Ch.6 - CellsSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology

Endomembrane System

See all sections
Sections
Cells
Nucleus
Endomembrane System
Endosymbionts
Cytoskeleton
Cell Junctions

Concept #1: Endomembrane System Overview

Concept #2: Endoplasmic Reticulum

Concept #3: Golgi Apparatus

Concept #4: Lysosomes and Vacuoles

Practice: Alcohol prevents the synthesis of molecules that are involved in the breakdown of certain proteins. Which of the following organelles in the liver would be most affected by alcohol:

Practice: Why does the Rough ER have so many ribosomes?

Practice: Where do vesicles enter the Golgi apparatus? Why do vesicles go there?

Practice: What organelle do plants use to maintain cell rigidity?

Additional Problems
Membrane-bound organelles that contain powerful enzymes found in cells are known as a.  lysosomes b.  plastids c.  vacuoles d.  liposomes e.  ribosomes
Which of the following is  not the name of a membrane-bound compartment in a eukaryotic cell? a. Ribosome b. ER lumen c. Mitochondrial matrix d. Stroma e. Golgi lumen
The rough or smooth endoplasmic reticulum do not:  a. Produce proteins b. Produce lipids c. Detoxify poisons d. Produce mRNA e. Form vesicles for transport to the Golgi apparatus
The Golgi apparatus is not:  a. An organelle b. A processing center c. Studded with ribosomes d. A stack of membrane enclosed sacs e. Involved with secretion of cellular substances
Which of the following are cellular digestion centers? a. Peroxisomes and ribosomesb. Lysosomes and peroxisomesc. Ribosomes and chloroplastsd. Chloroplasts and ribosomese. Lysosomes and Golgi apparatus
A central vacuole:  a. Produces protein b. Produces turgor pressure c. Produces mRNA d. Stores genetic information e. Produces energy from nutrients
Which are recycling centers for the cell?  a. Ribosome and Golgi apparatus b. Endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast c. Mitochondria and nucleus d. Central vacuole and lysosome e. All are correct
In order for a milk protein to be secreted, its mRNA must first be translated on ribosomes:  a. In the cytoplasm b. In the nucleus c. Attached to the Golgi d. Attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum e. Attached to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
In order for a milk protein to be secreted, it must be moved between organelles:  a. In spheres of lipid bilayer called vesicles b. By release into the cytoplasm c. By translation in each organelle d. Attached to transporter proteins e. By the fusion of organelles with each other
Plant cells often have a large membrane-bound sac that is used for storing water and other substances. This organelle is calleda. nucleusb. chloroplastc. Golgi bodyd. centriolee. central vacuole
Some ribosomes are embedded intoa. chromosomesb. smooth endoplasmic reticulumc. rough endoplasmic reticulumd. histonese. vacuoles
The eukaryotic organelle that is directly involved in the transport of proteins synthesized on the surface of the rough ER is calleda. mitochondriab. vacuolec. cytoskeletond. Golgi complexe. nucleus
Lipid synthesis occurs in which eukaryotic organelle?a. rough ERb. smooth ERc. lysosomesd. mitochondriae. nucleolus
Which of the following statements about SNARE-mediated membrane fusion are correct? More than one answer may be selected. a. SNAREs from both the cell plasma membrane and the vesicle combine to form a complex that drives membrane fusion.b. Fusion is triggered by the presence of K .c. The lipid bilayers of the fusing membranes undergo rearrangement involving changes in membrane curvature.d. SNAREs are peripheral membrane proteins.e. Formation of the SNARE complexes results from changes in membrane curvature.
When a cell is deprived of oxygen, its lysosomes tend to burst and release their contents into the cell. As a result of this that cell will: a. recycle damaged organelles b. produce additional ER c. undergo cell division d. produce replacement lysosomes e. undergo autolysis
What is the function of ER?
Provide two similarities and two differences in the molecular mechanisms of how proteins are transported into the ER and into the nucleus.
What are biological membranes composed of?
How is a cell membrane selectively permeable - what permeates and what does not?
How is a dialysis membrane selectively permeable - what permeates and what does not?
For a neuron with an initial membrane potential at -70 mV, an increase in the movement of potassium ions out of that neuron's cytoplasm would result in? How will this affect its probability of depolarization?
Explain how organisms are able to maintain a relatively constant membrane fluidity when faced with extremes in temperatures.
Describe the cell membrane. What molecules comprise it? What makes it selectively permeable? Why is it so important?
Why cells have membrane potential? Which ions are high inside? Which ions are low inside?
What makes channels proteins selective for transport of a particular ion or small molecule?
Why do eukaryotes have so many intracellular membrane-bound compartments?
What is the major difference between gated and non-gated ion channels? Give an example of two different gating signals.
Discuss how molecules move across the cell membrane by active transport and passive transport.
Choose which protein/(s) in the list below are synthesized by ribosomes attached to the ER.A. A protein that resides in the chloroplastB. A protein that will be secreted into the extracellular spaceC. A nuclear proteinD. A membrane protein that shuttles between the plasma membrane and an endosomeE. A protein that resides between the inner and outer nuclear membranes
Cellular location of protein synthesisA. Golgi apparatus or nucleusB. Rough ER or cytoplasmC. Mitochondria or nucleusD. Golgi apparatus or cytoplasmE. Plasma membrane or Smooth ER
What is the importance of the resting membrane potential to cells such as neurons and muscles? What about other cells of the body? Do they also have a resting membrane potential?
List two organelles that belong to the Endomembrane System and give a function for each.
What distinguishes channel proteins from transporter proteins in cellular membranes?
The membrane of an animal cell nucleus contains phosphatidylcholine in which a significant number of the fatty acid residues are saturated. After reading Section 11.7, would you expect this to increase or decrease the fluidity of the membrane structure?
Compared with other cell components (organelles, cell membrane or nucleus), themitochondria would be the only one that would:A. produce ATP via glycolysisB. use significant amounts of oxygen to produce ATPC. use a chemiosmotic complex to produce ATP.D. form an electrochemical gradient across a membraneE. release protons (H+)
The data table shown below compares the relative number of different organelles in cell X.Which of the following is most likely the source of cell X?A. FungusB. ProkaryoteC. PlantD. Animal