Sections
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Stereochemistry of Monosaccharides
Monosaccharide Configurations
Cyclic Monosaccharides
Hemiacetal vs. Hemiketal
Anomer
Mutarotation
Pyranose Conformations
Common Monosaccharides
Derivatives of Monosaccharides
Reducing Sugars
Reducing Sugars Tests
Glycosidic Bond
Disaccharides
Glycoconjugates
Polysaccharide
Cellulose
Chitin
Peptidoglycan
Starch
Glycogen
Lectins

Concept #1: Cyclization of Monosaccharides

Concept #2: Cyclization Forms Hemiacetals & Hemiketals

Practice: Which of the following is a hemiketal?

Practice: For monosaccharides to cyclize, an alcohol group must attack a carbonyl group within the same sugar.

A) Which carbon of the linear ketohexose shown below has the reactive carbonyl?

a) C1.

b) C2.

c) C3.

d) C4.

e) C5.

B) Upon cyclization, would a hemiacetal or hemiketal form?

Practice: Use the image of the following glucose molecule to answer the questions.

A) Upon cyclization, which of the red circled carbons becomes the anomeric carbon?

a) A. 

b) B. 

c) C. 

d) D. 

e) E.

B) Upon cyclization, would a hemiacetal or hemiketal form?

Practice: In the reaction shown below the compound on the far right is a: