Ch.43 - Immune SystemSee all chapters
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Ch.1 - Introduction to Biology
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Ch.39 - Plant Sensation and Response
Ch.40 - Animal Form and Function
Ch.41 - Digestive System
Ch.42 - Circulatory System
Ch.43 - Immune System
Ch.44 - Osmoregulation and Excretion
Ch.45 - Endocrine System
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Adaptive Immunity

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Immune System
Innate Immunity
Adaptive Immunity
Additional Problems
Nucleotides can be radiolabeled before they are incorporated into newly forming DNA and, therefore, can be assayed to track their incorporation. In a set of experiments, a student—faculty research team used labeled T nucleotides and introduced these into the culture of dividing human cells at specific times.  Use the following information to answer the question below. The research team used their experiments to study the incorporation of labeled nucleotides into a culture of lymphocytes and found that the lymphocytes incorporated the labeled nucleotide at a significantly higher level after a pathogen was introduced into the culture. They concluded that __________.a. their tissue culture methods needed to be relearnedb. infection causes lymphocyte cultures to skip some parts of the cell cyclec. infection causes cell cultures in general to reproduce more rapidlyd. the presence of the pathogen made the experiments too contaminated to trust the resultse. infection causes lymphocytes to divide more rapidly
You and a friend were in line for a movie when you noticed the woman in front of you sneezing and coughing. Both of you were equally exposed to the woman's virus, but over the next few days, only your friend acquired flu-like symptoms and was ill for almost a week before recovering. Which one of the following is a logical explanation for this?a. Your friend had antibodies to that virus.b. You had an immunological memory of that virus.c. Your friend had an autoimmune disorder. d. Your friend had allergies.
A newborn who is accidentally given a drug that destroys the thymus would most likely ________.a. lack innate immunityb. be unable to genetically rearrange antigen receptorsc. be unable to differentiate and mature T cellsd. have a reduced number of B cells and be unable to form antibodies
________ is a characteristic of adaptive immunity but not innate immunity.a. Memoryb. Inflammationc. Interferonsd. Lysozyme
What major advantage is conveyed by having a system of adaptive immunity?a. It enables a rapid defense against an antigen that has been previously encountered.b. It enables an animal to counter most pathogens almost instantly the first time they are encountered.c. It results in effector cells with specificity for a large number of antigens.d. It allows for the destruction of antibodies.
Arrange in the correct sequence these components of the mammalian immune system as it first responds to a pathogen.I) Pathogen is destroyed.II) Lymphocytes secrete antibodies.III) Antigens from a pathogen bind to antigen receptors on lymphocytes.IV) Lymphocytes specific to antigens from a pathogen become numerous. V) Only memory cells remain.a. I → III → II → IV → Vb. II → I → IV → III → Vc. IV → II → III → I → Vd. III → IV → II → I → V
CD4 and CD8 are ________.a. proteins secreted by antigen-presenting cellsb. receptors present on the surface of natural killer cellsc. molecules present on the surface of T cells where they interact with major histocompatibility (MHC) moleculesd. molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells where they enhance B cell activity
Which of the following statements is not true?a. An antibody has more than one antigen-binding site.b. A lymphocyte has receptors for multiple different antigens.c. An antigen can have different epitopes.d. A liver or muscle cell makes one class of MHC molecule.
Vaccination increases the number ofa. different receptors that recognize a pathogen.b. lymphocytes with receptors that can bind to the pathogen.c. epitopes that the immune system can recognize.d. MHC molecules that can present an antigen.
Which of the following would not help a virus avoid triggering an adaptive immune response?a. having frequent mutations in genes for surface proteinsb. infecting cells that produce very few MHC moleculesc. producing proteins very similar to those of other virusesd. infecting and killing helper T cells
Be able to name different types of lymph cells and where they are found.
Differentiate active from passive immunity. 
Explain the danger of giving a person with type B a blood a whole blood transfusion with type A blood.
Where do lymph vessels drain their fluid? Why does this make sense? 
Describe how the adaptive immune system 'adapts'. What cellular responses allow the body to adapt to a very specific invader over about one week's time, generating many cells that are armed to attack that specific pathogen and can also sometimes prevent you from being infected again?
In humans, B cells mature in the _____ and T cells mature in the _____.A. GALT; liverB. Bursa, thymusC. Bone marrow; thymusD. Lymph nodes; spleenE. Bone marrow; spleen
What is happening during the delay in a primary adaptive immune response?
What are the functions of helper T cells? Check all that apply.A. Aiding the cell mediated responseB. Aiding the humoral responseC. Production of clonesD. Response to an antigen-presenting cellE. Secretion of antibodiesF. Secretion of cytokines
What is lymph and why does it need a whole system of vessels to deal with it?
TRUE or FALSE: MHC class I surface expression is not affected by the cell's capacity to transport peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum.A. TrueB. False
Which of the following statement about B cells is incorrect?A. They continually patrol the body using the body and lymphatic circulation.B. They are produced and mature in the bone marrow.C. They can bind the native antigen with surface immunoglobulin.D. They secrete immunoglobulins.
Which of the following statements concerning adaptive immunity is incorrect?A. It is the third line of defense.B. It has memory.C. It takes a long time to respond whenever it encounters a pathogen.D. It is acquired.E. It is the body's ability to respond to specific invading pathogens.
Describe the adaptive immune response to a viral infection, including innate responses or cells where they are important for the adaptive response. 
What role does the immune system play in preventing disease? Give specific examples for the first, second and third lines of defense 
 Describe the structure of the T-cell receptor.