Sections
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Stereochemistry of Monosaccharides
Monosaccharide Configurations
Cyclic Monosaccharides
Hemiacetal vs. Hemiketal
Anomer
Mutarotation
Pyranose Conformations
Common Monosaccharides
Derivatives of Monosaccharides
Reducing Sugars
Reducing Sugars Tests
Glycosidic Bond
Disaccharides
Glycoconjugates
Polysaccharide
Cellulose
Chitin
Peptidoglycan
Starch
Glycogen
Lectins

Concept #1: Common Monosaccharides

Concept #2: Monosaccharide Structures Worth Memorizing

Concept #3: Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides

Practice: Which of the following pairs of sugars are epimers of each other?

Practice: The sugar α-D-Mannose is a sweet-tasting sugar. β-D-Mannose, on the other hand, tastes bitter. A pure solution of α-D-mannose loses its sweet taste with time as it is converted into the β anomer. Draw the β anomer:

Practice: Draw the α-furanose and β-pyranose forms of D-ribose.

Practice: Indicate if the following pairs of sugars are enantiomers, anomers, epimers, or an aldose-ketose pair:

a) α-D-galactopyranose and β-D-galactopyranose. ____________________

b) D-glucose and D-mannose. ____________________

c) D-glucose and D-fructose. ____________________

d) α-D-glucopyranose and β-D-glucopyranose. ____________________

e) D-galactose and D-glucose. ____________________

f) α-D-mannopyranose and α-L-mannopyranose. ____________________