Ch.12 - Cell DivisionSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology
Sections
Cell Division
Mitosis
Cell Cycle Regulation

Concept #1: Mitosis Overview

Concept #2: G2 and Prophase

Concept #3: Prometaphase and Metaphase

Concept #4: Anaphase and Telophase

Concept #5: Cytokinesis and Spindle Apparatus

Practice: The microtubule framework that arises during cell division and moves chromatids apart is the ___________.

Practice: During ___________ the chromatids are pulled to the ends of the spindle.

Practice: Cytokinesis follows after the ______________ stage in mitosis.

Practice: You are examining cells that have mutations that effect anaphase. What are you looking for?

Additional Problems
During G1 after Mitosis the DNA in the cell is ______and _________. a. sister chromatids b. diploid c. not replicated d. replicated
Which of the following is true of kinetochores?a. The are the sites at which microtubules attach to chromosomes.b. They cross at the cell's equator and move against each other, causing the cell to elongate.c. They are the primary centrosome structures that maintain the attachment of the sister chromatids prior to mitosis.d. They are located at the center of the centrosome and organize tubulin into spindle fibers.e. They attach to the ring of actin along the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, causing the actin to contract to form the cleavage furrow.
Researchers pulsed rapidly dividing cultured cells with radioactive thymidine for 30 minutes. The cells were then exposed to a solution containing non-radiolabeled thymidine. Cells were analyzed at 2-hour intervals. At the 2-hour time point, no cells appeared to be dividing. Only after 4 hours did some labeled cells appear to be in M phase. This result can be explained in the following way:a. The cells were arrested in a non-dividing state because of the treatment and could not enter M phase until several hours after the label was removed.b. The synthesis (S) phase is lengthy, about 12 hours in most cell types, and the radioactive thymidine was not present long enough for most cells to be labeled.c. Radio-labeled compounds are somewhat cytotoxic, and cell division was initially inhibited.d. There seems to be a gap or a lag in the cell cycle, between the synthesis of DNA and cell division.
The splitting of a cell into two daughter cells in the cell cycle is:  a. Mitosis b. Interphase c. Cytokinesis d. Metaphase e. Anaphase
The division of the nucleus during the cell cycle is:  a. Mitosis b. Interphase c. Synthesis d. Cytokinesis e. Replication
The replication of DNA during the cell cycle occurs during:  a. Mitosis b. Cytokinesis c. Prophase d. Telophase e. Interphase
The correct sequence for the phases of mitosis is:  a. Prometaphase - prophase - metaphase - anaphase - telophase b. Interphase - prophase - metaphase - anaphase - telophase c. Interphase - metaphase - anaphase - prophase - telophase d. Prophase - metaphase - prometaphase - anaphase - telophase e. Prophase - prometaphase - metaphase - anaphase - telophase
The portion of the cytoskeleton that enables the chromosomes to be separated equally into two sets is the:  a. Golgi body b. Centromere c. Centrosome d. Mitotic spindle e. Kinetochore
The structure that organizes the protein subunits of the mitotic spindle is the:  a. Centromere b. Kinetochore c. Centrosome d. Cytoskeleton e. Microfilaments
The proteins that attach chromosomes to the mitotic spindle are:  a. Kinetochores b. Chromatids c. Nucleosomes d. Centromeres e. Histones
The phase of mitosis in which the nuclear envelope breaks into small pieces is:  a. Prophase b. Metaphase c. Anaphase d. Prometaphase e. Telophase
The phase of mitosis in which the centromeres split and sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles of the cell is:  a. Prophase b. Anaphase c. Prometaphase d. Metaphase e. Telophase
The phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes are aligned along the equator of the cell is:  a. Metaphase b. Prophase c. Prometaphase d. Anaphase e. Telophase
The phase of mitosis in which the nuclear envelope reforms is:  a. Prophase b. Prometaphase c. Metaphase d. Anaphase e. Telophase
The phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes condense and centrosomes move to opposite poles of the cell is:  a. Prometaphase b. Metaphase c. Prophase d. Anaphase e. Telophase
The first sign of cytokinesis in a plant cell is the formation of a:  a. Nuclear envelope b. Nucleolus c. Cleavage furrow d. Cell plate e. Spindle fiber
The chemotherapy drug taxol inhibits microtubule function. A cell treated with taxol would become stuck in which phase? a. Prophaseb. Metaphasec. Anaphased. Telophasee. Cytokinesis
Why don't plant cells form a cleavage furrow during cytokinesis?  a. Because they don't have a cell membrane b. Because their cells don't divide after mitosis, but become one larger cell with multiple nuclei c. Because they have a cell wall d. Because they don't have a nucleus e. All are correct
Mitotic cell division creates identical copies by replicating a cell's DNA __________ and then dividing ____________. a. Once, twiceb. Twice, oncec. Twice, twiced. Once, oncee. None are correct
 What cytoskeleton is involved in mitotic spindle? How do chromosomes attach to mitotic spindle?
Chromosome condensation compacts the chromosomes so they can be efficiently separated at which phase of mitosis?
Describe the events of prophase, and telophase during mitosis.
State of DNA inside the cell. Based on your understanding, specify the state of DNA (chromatin or condensed chromosome) in each phase and sub-phase of the cell cycle.G1 : _____S : _____G2 : _____Mitosis : _____Cytokinesis : _____
Professionally, describe and explain condensins and cohesins.
A drug inhibiting the formation of spindle fibers would most likely be evidenced by a visible disruption of:A. anaphaseB. cytokinesisC. interphaseD. S phase
A diploid cell has 14 chromosomes. How many chromosomes and sister-chromatids are found in that cell at each stage of the cell cycle in mitosis?G1 - G2 - Prophase - Anaphase - Telophase - 
A human cell has 46 chromosomes. After the cell has undergone mitosis/cytokinesis, how many chromosomes would you expect in each daughter cell?
If a human somaticcell is in metaphase, it has _____ chromatids.A. 2B. 23C. 46D. 92
How does chromosome compaction differ during metaphase and interphase in eukaryotes?A. Chromosomes are more compacted in interphase than in metaphase.B. There is no chromosome compaction in interphase.C. Chromosomes are more compacted in metaphase than in interphase.D. Maximum chromosome compaction occurs during interphase.
The kinetochore microtubules separate sister chromatids by depolymerizing during _____.A. TelophaseB. MetaphaseC. ProphaseD. Anaphase
Explain how the structure of a chromosome change as a cell moves from interphase to mitosis?  What phase(s) has/have highly condensed DNA? Why is it important that this phase or phases have highly condensed DNA?What phase or phases have less condensed DNA? Why is it important that this phase or phases have less condensed DNA?
Identify a unique feature of each phase of mitosis: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
A cell has 8 DNA molecules and undergoes mitosis. How many DNA molecules are there in each daughter cell?A. 4B. 8C. 16D. 32
Which of the following would most likely result if mitosis were allowed to occur for several rounds, but cytokinesis was blocked?A. Multiple cells would result, but they would all share the same nucleus.B. One large cell with a single nucleus would result, but each nucleus would have more than the normal diploid number of chromosomes.C. One large cell with several nuclei would result.D. Multiple cells would result but each nucleus would have more than the normal diploid number of chromosomes.
When in the cell cycle does DNA replication occur?A. InterphaseB. MitosisC. CytokinesisD. Apoptosis
Mitotic chromosomes are about _____ times more compact than a DNA molecule in its extended form, and interphase chromosomes are _____ compact than mitotic chromosomes.A. 5,000 ; moreB. 50 ; moreC. 500,000 ; lessD. 5,000 ; lessE. 50 ; less
Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in animal cells?A. centrosomeB. centromereC. desmosomesD. golgiE. kinetochore
What are the phases of cell cycle? List the key features for the each phases of cell cycle.
Describe the preparatory steps or activities that are necessary for a successful mitotic division.
What type of cell would form a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate called a cleavage furrow?A. an animal cell in metaphaseB. a plant cell in metaphaseC. a plant cell undergoing cytokinesisD. an animal cell in G2 of interphaseE. an animal cell undergoing cytokinesis
Maximum condensation of chromosomes happens during _____.A. AnaphaseB. TelophaseC. MetaphaseD. Prophase