Ch.53 - Community EcologySee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology

Community Interactions

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Community Interactions
Community Structure
Additional Problems
If two species are close competitors, and one species is experimentally removed from the community, the remaining species would be expected to ________.a. change its fundamental nicheb. decline in abundancec. become the target of specialized parasitesd. expand its realized niche
Which of the following is an example of a commensalism?a. fungi residing in plant roots, such as endomycorrhizaeb. bacteria fixing nitrogen on the roots of some plantsc. rancher ants that protect aphids in exchange for sugar-rich honeydewd. cattle egrets eating insects stirred up by grazing bison
Use the figure to answer the following question. Treehoppers (a type of insect) produce honeydew, which ants use for food. Treehoppers have a major predator, the jumping spider. Researchers hypothesized that the ants would protect the treehoppers from the spiders. In an experiment, researchers followed study plots with ants removed from the system and compared them to a control plot. From the figure, what can you conclude? a. Ants do somehow protect the treehoppers from spiders. b. Ants eat the honeydew produced by treehoppers. c. Ants reduce the numbers of treehoppers. d. No specific conclusions can be drawn from this figure.
Which of the following is an example of Müllerian mimicry? a. two species of unpalatable butterfly that have the same color pattern b. a day-flying hawkmoth that looks like a wasp c. a chameleon that changes its color to look like a dead leaf d. one species of a non-venomous snake which rattles its tail to mimic a venomous rattlesnake
Which of the following is an example of Batesian mimicry?a. a butterfly that resembles a leafb. a nonvenomous larva of a moth that moves like a venomous snakec. a fawn with fur coloring that camouflages it in the forest environmentd. a snapping turtle that uses its tongue to mimic a worm, thus attracting fish
The effectiveness of Batesian mimicry is maintained by _____ selection.a. directionalb. frequency-dependentc. groupd. disruptivee. stabilizing
Which of the following is an example of aposematic coloration? a. a non-poisonous snake mimics the color of a poisonous one b. the brightly colored patterns of monarch butterfly caterpillars c. green color of a plant d. a katydid whose wings look like a dead leaf
In some circumstances, grasses that initially lose tissues from being consumed by animals such as elk or cattle regrow more than they would have otherwise, and benefit from the moderate levels of grazing. Which of the following terms would best describe such a plant-herbivore interaction?a. mutualismb. commensalismc. parasitismd. predation
The principle of competitive exclusion states that a. two species cannot coexist in the same habitat. b. competition between two species always causes extinction or emigration of one species. c. two species that have exactly the same niche cannot coexist in a community. d. two species will stop reproducing until one species leaves the habitat.
The sum total of an organism's interaction with the biotic and abiotic resources of its environment is called its _____. a. microclimax. b. habitat. c. logistic growth. d. biotic potential. e. ecological niche.
Two species of barnacles, Balanus and Chthamalus, can both survive on the lower rocks just above the lowtide line on the Scottish coast, but only Balanus actually does so, with Chthamalus adopting a higher zone. Which of the following best accounts for this niche separation?a. mutualismb. predation of Chthamalus by Balanusc. primary successiond. competitive exclusion
In their 2008 paper, Hanifin, Brodie, and Brodie looked at the co evolution of a newts (Taricha spp., top picture) and one of their potential predators, the common garter snake (Thamnopis sirtalis). The graph below shows the relationship between the amount of toxin in the skin of the newts and the garter snakes resistance to the toxin at a given location. The dashed line represents a reduction of 50% in the snake's health. Some locations may be considered co-evolutionary hot-spots, where reciprocal selection is strong Other locations are co-evolutionary cold spots, where the traits of one species don't match with the other and one species is "winning" the interaction. The letters on the graph represent 3 locations with snakes and newts.a. In which of the three locations (if any) is co-evolution strong? In which locations (if any) is the snake "winning"? In which locations (if any) is the newt winning? Explain your reasoning. b. What might be an explanation for the dynamics occurring in population A, where the newt hasn't evolved toxicity and the snake hasn't evolved resistance. In other words, what might prevent a co-evolutionary arms race from occurring in this system?
If cleaner fish consume both parasites and scales from larger fish, what would determine whether the interaction is best categorized as mutualism or parasitism?
Explain how ants and acacia trees fulfill the definition of a mutualistic relationship.