Introduction to Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Constants
Protein-Ligand Fractional Saturation
Myoglobin vs. Hemoglobin
Heme Prosthetic Group
Hemoglobin Cooperativity
Hill Equation
Hill Plot
Hemoglobin Binding in Tissues & Lungs
Hemoglobin Carbonation & Protonation
Bohr Effect
BPG Regulation of Hemoglobin
Fetal Hemoglobin
Sickle Cell Anemia
Chymotrypsin's Catalytic Mechanism
Glycogen Phosphorylase
Liver vs Muscle Glycogen Phosphorylase
Motor Proteins
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Concept #1: Sickle Cell Anemia

Concept #2: Agglutination of Mutated Hb Causes Sickle-Cell

Practice: The amino acid substitution of Val for Glu in Hemoglobin S (sickle-cell hemoglobin) is problematic because it substitutes a _________________ amino acid residue with a _________________ amino acid residue.

Practice: In sickle cell anemia, the molecular basis of the malfunction of the hemoglobin molecule is:

Concept #3: Physiological Effects of Sickle Cell Anemia 

Concept #4: Malaria Resistance & Sickle Cell Anemia 

Practice: Match the following key terms with their appropriate image (A or B):

a) HbS: Image _____

b) HbA: Image _____

c) Malaria resistance: Image _____

d) Heterozygous (Aa): Image _____

e) Homozygous (AA): Image _____

f) Low RBC count: Image _____

g) RNA sequence GAG: Image _____

h) RNA sequence GUG: Image _____

Practice: Researchers investigating the sickle-cell mutation want to separate the mutant hemoglobin protein (HbS) from the normal adult hemoglobin (HbA) that was extracted from a heterozygous patient’s blood serum sample. In order to do this, they perform gel electrophoresis at a pH of 8.5, where most normal hemoglobin proteins are negatively charged. The protein sample is added to the negative pole and migrates towards the positive pole when current is applied. The result of the gel is shown below. Label which band represent HbS and which band represents HbA.