Ch.16 - DNA SynthesisSee all chapters
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Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology

History of Genetic Research

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History of Genetic Research
DNA Replication
Repair Mechanisms and Telomeres

Concept #1: Griffith and Hersey-Chase Experiments

Concept #2: Watson, Crick, and Franklin and Meselson–Stahl Experiment

Additional Problems
The DNA of a phage was injected into the bacterial host, but the protein coat remained outside. The viral DNA directed the host to replicate the new phage viruses. Which scientist(s) are associated with this finding? a. Hershey and Chase b. Watson and Crick c. Messelson and Stahl d. Chargaff e. Thomas and Walters
The scientist (scientists) that discovered that bacteria can transfer genetic information is (are): a. Hershey and Chaseb. Chargaffc. Griffithd. Watson and Crick 
The scientist (scientists) that confirmed DNA was the genetic information by working with viruses that infect bacteria is (are): a. Griffithb. Hershey and Chasec. Avery and Macleodd. Watson and Cricke. Chargaff
It became apparent to Watson and Crick after completion of their model that the DNA molecule would carry a vast amount of hereditary information on its: a. sequence of bases b. sugar-phosphate backbones c. complimentary base pairs d. side groups e. 5-carbon sugars
True or False: Rosalind Franklin received a Nobel Prize for her work on the structure of DNA.a. Trueb. False
The scientist (scientists) that was (were) given credit for first determining the structure of DNA by building a ball and stick model is (are): a. Hershey and Chaseb. Watson and Crickc. Chargaffd. Griffith
The bacteria that Griffith experimented with were termed "R" and "S" bacteria because: a. Of the way they grew on artificial mediab. The "R" bacteria formed rough appearing coloniesc. The "S" bacteria formed smooth appearing coloniesd. All are correct
Hershey and Chase showed that the virus T4: a. Injects protein into a bacteriumb. Injects polysaccharide into a bacteriumc. Injects DNA into a bacteriumd. Injects protein and DNA into a bacteriume. Injects RNA into a bacterium
A bacteriophage infects a bacterial cell by injecting nucleic acid into the bacterium.  a. True b. False
Each newly replicated molecule of DNA contains one conserved strand from the original DNA molecule. a. Trueb. False
Proteins store the genetic information of the cell and transmit it to the next generation. a. Trueb. False
Treating a solution from S strain Streptococcus pneumoniae with an enzyme that destroys ____ would prevent it from transforming type R bacteria into a form that would cause pneumonia in mice.  a. DNA b. Protein c. Lipid d. DNA or protein e. Protein or lipid
DNA has unique properties that allow it to accurately retain genetic information, even after multiple rounds of replication. One aspect of DNA that allows it to accurately store genetic information is the base pairing from Chargaff's first rule of the four nucleotide bases.If the A content of a DNA molecule is 22%, what are the percentages of the remaining bases?
In the 1920s, a dye was developed that bound to DNA and stained nuclei in direct proportion to the amount of DNA present in cells. Interestingly, all cells derived from the same multicellular organisms stained to the same levels. However, cells from different organisms absorbed different amount of stain. Gametes (sex cells - sperm and egg cells) absorbed half of the amount of dye as compared to the somatic cells (all other cells in the body except the gametes). Such experiments _____.A. demonstrated that somatic cells and gametes could not have differing amounts of DNA.B. demonstrated that all species had the same amount of nuclear DNA.C. provided circumstantial evidence that DNA is the genetic material.D. proved DNA is the genetic material.
Imagine a plant with two incompletely-dominant loci. CW (white flowers) is incompletely dominant to CR (red flowers). Heterozygous have pink flowers. HS (short) is incompletely dominant to HT (tall. Heterozygotes are of medium height.A medium height pink plant is crossed with a mystery plant (i.e. its genotype and phenotype aren't revealed to you). 1/4 of the offspring are white with medium height; 1/4 are white with tall height; 1/4 are pink with medium height; and 1/4 are pink with tall height. What are the genotypes of each parent?
Which type of process shows that DNA was the genetic material?A. bacterial transductionB. bacterial transformationC. eukaryotic meiosis
In their experiments directed at determining whether DNA or protein serves as genetic material, Hershey and Chase chose isotopes of sulfur and phosphorus to label protein and DNA molecules, respectively. Could they have utilized isotopes of carbon and nitrogen instead? If not, briefly explain.
The mechanism of replication was determined by Meselson and Stahl. Imagine if their data had turned out differently. Which model would be supported by these hypothetical results?Original : 1 band of N15 only1st generation : 1 band of N15/N142nd generation : 1 band of N15/N14A. ConservativeB. Semi-conservativeC. DispersiveD. Cannot tell from this data alone
Which of the following would correctly describe the results of Meselson and Stahl's famous experiment after one cycle of replication in 14N medium, if DNA was conservative?A. DNA molecules containing two 14N-DNA strands only.B. DNA molecules containing one strand of 15N-DNA and one strand of 14N-DNA.C. DNA molecules containing two 15N-DNA strands only.D. DNA molecules containing individual strands composed of a mixture of both 14N-DNA and 15N-DNA.E. An equal number of DNA molecules containing two 15N-DNA and DNA molecules containing 14N-DNA strands.
Watson and Crick, the discoverers of DNA structure, proposed a semiconservative model of replication. Meselson and Stahl carried out experiments to test this by labeling DNA with isotopes of nitrogen 14N and 15N.Labeled DNA were isolated from bacteria and centrifuged.Match the experimental condition with the result observed in the centrifuge tube.DNA isolated from E. coli grown in 15N mediumDNA isolated from E. coli grown in 14N mediumDNA isolated from E. coli grown first in 15N medium then transferred to 14N medium for one generation.Choose fromA. single upper band of DNAB. intermediate band of DNAC. single lower band of DNAD. two bands of DNA (upper and lower)
In cats, curled ears result from an allele, Cu, that is dominant over an allele cu, for normal ears. Black color results from an independently assorting allele, G, that is dominant over an allele for gray, g. A gray cat homozygous for curled ears is mated with a homozygous black cat with normal ears. All the F1 cats are black and have curled ears.What phenotypes and proportions are expected from teh following two crosses?1 - Two of the F1 cats mate?2 - An F1 cat mates with a stray cat that is gray and possesses normal ears.A. 1/4 black cats, curled ears; 1/4 black cats, normal ears; 1/4 gray cats, curled ears; and 1/4 gray cats normal earsB. 9/16 gray cats, normal ears; 3/16 gray cats, curled ears; 3/16 black cats, normal ears; and 1/16 black cats, curled earsC. 9/16 black cats, curled ears; 3/16 black cats, normal ears; 3/16 gray cats, curled ears; and 1/16 gray cats, normal earsD. All gray cats, normal earsE. All black cats, curled ears.
In Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, the cytosine represents about 66% of the total pyrimidine content of DNA. Using Chargaff's rules, determine the percentage of total nucleotides in the DNA represented by adenine?