Ch.41 - Digestive SystemSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology
Sections
Digestion
Blood Sugar Homeostasis
Additional Problems
The process of obtaining food is known as ________ and requires specialized feeding mechanisms. a. ingestion b. digestion c. absorption d. excretion
An advantage of a complete digestive system over a gastrovascular cavity is that the complete system ________. a. excludes the need for extracellular digestion b. allows for specialized regions with specialized functions c. allows extensive branching d. facilitates intracellular digestion
Because the foods eaten by animals are often composed largely of macromolecules, animals need to have mechanisms for ________. a. dehydration synthesis b. enzymatic hydrolysis c. regurgitation d. demineralization
The process by which digested dietary substances cross cell membranes to be used by the body is known as ________. a. ingestion b. digestion c. hydrolysis d. absorption
Mechanical digestion, the process of breaking down large chunks of food into smaller pieces, is important because smaller pieces of food ________. a. do not taste as good as larger pieces of food b. have more surface area for chemical digestion than do larger pieces of food c. are easier to excrete than are larger pieces of food d. are more easily stored in the stomach than are larger pieces of food
The large surface area in the gut directly facilitates ________. a. secretion b. absorption c. filtration d. temperature regulation
A relatively long cecum is characteristic of animals that are ________. a. carnivores b. herbivores c. autotrophs d. omnivores
Which of the following organs is incorrectly paired with its function? a. stomach—protein digestion b. large intestine—bile production c. small intestine—nutrient absorption d. pancreas—enzyme production
The diagram below shows how glucose and other nutrients are transported from the inside of the intestine (intestinal lumen), through an intestinal epithelial cell, into the extracellular fluid for delivery to the bloodstream. There are different proteins on either side of the epithelial cell as shown in the diagram. The color of the proteins is consistent within any given type of membrane transport.a) Fill in the inferred relative concentrations of Na + ions and amino acids with High or Low on the lines below. Use the information provided for glucose to help you infer solute concentrations.b) For each of the three letters (A, B and C) associated with the thick arrows, please describe the type of protein depicted, the type of transport it engages in and be specific about the source of energy used.
Below is a diagram of an epithelial cell sitting at the border between your intestinal tract and the nearest blood vessel. This cell is busy transporting water soluble vitamins (yellow dots) from your intestine into your blood stream. Each arrow shows the direction of the solutes as they move through the different transport proteins.i) Name the type of transport protein ina) A: b) B:c) C: ii) One of the three proteins (A-C) contains a mistake. Please identify the mistake and correct it.
Which of the following statements regarding digestion and absorption of carbohydrates is true?a. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the stomach.b. Lactose intolerance results from an insufficiency of the enzyme, amylase.c. Digestible polysaccharides are broken down into the monosaccharides glucose, galactose and fructose, which can be absorbed.d. Sucrose is the main form of carbohydrate that can be absorbed by active transport across the intestinal epithelium.e. Cellulose from plants is a polymer of glucose that can be easily digested and absorbed by the human GI tract.
LDL particles, which contain cholesterol, enter cells via:A. channel proteinsB. carrier proteinsC. receptor-mediated endocytosisD. diffusion across the membrane
When vesicles containing glucose transporters come to the cell surface in liver cells after a high glucose meal, which of the following occurs?A. glucose transporters are now in the plasma membraneB. glucose transporters are released into the extracellular matrixC. Transporters can now actively transport glucose across the membraneD. more than one of the above answer is true.
Our stomachs secrete hydrochloric acid. Knowing the function of antacids, what do you think causes most "upset stomachs"?
What is the function of the hepatic portal circulation?
Our stomachs secrete hydrochloric acid. What functions does this hydrochloric acid serve?
What compounds are synthesized only in the liver and are required to emulsify dietary lipids in the small intestine?A. PhospholipidsB. CholesterolC. LipoproteinsD. Bile acids
Discuss the role of the various hormones of the digestive tract on the various human digestive organs and chemical processes.
What are the accessory organs? Does food pass through them? Why are they important?
The chemical digestion of proteins begins in the : ______A. stomachB. small intestineC. mouthD. pacreas 
Name all the enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion, where they are secreted in the human body and what signals control their secretion.
Identify and describe three hormones involved in regulation of the digestive system and the accessory glands (pancreas and gallbladder).
Gastric secretions have 3 "phases" of regulation. List and explain each, including the stimuli and the response(s) for EACH phase.