Ch.3 - Experimental ErrorWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Chemical Measurements
Ch.2 - Tools of the Trade
Ch.3 - Experimental Error
Ch.4 + 5 - Statistics, Quality Assurance and Calibration Methods
Ch.6 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.7 - Activity and the Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium
Ch.8 - Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria
Ch.9 - Polyprotic Acid-Base Equilibria
Ch.10 - Acid-Base Titrations
Ch.11 - EDTA Titrations
Ch.12 - Advanced Topics in Equilibrium
Ch.13 - Fundamentals of Electrochemistry
Ch.14 - Electrodes and Potentiometry
Ch.15 - Redox Titrations
Ch.16 - Electroanalytical Techniques
Ch.17 - Fundamentals of Spectrophotometry
BONUS: Chemical Kinetics
Significant Figures
Addition and Subtraction Operations
Multiplication and Division Operations
Logarithm and Anti-Logarithm Operations
Precision and Accuracy
Types of Errors
Propagation of Uncertainty: Triangular Distribution

Significant figures are necessary to communicate the level of accuracy with which values are recorded. 

Significant Figures

Concept #1: To determine the number of significant figures for a value is dependent on the presence of a demical point. 

Example #1: How many sig figs does each number contain?

(1) 0.0001010 m                (2) 10030 s                                             


(3) 2.00 x 103 m                  (4) 14 people

● Multiplication/Division: Measurement with least SIG FIGS determines final answer.

● Addition/Subtraction: Measurement with least DECIMAL PLACES determines final answer.

Example #2: Perform the following calculations to the right number of sig figs:

[(0.999 + 1.01) ● (15.1 - 0.815)] / (0.010)(16) + (33.3 + 7.5) 

Example #3: Read the water level with the correct number of significant figures. 


A) 20 mL      B) 20.0 mL      C) 20.2 mL      D) 20.00 mL      E) 20.20 mL

Practice: Read the ruler measurement to the correct number of significant figures.

Practice: Read the ruler measurement to the correct number of significant figures.