Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

Concept: Structural Regulation

5m

Concept: Transcriptional Regulation

6m

Concept: RNA Regulation

5m

Concept: Translational and Post-Translational Regulation

9m

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Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Additional Practice Problems

Operons ae unique to bacteria, which are single-celled organisms. Why are they not practical foreukaryotic cells found in multicellular organisms like humans?

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What is teh effect of a ras mutation that hyperactivates its GTPase activity?

A. promote cancer development

B. prevent cancer development


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What will happen if a p53 mutation occurs that prevents p53 phosphorylation?

A. promote cancer development

B. prevent cancer development

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All of the following is true about eukaryotic transcription except:

A. RNA polymerase is a processive enzyme.

B. The initial transcript must be processed before it leaves the nucleus.

C. Three different types of DNA polymerase to recognize the promoter.

D. A sigma factor allows RNA polymerase to recognize the promoter.

E. RNA made is complementary to DNA according to Chargaff's rules.

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What is miRNA, RNA interference and SiRNA in gene?

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Why does DNA methylation occurs and on which nucleotide? 

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What are the stages in which a gene could be regulated?

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 What is meant by the term gene expression? 

What is meant by the term regulation?

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What is the relationship between epigenetic regulation and gene expression?

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What five types of RNA molecules participate in the process of gene expression? What are the functions of each type of RNA? Which types of RNA perform their function(s) in (a) the nucleus and (b) the cytoplasm?

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Which of the following single-stranded DNA sequences is most likely to form a stem-loop structure?

a. GCCCACGCCAGTAGTG

b. ATAAGATGGGAGCATG

c. AGGAGCACTGGCTCCT

d. TCATAGGCGCCGTTCA

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In eukaryotes, when mature mRNA is hybridized to complementary DNA, _______.

a. introns loop out as single-stranded regions of DNA 

b. exons loop out as single-stranded regions of DNA 

c. introns loop out as single-stranded regions of RNA 

d. exons loop out as single-stranded regions of RNA

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What would be the phenotype (growth characteristic) of a cell that lacks the trp genes (genes required for thesynthesis of tryptophan)?

What would be the phenotype of a cell missing the lac genes (genes whose products catabolize the carbohydrate lactose)?

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In eukaryotes, general transcription factors: 

a. inhibit RNA polymerase binding to the promoter and begin transcribing. 

b. bind to other proteins or to a sequence element within the promoter called the TATA box. 

c. bind to sequences just after the start site of transcription. 

d. usually lead to a high level of transcription even without additional specific transcription factors. 

e. are required for the expression of specific protein-encoding genes.

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Why do histones bind tightly to DNA?

a. Both histones and DNA are strongly hydrophobic

b. Both histones and DNA are negatively charged

c. Histones are neutrally charged

d. Histones are negatively charged, and DNA is positively charged

e. Histones are positively charged, and DNA is negatively charged

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Processing of eukaryotic mRNA occurs in the cytoplasm prior to translation.

a. True

b. False

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Splicing joins together

a. two introns.

b. two exons.

c. two polypeptides.

d. a DNA and an RNA molecule.

e. an RNA molecule and a polypeptide.

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Which of the following statements about eukaryotic mRNA is TRUE?

a. a cap is added to their 5' end

b. a poly-A tail is added to their 3' end

c. each usually specifies only a single protein

d. A and B

e. A, B, and C

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Which of the following is mechanism for DNA packaging?

a. alternative RNA splicing

b. transcription factors

c. microRNA

d. histone acetylation

e. bending proteins

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In eukaryotic cells gene expression may be controlled by not allowing mRNA to leave the nucleus. 

a. True

b. False

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An antisense RNA is complementary to a mRNA and could: 

a. Prevent transcription of the mRNA

b. Increase translation of the mRNA

c. Increase transcription of the mRNA

d. Prevent translation of the mRNA

 

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How can a single gene encode for more than one protein? 

a. By mutating their genes

b. By removing some exons during splicing of mRNA

c. By transcribing multiple copies of mRNA

d. By using different codons

 

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In humans, typically only infants produce the enzyme lactase to break down lactose. Some adults have changes in _____ that allow transcription factors to bind and turn on expression of the lactase gene into adulthood. 

a. Exons

b. RNA polymerase

c. Enhancers

d. mRNA

e. Codons

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Proteins that initiate transcription in eukaryotes by recognizing sequences within the promoter region of a gene and attracting RNA polymerase are: 

a. Repressors

b. Inducers

c. Transcription factors

d. TATA boxes

e. Poly A Tails

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A nucleosome consists of: 

a. A stretch of DNA and histones

b. A stretch of DNA

c. An RNA molecule

d. A ribosome and RNA

e. Histones

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A chemical modification that methylates DNA bases causes:

a. Enhancement of transcription

b. Gene amplification

c. Activation of RNA polymerase

d. Inactivation and silencing of DNA

e. None of the above are correct

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