Ch.45 - Endocrine SystemSee all chapters
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Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology

Endocrine System

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Endocrine System
Additional Problems
Malfunction in a control pathway for prolactinSuppose that a woman had to have part of her thyroid gland surgically removed. She would most likely suffer from a condition known as hypothyroidism due to too little thyroid function.Predict how this woman's hypothyroidism would affect prolactin levels in her body.Which choice describes how surgical hypothyroidism would likely affect prolactin levels?a. Thyroid hormone levels decrease, TRH levels decrease, and PRL levels decrease.b. Thyroid hormone levels decrease, TRH levels decrease, and PRL levels increase.c. Thyroid hormone levels decrease, TRH levels increase, and PRL levels decrease.d. Thyroid hormones levels decrease, TRH levels increase, and PRL levels increase.e. Thyroid hormone levels increase, TRH levels increase, and PRL levels increase.f. Thyroid hormone levels increase, TRH levels increase, and PRL levels decrease.g. Thyroid hormone levels increase, TRH levels decrease, and PRL levels increase.
The hormone epinephrine causes opposite effects in two populations of target cells because _____. a. epinephrine can only reach target cells in adipose tissue, as it is fat-soluble b. epinephrine activates biochemical pathways in one set of target cells but works only by changing gene expression in the other set of target cells c. epinephrine crosses the membrane on one set of target cells but binds to membrane-bound receptors in the other set of target cells d. the chemical form of epinephrine released by neurons is different from the epinephrine released by endocrine cells e. each set of target cells has different receptor-transduction mechanism
The destruction of the thyroid gland (preventing the production of thyroxine) in a tadpole results in which of the following?a) giant tadpoleb) miniature tadpolec) miniature frogd) giant frog
Prostaglandins are local regulators whose chemical structure is derived from ________.a. oligosaccharidesb. fatty acidsc. steroidsd. amino acids
A cell with membrane-bound proteins that selectively bind a specific hormone is called that hormone's ________.a. secretory cellb. endocrine cellc. target celld. regulatory cell
A cluster of tumor cells that produces and secretes growth factors to induce surrounding cells to grow and divide is showing which type of cell-to-cell signaling?a. autocrineb. paracrinec. endocrined. neuroendocrine
Hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland are made in the ________.a. cerebellumb. thalamusc. hypothalamusd. anterior pituitary gland
Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are synthesized in the ________ but released from the ________.a. hypothalamus; posterior pituitaryb. adenohypophysis; posterior pituitaryc. posterior pituitary; anterior pituitaryd. hypothalamus; anterior pituitary
When a person drinks alcohol, the rate of urination increases. Which of the following best accounts for the increase in urination above normal rates?a. Alcohol stimulates the release of thyroid hormones.b. Alcohol inhibits the release of ADH.c. Alcohol inhibits the actions of calcitonin.d. Alcohol stimulates the release of oxytocin which causes more water secretion.
Melatonin is secreted by the ________.a. hypothalamus during the dayb. pineal gland during the nightc. autonomic nervous system during the winterd. posterior pituitary gland during the day
The hypothalamusa. synthesizes all of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland.b. influences the function of only one lobe of the pituitary gland.c. produces only inhibitory hormones.d. regulates both reproduction and body temperature.
Which hormone is incorrectly paired with its action?a. oxytocin—stimulates uterine contractions during childbirthb. thyroxine—inhibits metabolic processesc. ACTH—stimulates the release of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortexd. melatonin—affects biological rhythms and seasonal reproduction
The adrenal medulla is different from the remainder of the sympathetic division because _________.a. postganglionic neurons of the adrenal medulla secrete acetylcholine b. it has short preganglionic fibers and long postganglionic fibers c. it secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine, which act as hormones, rather than as neurotransmitters d. it is the only structure of the sympathetic division whose preganglionic cell bodies are not in the lateral horns of the spinal cord
Where specifically (what cell type/region) is insulin produced in the human body? List the 3 anterior pituitary hormones that are glycoprotein heterodimers (made from 2 different genes) comprised of a common (shared) alpha-subunit and a specific beta-subunit.
How do endocrine and exocrine glands differ from each other?
How does the endocrine system send signals to the rest of the body?
The pituitary gland is called the "master gland." Explain how developmentally the anterior pituitary is different from the posterior pituitary.
Distinguish between endocrine and autocrine/paracrine regulation. List some of these autocrine/paracrine regulators and describe their functions.