Sections
The Equilibrium State
The Reaction Quotient
Le Chatelier's Principle
Chemical Thermodynamics: Enthalpy
Chemical Thermodynamics: Entropy
Chemical Thermodynamics: Gibbs Free Energy
Solubilty Product Constant
Protic Acids and Bases
The pH Scale
Acid Strength

The pH scale is useful in converting very small concentration values into more manageable numbers. 

pH and pOH

Concept #1: With concentrations less than 1.0 M the pH scale normally ranges from 1 to 14. 

Example #1: What is the hydroxide ion and hydronium ion concentration of a solution with a pH equal to 5.88?

pH and pOH Calculations

Example #2: Of the following options, a solution with which pH would have the greatest concentration of hydronium ions?

a) 4

b) 8

c) 11

d) 13

Example #3: What mass of HBr should a student mix into 250.00 mL of water to make a solution with a pH = 3.850?

a) 0.00286 g
b) 0.0547 g
c) 1.41 x 10-4 g
d) 0.0114 g
e) 2.87g

Practice: What is the hydronium ion concentration in a solution having a pOH of 3.62?