Ch.18 - Regulation of ExpressionSee all chapters
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Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
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Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology

Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

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Sections
Bacterial Gene Regulation
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

Concept #1: Structural Regulation

Concept #2: Transcriptional Regulation

Concept #3: RNA Regulation

Concept #4: Translational and Post-Translational Regulation

Additional Problems
In humans, typically only infants produce the enzyme lactase to break down lactose. Some adults have changes in _____ that allow transcription factors to bind and turn on expression of the lactase gene into adulthood.  a. Exons b. RNA polymerase c. Enhancers d. mRNA e. Codons
How can a single gene encode for more than one protein?  a. By mutating their genes b. By removing some exons during splicing of mRNA c. By transcribing multiple copies of mRNA d. By using different codons  
An antisense RNA is complementary to a mRNA and could: a. Prevent transcription of the mRNAb. Increase translation of the mRNAc. Increase transcription of the mRNAd. Prevent translation of the mRNA 
Which of the following single-stranded DNA sequences is most likely to form a stem-loop structure?a. GCCCACGCCAGTAGTGb. ATAAGATGGGAGCATGc. AGGAGCACTGGCTCCTd. TCATAGGCGCCGTTCA
In eukaryotic cells gene expression may be controlled by not allowing mRNA to leave the nucleus. a. Trueb. False
Which of the following statements about eukaryotic mRNA is TRUE?a. a cap is added to their 5' endb. a poly-A tail is added to their 3' endc. each usually specifies only a single proteind. A and Be. A, B, and C
Splicing joins togethera. two introns.b. two exons.c. two polypeptides.d. a DNA and an RNA molecule.e. an RNA molecule and a polypeptide.
Processing of eukaryotic mRNA occurs in the cytoplasm prior to translation.a. Trueb. False
Why do histones bind tightly to DNA?a. Both histones and DNA are strongly hydrophobicb. Both histones and DNA are negatively chargedc. Histones are neutrally chargedd. Histones are negatively charged, and DNA is positively chargede. Histones are positively charged, and DNA is negatively charged
A chemical modification that methylates DNA bases causes:a. Enhancement of transcriptionb. Gene amplificationc. Activation of RNA polymerased. Inactivation and silencing of DNAe. None of the above are correct
A nucleosome consists of:  a. A stretch of DNA and histones b. A stretch of DNA c. An RNA molecule d. A ribosome and RNA e. Histones
Which of the following is mechanism for DNA packaging?a. alternative RNA splicingb. transcription factorsc. microRNAd. histone acetylatione. bending proteins
In eukaryotes, general transcription factors: a. inhibit RNA polymerase binding to the promoter and begin transcribing. b. bind to other proteins or to a sequence element within the promoter called the TATA box. c. bind to sequences just after the start site of transcription. d. usually lead to a high level of transcription even without additional specific transcription factors. e. are required for the expression of specific protein-encoding genes.
Proteins that initiate transcription in eukaryotes by recognizing sequences within the promoter region of a gene and attracting RNA polymerase are:  a. Repressors b. Inducers c. Transcription factors d. TATA boxes e. Poly A Tails
What five types of RNA molecules participate in the process of gene expression? What are the functions of each type of RNA? Which types of RNA perform their function(s) in (a) the nucleus and (b) the cytoplasm?
 What is meant by the term gene expression? What is meant by the term regulation?
What is miRNA, RNA interference and SiRNA in gene?
Human cancer can be thought of as a genetic disease because most A. cancer causing genes are inherited.B. cancers arise from mutations that accumulate in the telomeres.C. cancers arise from mutations in critical genes that regulate cell growth and division.D. cancers arise from chromosome deficiencies or degradation which are inherited.E. cancers are caused by viruses and it is wrong to consider it a disease arising from mutation.
Methylation of DNA involves the addition of a methyl group to nucleotide bases. Which of the following does not apply?A. Methylation of cytosine forms methyl-cytosine.B. Methylation affects the three-dimensional structure of DNA.C. Methylation has no effect on the structure of DNA.D. Methylation affects gene expression.
Why does DNA methylation occurs and on which nucleotide? 
What is the relationship between epigenetic regulation and gene expression?
Which of the following is NOT true about gene expression in Eukaryotes?A. Gene expression can be regulated in the nucleus epigenetically.B. Gene expression can be regulated transcriptionally by RNA editing.C. Gene expression can be regulated in the cytoplasm by translation.D. Gene expression can be regulated in the nucleus by post-translational modifications.E. None of the above (all of the above statements are TRUE)
Which of the following scenarios will result in gene activation?A. Expression of a repressor increases.B. A ligand promotes binding of a repressor to DNA.C. An activator is degraded.D. A ligand promotes binding of an activator to DNA.
Which of the following is NOT an end-product of a gene?A. proteinB. tRNAC. miRNAD. mRNA
How can gene expression be regulated post-transcriptionally?A. Chromatin packing controls which genes are accessible to transcription factors and RNA polymerase.B. RNA polymerase needs to be phosphorylated to allow for elongation to begin.C. microRNAs can trigger degradation of mRNAs, preventing their translation.D. Alternative splicing causes different protein products from the same unprocessed mRNA.E. The 5' untranslated regions can interact with different translation initiation factors.F. The rate of mRNA destruction varies based on protein interactions with the 5' and 3' untranslated regions.
What are the stages in which a gene could be regulated?
A researcher found a method she could use to manipulate and quantify phosphorylation and methylation in embryonic cells in culture. In one set of experiments,she succeeded in decreasing methylation of histone tails. Which of the following results would she most likely see?A. activation of histone tails for enzymatic functionB. decreased binding of transcription factorsC. increased chromatin condensationD. inactivation of the selected genesE. decreased chromatin condensation
True or False. Eukaryotes, but not prokaryotes, are able to control the expression of multiple genes at once.A. TrueB. False. Prokaryotes, but not eukaryotes, are able to control the expression of multiple genes at once.C. False. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are able to control the expression of multiple genes at once.
Which of the following statements regarding RNA splicing is false?A. Splicing is performed by the spliceosome.B. Alternative splicing enables one gene to code for more than one protein.C. Splicing takes place in the nucleus.D. Splicing produces mature mRNA by removing exons and joining introns together.E. Splicing is catalzed ribozymes in the spliceosome.
What will happen if a p53 mutation occurs that prevents p53 phosphorylation?A. promote cancer developmentB. prevent cancer development
What is teh effect of a ras mutation that hyperactivates its GTPase activity?A. promote cancer developmentB. prevent cancer development
Identify whether each of the following is a DNA sequence (D) or a protein (P).A. activatorB. enhancerC. TATA boxD. mediator
The effect of inhibiting the function of a histone deacetylase enzyme would likely lead to:A. a more compact and more transcriptionally active chromatinB. a less compact and less transcriptionally active chromatinC. a more compact and less transcriptionally active chromatinD. a less compact and more transcriptionally active chromatin
Operons ae unique to bacteria, which are single-celled organisms. Why are they not practical foreukaryotic cells found in multicellular organisms like humans?
Monozygotic twins have identical DNA sequences, yet twins can differ in some physical orbehavioral traits.What evidence suggests that epigenetic effects may cause these penotypic differences in monozygotic twins?A. Younger twins have more similar DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns than older twins.B. Older twins increase DNA methylation, whereas younger twins increase histone acetylation.C. Younger twins increase DNA methylation, whereas older twins increase histone acetylation.D. Older twins have more similar DNA methylation and histoe acetylation patterns than younger twins.
All of the following is true about eukaryotic transcription except:A. RNA polymerase is a processive enzyme.B. The initial transcript must be processed before it leaves the nucleus.C. Three different types of DNA polymerase to recognize the promoter.D. A sigma factor allows RNA polymerase to recognize the promoter.E. RNA made is complementary to DNA according to Chargaff's rules.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the differences between gene transcription in eukaryotes and prokaryotes?A. Most eukaryotes use multiple transcription factors rather than single transcription factors.B. Most eukaryotes have regulatory sites that are close to their promoters.C. Prokaryotic transcription factors usually interact directly with RNA polymerase while eukaryotic transciption factors do not.D. Most prokaryotes transcribe multiple genes under the regulation of a single operon.E. Eukaryotic transcription factors promote remodeling of the chromatin while prokaryotic transcription factors do not.
The most important means of controlling gene expression in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is at the level of _____.A. miRNAsB. chromatin modificationC. translationD. DNA packingE. transcription
In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, gene expression can be regulated at the level of _____.A. transcriptionB. translationC. mRNA splicingD. All of the aboveE. transcription and translation only
Protein degradation is one strategy to control gene expression and is considered ______.A. transcription controlB. post-transcriptional controlC. translational controlD. post-translational control
What would be the phenotype (growth characteristic) of a cell that lacks the trp genes (genes required for thesynthesis of tryptophan)?What would be the phenotype of a cell missing the lac genes (genes whose products catabolize the carbohydrate lactose)?
Cancer is considered a progressive multi-step disease, why is this?A. Tumor development arises from the accumulation of 4-6 different mutations in cells over the course of many years.B. Tumors development spreads to other tissue with time.C. Tumor development requires mutations in the affected cells as well as defects in the immune system.D. Tumor development happens in a step-wise fashion as telomeres shorten with each cell division.E. Tumor development gets worse with time.
Which of the following statements about viruses is true?A. Viruses contain multiple genes, and each of these genes is an oncogene.B. Viruses are the root cause of most - if not all - cancers.C. None of the other answer options is correct.D. Human cancers have not been associated with viruses.E. Viruses are a type of prokaryotic cell.