portion of theanimal kingdom below. The 2 cladograms represent the same evolutionary pattern; they are just drawn differently.A. TrueB. False
Based on the cladogram below, the species that is the most distantly related to species 2 is species _____.A. 3B. 4C. 5D. 1
Choose all of the sequences from the diagram that are in order from oldest to youngest according to this tree diagram.A. Morel, H, B, M, SpotB. The diagram does not have a time componentC. Spot, M, B, H, TD. T, B, M, CapE. Flat, Spot, Cap, Morel