Ch.54 - EcosystemsSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology
Additional Problems
If the sun were to suddenly stop providing energy to Earth, most ecosystems would eventually vanish. Which of the following ecosystems would likely survive the longest after this hypothetical disaster? a. pelagic ocean b. tundra c. deep benthic ocean d. a desert spring
In the figure, what could the jagged arrow leaving microorganisms and other detritivores represent? a. organic compounds broken down by bacteria b. energy consumed by bacteria c. energy lost from a worm during cellular respiration d. CO2 and heat loss from decomposing materials due to the effects of solar radiation and precipitation
Matter may be gained by, or lost from, ecosystems. How does this occur?a. Chemoautotrophic organisms can convert matter to energyb. Matter can move from one ecosystem to anotherc. Photosynthetic organisms convert solar energy to sugarsd. Heterotrophs convert heat to energy
Which habitat types in the figure cover the largest area?a. tropical wet forestb. rock, sand, icec. algal beds and reefsd. wetlands plus the ocean neritic zone
Which habitat type in the figure makes available the most new tissue to consumers?a. tropical wet forestb. open oceanc. algal beds and reefsd. wetlands
Which category in the figure makes available the highest productivity per square meter?a. tropical wet forestb. open oceanc. algal beds and reefsd. wetlands
How does inefficient transfer of energy among trophic levels result in the typically high endangerment status of many top-level predators? a. Top-level predators are destined to have small populations that are sparsely distributed. b. Predators have relatively large population sizes. c. Predators are more disease-prone than animals at lower trophic levels. d. Top-level predators are more likely to be stricken with parasites.
For most terrestrial ecosystems, pyramids composed of species abundances, biomass, and energy are similar in that they have a broad base and a narrow top. The primary reason for this pattern is that ________.a. secondary consumers and top carnivores require less energy than producersb. at each step, energy is lost from the systemc. biomagnification of toxic materials limits the secondary consumers and top carnivoresd. top carnivores and secondary consumers have a more general diet than primary producers
Which trophic level is most vulnerable to extinction? a. producer level b. primary consumer level c. secondary consumer level d. tertiary consumer level
Consider the global water cycle depicted in the figure. Where is the greatest flux of water from one reserve to another?a. from precipitation to the oceanb. from the ocean to the atmospherec. from runoff in streams and the water table to the oceand. from evaporation and transpiration of terrestrial vegetation to the atmosphere
Which of the following locations are major reservoirs for carbon in the carbon cycle? a. the ocean, atmosphere, and fossilized and live plant and animal biomass b. the atmosphere c. fossilized plant and animal remains (coal, oil, and natural gas) d. sediments and sedimentary rocks
The first step in ecosystem restoration is to ________.a. restore the physical structureb. restore native species that have been extirpated due to disturbancec. remove competitive invasive speciesd. remove toxic pollutants
Which of the following organisms is incorrectly paired with its trophic level? a. cyanobacterium—primary producer b. grasshopper—primary consumer c. zooplankton—primary producer d. fungus—detritivore 
Which of these ecosystems has the lowest net primary production per square meter? a. a salt marsh b. an open ocean c. a coral reef d. a tropical rain forest
The discipline that applies ecological principles to returning degraded ecosystems to a more natural state is known asa. restoration ecology.b. thermodynamics.c. eutrophication.d. biogeochemistry.
Which of the following has the greatest effect on the rate of chemical cycling in an ecosystem?a. the rate of decomposition in the ecosystemb. the production efficiency of the ecosystem's consumersc. the trophic efficiency of the ecosystemd. the location of the nutrient reservoirs in the ecosystem
If you applied a fungicide to a cornfield, what would you expect to happen to the rate of decomposition and net ecosystem production (NEP)?a. Both decomposition rate and NEP would decrease.b. Neither would change.c. Decomposition rate would increase and NEP would decrease.d. Decomposition rate would decrease and NEP would increase.
An ecosystem would include all of the following except: a.  A communityb.  A biospherec.  Populationsd.  Organismse.  None of these are correct
Consider a field plot containing 200 kg of plant material. Approximately how many kg of carnivore production can be supported? a. 200  b. 100 c. 10 d. 2 e. 20
The decomposers in an ecosystem are _____. a. prokaryotes. b. plants. c. insects. d. fungi. e. both A and D.
In general, the total biomass in a terrestrial ecosystem will be greatest for which trophic level? a. tertiary consumers b. secondary consumers c. producers d. herbivores e. primary consumers
Define matter and energy, then the two types of energy.
Define and give examples of the 5 levels of ecology (organisms, population, community, ecosystem, global).
List and briefly describe the (2) basic types of aquifers. 
Describe the differences between acclimation and adaptation. Which of the above can an individual organism do? Do species differ in their ability to acclimate to environmental change? Would this ability to acclimate be a genetically controlled attribute?
Account for the presence of microorganisms in natural bodies of water. What is their function? Explain.
Most commercial fertilizers supply nitrogen both as ammonia or ammonium and as nitrate. Yet, plants are much more efficient at taking up nitrate in their roots. What might be a benefit of adding both forms of nitrogen to the soil? Select all that apply.A. Ammonium is a cation. So if it rains heavily, it well remain in the soil longer than the anion nitrate, which would get washed away.B. Ammonium is eventually converted to nitrate in the soil, increasing the length of time that nitrate is available to the plants after each application of fertilizer.C. Ammonium is more oxidized than nitrate, so it is a better substrate for enzymes making amino acids once the plants have taken it up.D. Ammonium is not used by denitrifying bacteria, so it won't be lost to the atmosphere as easily as nitrate or nitrite.
Which trophic level is most at risk from chemicals like mercury and DDT?A. Tertiary consumersB. Primary producersC. Primary consumersD. Secondary consumers
What are some of the reasons populations might have different allele frequencies than other nearby populations? What factors determine when allele frequencies will reach equilibrium (no longer change from generation to generation) when there is gene flow?
Give (5) examples of potential sources for groundwater contamination.
How does energy from the Sun drive the movement of water from the oceans to the continents and back to the oceans again?
Which statement best describes the role of soil bacteria in nitrogen cycling?A. They convert inorganic nitrogen to organic nitrogen.B. They convert rock to ammonium, which is converted into nitrogen gas released to the atmosphere.C. They convert nitrogen gas to amino acids, which are taken up by plants and recycled when they die.D. They convert unavailable nitrogen into nitrogen that is available to plants, and back again.