All Chapters
Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
Ch.2 - Chemistry
Ch.3 - Water
Ch.4 - Carbon
Ch.5 - Biological Molecules
Ch.6 - Cells
Ch.7 - The Membrane
Ch.8 - Energy and Metabolism
Ch.9 - Respiration
Ch.10 - Photosynthesis
Ch.11 - Cell Signaling
Ch.12 - Cell Division
Ch.13 - Meiosis
Ch.14 - Mendelian Genetics
Ch.15 - Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
Ch.16 - DNA Synthesis
Ch.17 - Gene Expression
Ch.18 - Regulation of Expression
Ch.19 - Viruses
Ch.20 - Biotechnology
Ch.21 - Genomics
Ch.22 - Development
Ch.23 - Evolution by Natural Selection
Ch.24 - Evolution of Populations
Ch.25 - Speciation
Ch.26 - History of Life on Earth
Ch.27 - Phylogeny
Ch.28 - Prokaryotes
Ch.29 - Protists
Ch.30 - Plants
Ch.31 - Fungi
Ch.32 - Overview of Animals
Ch.33 - Invertebrates
Ch.34 - Vertebrates
Ch.35 - Plant Anatomy
Ch.36 - Vascular Plant Transport
Ch.37 - Soil
Ch.38 - Plant Reproduction
Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
Ch.46 - Animal Reproduction
Ch.47 - Nervous System
Ch.48 - Sensory Systems
Ch.49 - Muscle Systems
Ch.50 - Ecology
Ch.51 - Animal Behavior
Ch.52 - Population Ecology
Ch.53 - Community Ecology
Ch.54 - Ecosystems
Ch.55 - Conservation Biology

Concept #1: Atoms- Smallest Unit of Matter

Concept #2: Atomic Structure

Example #1: Negatively charged particles of atoms with almost no mass are called:

Practice: A proton ___________:

a) Has one positive charge.

b) Has one AMU.

c) Is found in the nucleus of the atom.

d) Only a and b are true.

e) a, b, and c are true.

Concept #3: Elements of Life

Concept #4: Atomic Properties

Example #2: The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of:

Practice: The average oxygen atom has a mass number of 16 and an atomic number of 8. This means that the number of neutrons in this oxygen atom is:

a) 24.

b) 8.

c) 16.

d) 4.

e) 2.

Concept #5: Electron Orbitals & Energy Shells

Practice: How many valence electrons does an atom with five total electrons have?

a) 5.

b) 7.

c) 3.

d) 2.

e) 1.

Practice: Which of the following is true about electron energy shells?

a) They represent regions around the nucleus in which the electrons orbit.

b) The shells closest to the nucleus contain electrons with higher energy.

c) They contain electrons of the same energy.

d) a and b only.

e) a and c only.

Example #3: According to the octet rule, electron distribution in each shell of a neutral nitrogen atom (atomic number 7) is:

Practice: A neon atom (Ne) is unreactive for which of the following reasons?

a) It has 7 valence electrons.

b) It has 8 valence electrons.

c) Its valence shell is full of electrons. 

d) It has 20 valence electrons.

e) b and c only.

Practice: How many electrons does an Oxygen atom need to fulfill the octet rule by filling its valence shell?

a) 8.

b) 4.

c) 1.

d) 2.

e) 6.