Adaptive Immunity

Concept: Adaptive Immune Response


Concept: Lymphocytes


Concept: Antigen Receptors


Concept: Constant and Variable Regions


Concept: Clonal Selection Theory


Concept: Major Histocompatibility Complex


Concept: Antigen Presentation and Cytotoxic T Cells


Concept: Helper T Cells and B Cells


Concept: Primary and Secondary Immunity


Concept: Immunization and Autoimmunity


Adaptive Immunity Additional Practice Problems

Be able to name different types of lymph cells and where they are found.

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Where do lymph vessels drain their fluid? Why does this make sense? 

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What is lymph and why does it need a whole system of vessels to deal with it?

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Explain the danger of giving a person with type B a blood a whole blood transfusion with type A blood.

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Which of the following statement about B cells is incorrect?

A. They continually patrol the body using the body and lymphatic circulation.

B. They are produced and mature in the bone marrow.

C. They can bind the native antigen with surface immunoglobulin.

D. They secrete immunoglobulins.

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 Describe the structure of the T-cell receptor.

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Differentiate active from passive immunity. 

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What role does the immune system play in preventing disease? Give specific examples for the first, second and third lines of defense 

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Describe how the adaptive immune system 'adapts'. What cellular responses allow the body to adapt to a very specific invader over about one week's time, generating many cells that are armed to attack that specific pathogen and can also sometimes prevent you from being infected again?

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What is happening during the delay in a primary adaptive immune response?

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Describe the adaptive immune response to a viral infection, including innate responses or cells where they are important for the adaptive response. 

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Which of the following would not help a virus avoid triggering an adaptive immune response?

a. having frequent mutations in genes for surface proteins

b. infecting cells that produce very few MHC molecules

c. producing proteins very similar to those of other viruses

d. infecting and killing helper T cells

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Vaccination increases the number of

a. different receptors that recognize a pathogen.

b. lymphocytes with receptors that can bind to the pathogen.

c. epitopes that the immune system can recognize.

d. MHC molecules that can present an antigen.

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Which of the following statements is not true?

a. An antibody has more than one antigen-binding site.

b. A lymphocyte has receptors for multiple different antigens.

c. An antigen can have different epitopes.

d. A liver or muscle cell makes one class of MHC molecule.

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CD4 and CD8 are ________.

a. proteins secreted by antigen-presenting cells

b. receptors present on the surface of natural killer cells

c. molecules present on the surface of T cells where they interact with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules

d. molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells where they enhance B cell activity

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Arrange in the correct sequence these components of the mammalian immune system as it first responds to a pathogen.

I) Pathogen is destroyed.

II) Lymphocytes secrete antibodies.

III) Antigens from a pathogen bind to antigen receptors on lymphocytes.

IV) Lymphocytes specific to antigens from a pathogen become numerous. 

V) Only memory cells remain.

a. I → III → II → IV → V

b. II → I → IV → III → V

c. IV → II → III → I → V

d. III → IV → II → I → V

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What major advantage is conveyed by having a system of adaptive immunity?

a. It enables a rapid defense against an antigen that has been previously encountered.

b. It enables an animal to counter most pathogens almost instantly the first time they are encountered.

c. It results in effector cells with specificity for a large number of antigens.

d. It allows for the destruction of antibodies.

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________ is a characteristic of adaptive immunity but not innate immunity.

a. Memory

b. Inflammation

c. Interferons

d. Lysozyme

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A newborn who is accidentally given a drug that destroys the thymus would most likely ________.

a. lack innate immunity

b. be unable to genetically rearrange antigen receptors

c. be unable to differentiate and mature T cells

d. have a reduced number of B cells and be unable to form antibodies

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You and a friend were in line for a movie when you noticed the woman in front of you sneezing and coughing. Both of you were equally exposed to the woman's virus, but over the next few days, only your friend acquired flu-like symptoms and was ill for almost a week before recovering. Which one of the following is a logical explanation for this?

a. Your friend had antibodies to that virus.

b. You had an immunological memory of that virus.

c. Your friend had an autoimmune disorder. 

d. Your friend had allergies.

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Nucleotides can be radiolabeled before they are incorporated into newly forming DNA and, therefore, can be assayed to track their incorporation. In a set of experiments, a student—faculty research team used labeled T nucleotides and introduced these into the culture of dividing human cells at specific times.  Use the following information to answer the question below. 

The research team used their experiments to study the incorporation of labeled nucleotides into a culture of lymphocytes and found that the lymphocytes incorporated the labeled nucleotide at a significantly higher level after a pathogen was introduced into the culture. They concluded that __________.

a. their tissue culture methods needed to be relearned

b. infection causes lymphocyte cultures to skip some parts of the cell cycle

c. infection causes cell cultures in general to reproduce more rapidly

d. the presence of the pathogen made the experiments too contaminated to trust the results

e. infection causes lymphocytes to divide more rapidly

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